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JOURNAL 

of the 

Bombay Natural History 
Society 




4PP 241981 



Vol. 77, No. 1 
Editors : J. C. Daniel, P. V. Bole & A. N. D. Nanavati 



APRIL 1980 



Rs. 35 



NOTICE TO CONTRIBUTORS 



Contributors of scientific articles are requested to assist the editors by observ- - 
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Banerji, M. L. (1958): Botanical Exploration in East Nepal. /. Bombay not. 

Hist. Soc. 55(2): 243-268. 

Prater, S. H. (1948): The Book of Indian Animals. Bombay. Titles of papers 
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Hornbill House, 

Shahid Bhagat Singh Road, 

Bombay 400 023. 



Editors, 
Journal of the Bombay 
Natural History Society. 



VOLUME 77 NO. 1 : APRIL 1980 



Date of Publication : 29-11-1980 

CONTENTS 

Pace 

a new species, and a new subspecies of bird from tlrap district, arunachal 

Pradesh, and comments on the subspecies of Stachyris nigriceps Blyth. 

By S. Dillon Ripley. (With a coloured plate) ■ • 1 

Freshwater algae of Davanagere and Raichur of Karnataka State, India. 

By U. D. Bongale and S. G. Bharati. (With nine plates) . . 6 

Bird notes from Baluchistan Province, Pakistan. By T. J. Roberts . . 12 

Observations on food and growth of Bufo mclanostictus tadpole. By J. H. Sabnis 

and Ku. S. M. Kuthe. (With a text-figure) . . 21 

Distribution of Molluscs in and around the coral reefs of the southeastern 

coast in India. By C. S. Gopinadha Pillai and K. K. Appukuttan. (With three 

plates, four text-figures and a map) . . 26 

A March bird count in Poona. By Prakash Gole . . 49 

Mammals from Nepal. By David H. Johnson, S. Dillon Ripley, and Kitti Thong- 

longya. (With a text-figure) . . 56 

Parental care in the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus Schneider) and 

management implications. By H. R. Bustard and B. C. Choudhury . . 64 

Eggs and early development of Tor mahseer fish. By C. V. Kulkarni. (With four 

text-figures) . . 70 

Family Cyperaceae in Kolhapur and its environs. By A. R. Kulkarni, S. R. Yadav 

and J. S. Pavvar . . 76 

A Catalogue of the Birds in the Collection of the Bombay Natural History 

Society — 22. By Humayun Abdulali . . 81 

Clutch size, incubation and hatching success of Gharial [Gavialis gangeticus 

(Gmelin)] eggs from Narayani river, Nepal, 1976-1978. By H. R. Bustard .. 100 

New Descriptions: 

Pseudoscorpions from south India — four New species of the Family Chernetidae 

Mange and Cheliferidae Hagen (Pseudoscorpionida, Monosphyronida) . By S. 

Sivaraman. (With four text-figures) 106 
A New Genus of Rubiaceae from Great Nicobar Island, India. By N. P. Balakrishnan. 

(With a text-figure) . . 116 

A New species of Lindenbergia (Scrophulariaceae) from eastern India. By J. K. 

Sikdar and G. G. Maiti. (With four text-figures) .. 121 

Miscellaneous Notes: 

Mammals: 1. Notes on the mating behaviour of Tadarida aegyptiaca (Geoffroy). By S. K. 
Kashyap (p. 124); 2. Field observations on the Hanuman Langur. By S. C. Makwana and 
S. Majumdar (p. 125); 3. A note on the breeding of the Leopard-Cat (Felis bengalensis) 
in captivity. By L. N. Acharjyo and Ch. G. Mishra (p. 127); 4. Do Leopards use their 
whiskers as wind detector? By Raza H. Tehsin (p. 128); 5. Nilgiri Tahr (Hemitragus 
hylocrius) in captivity. (With a photograph). By P. R. Chandran (p. 129); 6. A further 
note on Moschus. By Colin P. Groves (p. 130); 7. Report of the occurrence of the Metad 
in West Bengal. By Ajoy Kumar Mandal and Santanu Ghosh (p. 133). 



Birds: 8. Some observations on the Biology of the Openbill Stork, Anastomus oscitans 
(Boddaert), in southern Bengal. (With a plate). By Anand Mukhopadhyay (p. 133); 
9. The nesting of the Coot (Ftilica atra) in the village pond of Khandala. By A. Navarro 
(p. 137); 10. A note on the survey of the Great Indian Bustard (Choriotis nigriceps). 
By L. H. A. Rego (p. 138); 11. On the taxonomic validity of the South Indian Black- 
headed Oriole, Oriolus xanthornus maderaspatanus Franklin (Aves: Oriolidae). (With a 
text-figure). By N. Majumdar (p. 139); 12. On the validity of Dendrocitta formosae sarkari 
Kinnear & Whistler. By Humayun Abdulali (p. 142); 13. On the occurrence of Tytler's Leaf 
Warbler, Phylloscopus tytieri Brooks in Goa. By Trevor D. Price (p. 143); 14. Green Munia 
(Estrilda formosa) at Delhi, and other interesting records for 1978. By A. J. Gaston and 
J. Mackrell (p. 144); 15. A Catalogue of the Birds in the Collection of the Bombay 
Natural History Society parts 1-17 — Non-Passeriformes Errata and Addenda. By Humayun 
Abdulali (p. 145). 

Reptiles: 16. Territoriality in immature captive Saltwater Crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus 
Schneider). By H. R. Bustard and S. K. Kar (p. 148); 17. Status of the Gharial (Gavialis 
gangeticus Gmelin) in Bhutan. By H. R. Bustard (p. 150); 18. Extention of range of the 
narrow-mouth frog. Uperodon globulosum (Giinther) to Kamrup District, Assam. By Jnan- 
cndra Lai Bhaduri and Subhendu Sekhar Saha (p. 151). 

Fishes: 19. Occurrence of Botia lohachata Chaudhuri in Himachal Pradesh with remarks 
on the taxonomy of Indian species of Botia Gray (Pisces: Cobitidae). By G. M. Yazdani 
(p. 152); 20. The giant mahseers of Kumaun Himalayas with a recent rare record. By S. 
S. Pathani (p. 154). 

Insects: 21. Male in copulation with dead female of Hieroglyphus nigrorepletus Bol. 
By Shamshad Ali (p. 155); 22. Maternal care in Oxyrhachis tarandus Fabr. (Membracidae : 
Homoptera). By Sawai Singh and Surya Kant Sharma (p. 156); 23. Parnara butterfly from 
Patna: A correction. By R. K. Varshney and B. Nandi (p. 157). 

Crustacea: 24. Occurrence of Artemia salina (Crustacea: Phyllopoda) in Didwana Lake, 
Rajasthan. By S. C. Bhargava and M. Alam (p. 158). 

Hirudinea: 25. On a small collection of Leeches collected during the Daphabum and 
Subansiri expeditions, Arunachal Pradesh. By J. M. Julka and M. Chandra (p. 160). 
Arachnida: 26. Some interesting observations on a spider Argiope arcuata Simon (Arach- 
nida: Araneidae). By Charan Singh (p. 161); 27. Observations on the silk chamber con- 
struction and brooding behaviour of Pseudoscorpions (CI. Arachnida). (With five text- 
figures). By S. Sivaraman and V. A. Murthy (p. 163). 

Botany: 28. Some interesting observations in Wrightia tinctoria R.Br. ssp. tinctoria. (With 
a text-figure). By M. P. Nayar and R. K. Kochhar (p. 167); 29. Vernonia chinensis Less. — 
A new record for Andamans. By Bimalendu Mitra and Girija Sankar Giri (p. 168); 30. A 
new distributional record for Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. from Tehri Garhwal. By 
Shiv Kumar Dhyani (p. 169); 31. Wiesneria triandra (Dalz.) Micheli (Alismataceae) — 
an interesting and rare addition to the flora of the presidency of Madras, from Kerala, 
South India. (With eleven text-figures). By J. loseph and V. Chandrasekaran. (p. 169); 
32. Chlorophytum arundinaceum Baker (Liliaceae) in Maharashtra. (With five text-figures). 
By S. K. Malhotra and Sirasala Moorthy (p. 172); 33. Nomenclature of some bulbous 
Liliaceae of India. By M. Y. Ansari and R. Sundara Raghavan (p. 172); 34. Hitherto 
undescribed follicles of Marsdenia brunoniana Wt. & Am. and its distribution. (With three 
text-figures). By M. Chandrabose and N. C. Nair (p. 174); 35. More records of entomo- 
genous fungi from preserved Dragonfly collections. By Brij Kishore Tyagi and Vijay Veer 
(p. 176). 

Annual Report of the Bombay Natural History Society for the year 1977-78 . . 179 
Statements of Accounts of the Bombay Natural History Society 185 



Minutes of the Annual General Meeting 



199 



Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 77 



Brachypteryx cryptica sp. nov. from Tirap District, Arunachal Pradesh. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY 
SOCIETY 



1980 APRIL Vol. 77 No. 1 



A NEW SPECIES, AND A NEW SUBSPECIES OF BIRD 
FROM TIRAP DISTRICT, ARUNACHAL PRADESH, AND 
COMMENTS ON THE SUBSPECIES OF 
STACHYRIS NIGRICEPS BLYTH. 1 

S. Dillon Ripley 2 
(With a coloured plate) 

A new species of shortwing (Turdinae) is described from five specimens collected 
in dense evergreen rain forest along the Noa Dihing River, eastern Arunachal Pradesh. 
The new form is close in appearance to Brachypteryx hyperythra, but somewhat larger, 
the dull female plumage (in both sexes), more streaked, and lacking the concealed 
white eyebrow patch found in all other species of the genus except for B. major 
of South India. A new subspecies of Scimitar Babbler (Pomatorhinus) , is also des- 
cribed from the same locality. Comments on the geographical races of Blackthroatcd 
Babbler (Stachyris) are given. (Both latter genera belong to Timaliinae). 



During a second survey trip to Arunachal 
Pradesh, my wife and I were priviledged to 
join Dr. Salim Ali, and colleagues from the 
Bombay Natural History Society, on a month's 
camp along the Noa Dihing River on the 
border of the Namdapha wildlife reserve. 

By the use of mist nets we secured and ob- 
served many species of birds, otherwise al- 
most impossible to record. The extremely 
dense vegetation, a characteristic of mature, 

1 Accepted April 1980. 

2 Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, 
U.S.A. 



unopened rainforest was penetrated only by 
a rough dirt track, accessible, at some seasons, 
by jeep. Heavy rain, beginning on March 15, 
greatly limited our observations. However, we 
were fortunate to obtain a small series of the 
following new species: 

Brachypteryx cryptica sp. nov. 
Enigmatic Shortwing 
Holotype: United States National Museum 
of Natural History, no. 583152, adult male 
from 40-mile camp (Bhimraj camp), east of 
Miao, Noa Dihing River road (27° 40' N., 
97° E. approx.), elevation 820 m (2650 ft.); 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



collected 23 March, 1979, by S. Dillon Rip- 
ley, field number 254. 

Diagnosis: in size and coloration nearest to 
Brachypteryx hyperythra, the little-known 
Rustybellied Shortwing, recorded from Sik- 
kim, Arunachal Pradesh (in Subansiri Dist.), 
Assam and Nagaland. Male plumage in the 
adult of hyperythra is strongly dimorphic, dark 
blue upperparts, blackish lores and sides of 
throat, concealed white supercilium, ferrugin- 
ous below. The female is olive-brown above 
and pale ferruginous below with the center 
of the belly whitish. In contrast males arid 
females of cryplica differ from the female 
plumage of hyperythra by somewhat lighter 
brown upperparts, Russet rather than Olive- 
brown (cf. Smithe, 1975), with noticeable 
buff shaft-streaks on the forehead and fore- 
crown producing a streaked effect. The 
feathers of the nares, anterior to the eyes, are 
coloured creamy-buff, giving the suggestion of 
a dull but distinct light patch, totally unlike 
the uniform olive-brown tone of hyperythra. 
Below, this species is pale creamish amber- 
brown, ranging to clay brown on the throat 
and upper breast, in contrast to the dark 
cinnamon of hyperythra. The shafts of the 
feathers of the breast in eryptica are margin- 
ed at the ends with pale olive-brown, giving 
a streaked effect. Lower down the breast pales 
to buff and the abdomen is dull whitish, the 
flanks pale olive-brown, rather than dark as 
in hyperythra, and the undertail coverts warm 
buff rather than reddish-cinnamon. The effect 
produced is of a paler bird beneath, buff to 
whitish, rather than ferruginous to creamy. 

Stuart Baker (1933) writes of males of two 
species of Brachypteryx as not donning the 
slaty-blue upperparts of adult dress, and still 
being in breeding condition, in the eastern 
part of the range, namely the hills of Naga- 
land and the Patkoi Range in Arunachal. 



Whether these birds are fully adult and main- 
tain a hen plumage throughout life is not 
known. Such birds could come into breeding 
condition in the first year, assuming dimorphic 
adult plumage later, in the second year? 

The specimens of eryptica collected shed 
no light on the presence of dimorphism in 
the species. One male has somewhat enlarged 
gonads (holotype). At least it can be main- 
tained that this species is distinct based on 
these specimens obtained. If the range is as 
given, namely the Patkoi foothills of eastern 
Arunachal Pradesh, it may be that the species 
has progressed a step further than its conge- 
ners, and supressed a dimorphic male plum- 
age? 

From the other Brachypteryx species, as the 
Key in the Indian handbook: indicates (1973, 
8: 204), eryptica differs in the creamy umber 
brown throat and underparts rather than 
white in leucophrys, warm brown in montana, 
or the chestnut upperparts and vermiculated 
underparts in stellata. It differs in size also 
from these species, being close only to hypery- 
thra. 

Distribution: Known only from the type 
locality. 

Measurements: See Table 1. 

Remarks: The above measurements indi- 
cate that this new species is a larger bird 
than hyperythra, with a longer tail, (tail-wing 
index of males .80 versus .07 for hyperythra), 
with a somewhat stouter, slightly longer bill 
compared to the latter species. No field ob- 
servations were possible with these netted 
birds, often collected in heavy rain. 

Poniatorhinus ferruginosus namdapha, 

subsp. nov. 

Holotype: United States National Museum 
of Natural History, no. 583153, adult male, 
from 40-mile camp (Bhimraj camp), east of 



2 



BIRDS FROM TIRAP DISTRICT, ARUNACHAL PRADESH 



I I 



~ T3 



t~- r-~ i^i 



Miao, Noa Dihing River Road (27° 40' N., 
97° E. approx.), March 22, elevation 820 m. 
(2650 ft.), collected by S. Dillon Ripley, field 
number 251. 

Diagnosis: differs from Pomatorhinus jer- 
ruginosus jerruginosus of east Nepal, Sikkim, 
Bhutan and western Arunachal Pradesh in 
Kameng and Subansiri districts, in lacking the 
black cap and rusty red patch posterior to 
the nares at the commencement of the white 
supercilium, and the bright ferruginous lower 
throat, breast, and center of abdomen. 

From P. j. jormosus of the Garo, North 
Cachar, Naga and Manipur Hills, this popu- 
lation differs in having the crown dark olive- 
brown rather than russet, and in darker olive- 
brown back, the post-nasal spot at the com- 
mencement of the white supercilium is notice- 
ably richer; whitish tinted with cinnamon- 
rufous, rather than whitish tinted with sal- 
mon. The lower throat, abdomen and breast 
is lighter than jormosus, cinnamon, rather than 
dull dark cinnamon to pale cinnamon-rufous. 

Compared to P. j. stanjordi of northeastern 
Burma (as well as albogularis of eastern 
Burma and northwest Thailand) this popula- 
tion differs by dark olive-brown rather than 
tawny brown back, a richer cinnamon-rufous 
post-nasal spot rather than a pale whitish area, 
tinted at its lower margin with creamy buff, 
and by dark dull cinnamon to pale cinnamon- 
rufous rather than dark yellowish-buff under- 
pays. 

In measurements all these populations seem 
rather overlapping; 

jerruginosus 5 o; wing 85-92; tail 98-105; 

culmen 29-31.5 mm. 
namdapha 2 d\ ? ; wing 90-93; tail 101, 104; 

culmen 29-30. 
jormosus d 1 , 4 2 , o wing 89-97; tail 103-112; 

culmen 29-31. 
stanjordi 2 d\ ? 

culmen 29-32. 



o wing 92-95; tail 99-111; 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Weight; namdapha, 2 c? 47, 50, ? 44 gr. 

There seems to be no difference in colour of 
the e>es, bill or legs. 

Remarks: On different occasions in mid- 
March, individuals of this shy and elusive 
scimitar babbler were heard calling in the 
dense wet evergreen forest, but seen only with 
the greatest difficulty. The type specimen was 
in breeding condition (testes enlarged). 

Stachyris nigriceps Blyth 

The collection of additional fresh specimens 
of Stachyris nigriceps in eastern Arunachal 
Pradesh reveals that, although my descriptions 
of S. n. spadix (1948) and S. n. coei (1952) 
had a certain validity, 1 was unwise to distin- 
guish these representatives of a cline as sepa- 
rate in the absence of intermediate geographic 
specimens. 

Stachyris nigriceps, the Blackthroated Bab- 
bler (type locality, Nepal), of which I have 
examined many specimens, has a tendency to 
a black throat broadly or narrowly margined 
with white on the individual feathers. The ear 
coverts tend to be dark brown, almost black- 
ish brown in some cases. As one examines 
specimens from farther east along the Hima- 
layas into Arunachal Pradesh (specimen from 
Kameng district, 1978) east of Bhutan, the 
throat becomes more uniformly blackish, lack- 
ing the whitish streaks or feather margins, 
until, crossing the Dihang (the main Brahma- 
putra channel through the mountains), the 
final outpost, namely the Mishmi Hills of 
Lohit district, the type locality of coei is reach- 
ed. Here the throat is nearly black, and the 
ear coverts are similarly dark, blackish brown. 
I feel that this population really does represent 
a contiuous cline, and that, therefore, the 
separation of a named population, coei, is 
unjustified. 

Stachyris n. spadix (Laisung, north Cachar) 



was separated by myself (1948) from nigri- 
ceps as having a dark blackish-gray unstreak- 
ed throat and by having the ear coverts lighter 
in colour, brown, approaching burnt-umber. 
From S. n. coltarti (Margherita) this popula- 
tion was alleged to differ by having ear cov- 
erts brown rather than rufous-brown. The new 
series collected by us in Tirap district north- 
east of Margherita belong of course geogra- 
phically with coltarti, (Harington, 1913) hav- 
ing warm-brown to rufous ear coverts, and 
unstreaked throats, but they are close enough 
in the colour of the ear coverts to specimens 
from the Garo Hills on the one hand and to 
those from northeastern Burma and northern 
Thailand on the other, to render their sepa- 
ration from spadix superfluous. There is a con- 
tinuous cline towards darker ear coverts and 
slightly darker upper and lower parts, west to 
east as one examines specimens from the 
northern Patkoi Hills and east of Margherita, 
but these new specimens from Tirap district 
of Arunachal Pradesh have reddish brown 
ear coverts, rather than the blackish brown 
ear coverts of specimens to the north, in Lohit 
district. 

Weights of this series in March are variable: 
<S (testes slightly enlarged, mid-March at 
808 m altitude) 9.5 gr. 
2d" (testes enlarged, March 6, at 290 m 
altitude) 13.5 gr. 
? (non-breeding, March 6, at 290 m alti- 
tude) 13.5 gr. 
A single wintering male (Jan. 27) from 
Kameng weighed 22 g, 5 g heavier than speci- 
mens from Nepal, listed in the handbook 
(1971, 6, p. 175). Presumably this difference is 
explained by fat deposition at that season. 

In my judgement then, number 1215 of the 
handbook (1971, 6: 174-177). Stachyris nigri- 
ceps coei Ripley, should be listed as a synonym 
of no. 1214, Stachyris nigirceps nigriceps Blyth, 



4 



BIRDS FROM T1RAP DISTRICT, ARUNACHAL PRADESH 



the range of no. 1214 to include the Lohit dis- 
trict (Mishmi Hills) of Arunachal Pradesh. 
Number 1216 Stachyris nigriccps spadix Ripley, 
should be placed as a synonym of no. 1217 
Slachyris nigriceps collarti Harington, and the 
range of the latter should thus include Assam, 
Mizoram, Meghalaya south to Bangladesh 
hills, the Chittagong region, Burma and north- 
ern Thailand in the lower hills. 

AC K NOWLEDGE M E N TS 

In addition to the Arunachal Pradesh Gov- 
ernment authorities; Shri R. Haldipur, Lieut. 
Governor, Shri Thangam, Chief Conservator 

Refer 

Ali, S., and Ripley, S. D. (1971 & 1973): Hand- 
book of the Birds of India and Pakistan. Vol. 6; 
Vol. 8. Oxford Univ. Press, Bombay, New Delhi. 

Harington, H. H. (1913): Description of Sta- 
chyris nigriceps coltarti. Bull. Brit. Orn. Club 33: 
61. 

Ripley, S. D. (1948): A New Race of the Black- 
throated Babbler. Bull. Brit. Orn. Club. 68: 89. 



of Forests, and Shri P. P. Malhotra, Shri D. P. 
Borah, and Shri B. K. Barua of the Forest De- 
partment, we are deeply grateful to the then 
Minister of Agriculture and Forests, Shri Sur- 
jit Singh Barnala, and the present Wildlife 
Department chief, Shri Nalni Jayal, for their 
support and encouragement. These senior 
officers gave unstintingly of their courtesy, co- 
operation and willing support. Without their 
help, these important records could not have 
been obtained. I thank the authorities of the 
American Museum of Natural History, British 
Museum (Natural History), and the Bombay 
Natural History Society for their gracious loan 
of comparative material in their care. 

ENCES 

(1952): A New Race of Black- 
Throated Babbler from Assam. Postilla, Yale Pea- 
body Museum, No. 14: 2. 

Smithe, F. B. ( 1975): Naturalist's Color Guide. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York. 

Stuart Baker, E. C. (1933): The Nidification of 
the Birds of the Indian Empire. 2: 2. Taylor and 
Francis, London. 



5, 



FRESHWATER ALGAE OF DAVANAGERE AND 
RAICHUR OF KARNATAKA STATE, INDIA 1 



U. D. BONGAI.E 2 AND S. G. BHARATI 

(With nine plates) 



In continuation of the studies made on fresh 
water algae of Karnataka, the present paper 
deals with the fresh water algae from Davana- 
gere. The diatoms which were excluded in the 
earlier report on the algae of Yaragera lake, 
Raichur (Bharati and Bongale 1975) have 
also been included in this paper. 

Algae were collected from Bathi lake of 
Davanagere in February 1975 and preserved 
in 4% formaldehyde for further observations. 
Camera lucida sketches were made for the 
identification. 

Cyanophyceae 

Gloeothece membranaeea (Rabenh.) Bornet 
(PI. I, Fig. 1) Desikachary P. 128. Cells with- 
out sheath 3.5 to 5.0 ju. broad, 5.0 to 8.5 
long, bluegreen, sheath unlike the type is 
yellow to brownish. 

Aphanocapsa banaresensis Bharadwaja (PI. 
I, Fig. 2). Desikachary p. 133, PI. 22, Fig. 8. 
Cells bluegreen, granulated, 4.5 to 6.0 ju. dia- 
meter. Differs from the type in being much 
smaller and also sheath not hyaline, but yel- 
lowish. 

Myxosarcina burmcnsis Skuja (PI. I, Fig. 3.) 
Desikachary p. 178, PI. 32, figs. 20-22. Cells 
closely packed, bluegreen, 1.5 to 2.0 ja in 
diameter, little smaller than the type. Colonies 

1 Accepted May 1978. 

2 Central Silk Board, Srirampur, Mysore-8, India. 

3 Department of Botany, Karnatak University, 
Darwar-580 003, India. 



very small 20-25 /x in diameter. 

Spirulinu faxissima West, G. S. (PI. I, fig. 
4.) Desikachary p. 196, PI. 36, fig. 5. Trichome 
bluegreen, nongranular, 2.5 to 3.0 ja broad, 
spirals upto 10 /<. broad, 12 to 20 ju. distant 
from each other. Trichomes broader than the 
type. 

Oscillatoria curviceps Ag. ex Gomont (PI. 
I, fig. 5.) Desikachary p. 209, PI. 38, fig. 2. 
Thallus bluegreen to brown, trichomes bent 
at the apices, not spirally coiled, 9.0 to 12.0 p, 
broad, upto 1/3 as long as broad, cross walls 
very thick, end cell rounded. Little smaller 
than the type. 

O. irrigua (Kutz.) Gomont (PI. I, fig. 6.) 
Desikachary p. 224, PI. 42, figs. 7, 9. Tricho- 
mes 3.5 to 5.0 ijl broad. Cells nearly as long as 
broad, granulated. Much smaller than the 
type. 

O. obscura Bruhl et Biswas (PI. I, fig. 7). 
Desikachary p. 207. Trichomes 4.0 to 5.0 /x 
broad. Cells granulated, unlike the type tri- 
chome is not attenuated at the apex. 

O. princeps Vaucher ex Gomont (PI. I, fig. 
8 a, b.) Desikachary p. 210, PI. 37, figs. 1, 
10, 11, 13, 14. Trichomes bluegreen, slightly 
attenuated and bent at the apices, cells 1/8 
to I as long as broad, end cells flatly rounded, 
slightly capitate with thickened outer memb- 
rane 12 to 35 jx broad. 

O. subtilissima Kutz. (PI. I, fig. 9) Desi- 
kachary p. 215. Cells bluegreen, granulated, 



6 



J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 77 
Bongale & Bharati: Freshwater Algae 



Plate 





10 X100 



Figs. 1-9: 1. Gloeothece membranacea (Rabenb.) Bornet; 2. Aphanocapsa banare- 
sensis Bharadwaja; 3. Myxosarcina burmensis Skuja; 4. Spirulina laxissima West, G.S.; 
5. Osciltatoria curviceps Ag. ex Gomont; 6. Oscillatoria irrigua (Kutz.) Gomont; 
7. Oscillatoria obscura Bruhl et Biswas; 8a. b. Oscillatoria princeps Vaucher ex 
Gomont; 9. Oscillatoria subtilissima Kutz. 



J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 77 Plate II 

Bongale & Bharati: Freshwater Algae 




10 x 100 

Figs. 1-7: 1. Phormidium uncinatum (Ag.) Gomont; 2. Lyngbya hieronymusii Lemn.; 
3. Microcoleus subtorulosus (Breb.) Gomont; 4. Phormidium mucosum Gardner; 
5. Anabaena laxa (Rabenh.); 6. Calothrix weberi Schmidle; 7. Calothrix bharadwajae 
De Toni. 



J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 77 Plate III 

Bongale & Bharati: Freshwater Algae 




10x100 



Figs. 1-9. 1. Oocystis borgei Snow; 2. Pediastrum duplex var. reticulatum Lagergheim; 
3. Nephrocytium obesum W et G. S. West; 4. Scenedesmus perforates Lemmermann; 
5. Coelastrum cambricum var. intermedium (Bohlin) G. S. West.; 6. Ankistrodesmus 
fulcatus var. radiatus (Chodat) Lemmermann; 7. Selenastrum gracile Reinsch; 
8. Dimorphococcus lunatus A. Braun; 9. Kirchneriella lunaris (Kirchner) Moebius. 



J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 77 
Bongale & Bharati: Freshwater Algae 



Plate IV 




Figs. 1-9: 1. Closterium leibleinii Kutzing; 2. Closteriiim lunula (Muller) Nitzsch.; 
3. Closterium venus (Klitz.) Brebisson; 4. Euastrum spinulosum Delp.; 5. Penium 
margaritaceum (Ehrenb.) Breb.; 6. Pleurotaenium trabccula (Ehrenbg.) Nag.; 
7. Pleurotaenium ehrenbergii (Breb.) De Bary; 8. Cosmarium granatum Breb.; 
9. Cosmarium lundellii var. circulare (Reinsch) Krieg. 



ALGAE OF DAV AN AGERE & RAICHUR 



1.5 to 2.0 n broad, 3-4 times as long as broad, 
slightly broader than type. 

Phormidium mucosum Gardner (PI. II, fig. 
4) Desikachary P. 265, PI. 43, figs. 6, 7. Sheath 
mucilaginous, colourless, 7.5 to 8.0 ju, broad. 
Trichomes bluegreen, cells nongranulated, 
more or less as long as broad, 2.0 to 3.0 ix 
broad. 

P. uneinatuni (Ag.) Gomont (PI. 11, fig. 1) 
Desikachary p. 276, PI. 43, figs. 1, 2. Cells 
yellowish bluegreen, 6 to 15 /x broad cross 
wails granulated, trichomes attenuated at the 
apices. End cell round or flattened conical 
capitate. Cells J to \ as long as broad, larger 
than the type. 

Lyngbya hierooyniusii Lemn. (PI. II, fig. 
2). Desikachary p. 297; PI. 48, fig. 4. Fila- 
ments 15 to 18 /x broad, sheath firm, yellow- 
ish to colourless. Cells bluegreen granulated, 
sometimes at the cross walls, 11 to 12.5 \s, 
broad, \ 10 as l° n g as broad, longer than the 
type. 

Microcoleus subtorulosus (Breb.) Gomont 
(PI. II, fig. 3) Desikachary p. 345, PI. 56, figs. 
8, 9. Many trichomes enclosed in a colourless 
to brownish gelatinous sheath. Cells granu- 
lated, bluegreen, 2.5 to 3.5 jx broad, 3.5 to 
7.0 ju. long, smaller than the type. 

Anabacna laxa (Rabenh.) (Pi. II, fig. 5.) 
Desikachary p. 413. Trichome 3.0 to 4.0 /x 
broad, straight to slightly curved. Cells mostly 
barrel shaped with one or two granules, 4.5 
to 5.5 p. broad, apical cell rounded little at- 
tenuated. Heterocyst spherical 5.0 to 6.0 /x 
broad and upto 7.0 p. long. Spore away from 
the heterocyst, 5.0 to 6.5 broad and upto 
15 /x long. 

Calothrix bharadwajae De Toni, J. (PI. II, 
fig. 7). Desikachary p. 526, PI. 112, fig. 3. 



Filaments grouped together, sheath distinct, 
hyaline. Trichomes constricted at the cross 
walls, tapering into a long hair. Cells barrel 
shaped 5.0 to 6.0 ix broad, upto 9.0 /x long. 
Heterocysts spherical, upto 8.5 /x broad. Spo- 
res cylindrical 8.0 to 9.0 /x broad and upto 
22.0 /x long. 

C. weberi Schmidle (P. II. fig. 6). Desi- 
kachary p. 540. Filaments unbranched, upto 
9.0 ix broad, ending into a long hair. Sheath 
hyaline, close to the trichome. Cells half to 
2-3 times as long as broad, not constricted 
at the cross walls. Heterocysts spherical to 
slightly conical, 7.0 to 8.0 ju broad, upto 12.0 
ix long. 

Chlorophyceae 

Pediastrum duplex var. reticulatum Lagerg- 
heim (PI. Ill, fig. 2.). Philipose 124, fig. 43 g. 
Cells 10 to 18.0 ix in diameter, Colonies 16 to 
32 celled, 70 to 90 fx in diameter, larger than 
die type. 

Oocystis borgei Snow (PI. Ill, fig. 1) Phili- 
pose p. 183, fig. 93. Cells 7 to 8 /x broad and 
8 to 10.0 /x long. Colonies 4-8 celled 35 to 
40 i>, in diameter. Cells smaller than type. 

Nephrocytium obesuin W. et G. S. West (PI. 
Ill, fig. 3.) Philipose 191, fig. 106. Cells 10 
to 11 ix broad, 18 to 20 a long. Colonies 30 
to 35 /x in diameter. Much smaller than the 
type. 

Diniorphoeoec&BS lunafus A. Braun (PI. Ill, 
fig. 8). Philipose p. 205, fig. 115. Cells 5 to 
30 \L broad, 15 to 20 /x long. Colonies upto 
95 ix in diameter. 

Amkistrodesmus fakatus var. radiatus (Cho- 
dat) Lemmermann (PI. Ill, fig. 6.) Philipose 
p. 213, fig. 121 d. Cells 2.0 to 2.5 ,x broad, 
25 to 40 ix long, shorter than the type. 



7 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Selenastrum gracile Reinsch (PI. Ill, fig. 7) 
Philipose 219, fig. 128. Cells 2 to 3.5 ja broad, 
9 to 17 /x long, smaller than the type. 

Kirch neriella lunaris (Kirchner) Moebius 
(PI. Ill, fig. 9) Philipose p. 222, fig. 131. Cells 
3 to 6.5 [x broad, 6 to 11 /x in diameter. Co- 
lonies upto 100 jx in diameter. Cells little 
smaller than the type. 

Coelastrum cambricum Archer (PI. Ill, fig. 
5). Philipose p. 230, fig. 138. Cells 7 to 10 /x 
in diameter and colonies upto 45 /x in dia- 
meter. 

Scenedesmus perforatus Lemmermann (PI. 

III, fig. 4). Philipose p. 280, fig. 186 a, b, g. 
Cells 6 to 8 /x broad, 20 to 22 /x long. Per- 
forations 1 to 1.5 /x broad. 

Closterium leibleinii Kutzing (PI. IV, fig. 1). 
Marie p. 65, PI. 4, figs. 12, 13. Length 200 to 
220 /x, breadth 20 to 25 /x in the middle, 4 
to 5 [i at the pole. Larger than the type. 

CI. lunula (Mull.) Nitzsch. (PI. IV, fig. 2) 
Marie, p. 70 PI. 6, figs. 2-5. Length 370 to 
410 /x, breadth 42 to 48 ^ in the middle, 9 
to 10.5 /x at the pole. Smaller than the type. 

CI. venus Kutzing (PI. IV, fig. 3) Marie p. 
70, PI. 4, figs. 14-16. Length 50 to 55 /x, 
breadth 10 to 12 /x in the middle, 2 to 2.5 /x 
at the pole. 

Penium margaritaceum (Ehrenb.) Breb. (PI. 

IV, fig. 5) Marie, p. 87, PI. 8, fig. 14. Length 
150 to 162 breadth 20 to 23 n. 

Pleurotaenium ehrenbergii (Breb.) De Bary. 
(PI. IV, fig. 7) Marie p. 97, PI. 11, figs. 5, 6. 
Length 200 to 220 /x, breadth 24 to 27 /x in 
the middle, 15 to 17 ju, at the pole. 

P. trabecula (Ehrbg.) Nag. (PI. IV, fig. 6) 
Scott and Prescott p. 18, PI. 3, fig. 4. Length 



390 to 430 /x, breadth 21.0 to 23.0 p in the 
middle, 18.0 to 19.0 /x at the pole, isthmus 
15.0 to 17.0 ix. Smaller than the type. 

Euastrum spinulosum Delp. (PI. IV, Fig. 4) 
Scott and Prescott p. 40, PL 10, fig. 4. Length 
48.0 to 51.0 ix, breadth 40.0 to 42.0 /x, isthmus 
10.0 to 11.0 ix. Smaller than the type. 

Micrasterias foliacea Bail. (PL V, fig. 2.) 
Scott and Prescott p. 48, PL 20, fig. 4, Length 
55.0 to 62.0 ix breadth 62.0 to 68.0 fi, isthmus 
10.0 to 11.5 jx. Little smaller than type. 

M. pinnatifida (Kutz.) Ralfs (PL V, fig. 1) 
Scott and Prescott p. 51, pi. 14, figs. 17, 18. 
Length 45.0 to 49.0 ,x, breadth 54.0 to 56.0 
ix, and polar lobe 30.0 to 34.0 /x, isthmus 9.5 
to 10.0 /x. 

Cosmarium contractuni Kirchn. (PL V, fig. 
8) Scott and Prescott, p. 56, pi. 27, fig. 4. 
Length 24.5 to 27.0 /x, breadth 17.5 to 18.5 fx 
isthmus 4.5 to 5.0 ju.. Smaller than the type. 

C. dentiferum var. alpinum Messik. (PL V. 
fig. 7). Messikommer, p. 156, pi. II, fig. 1., 
Length 54.0 to 58.0 /x, breadth 48.0 to 51.0 /x, 
isthmus 23.0 to 24.5 /x. 

C. dubium Borge (PL V, fig. 4) Scott and 
Prescott, p. 58, pi. 32, fig. 3. Length 16.0 to 
17.5 /x, breadth 12.0 to 13.5 ,x, isthmus 4.5 
to 5.0 ix. 

C. granatum Brebisson (PL IV, fig. 8) Pres- 
cott 1966, p. 15, pi. Ill, fig. 30. Length 29.0 
to 30.5 ii, breadth 19.0 to 20.5 /x, isthmus 
4.5 to 5.5 fx. 

C. lundellii var. circulare (Reinsch) Krieg. 
(PL IV, fig. 9) Scott and Prescott p. 60, PL 25, 
fig. 7. Length 50.0 to 54.0 xt., breadth 41.0 
to 43.0 fx, isthmus 14.5 to 16.0 p.. 

Cosmarium sp. (PL VI, fig. 5). 



8 



J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 77 
Bongale & Bharati: Freshwater Algae 



Plate V 




Figs. 1-10: 1. Micrasterias pinnatifida (Kiitz.) Ralfs.; 2. Micrasterias foliacea Bail.; 
3. Cosmarium retusiforme (Wille) Gutw.; 4. Cosmarium dubhim Borge; 5. Cosma- 
rium obsolettim var. sitvense Gutw.; 6. Cosmarium moniliforme (Turp.) Ralfs.; 
7. Cosmarium dentiferum var. alpinum Messik.; 8. Cosmarium contractum Kirchn.; 
9. Cosmarium spcciosum var. simplex Nordst.; 10. Cosmarium perfissum G. S. West. 



J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 77 
Bongale & Bharati: Freshwater Algae 



Plate VI 




Figs. 1-7: 1. Cosmarium subcucumis Schmidle; 2a, b. Arthrodesmus convergent 
Ehrbg.; 3. Staurastrum dickie Ralfs.; 4. Cosmarium scabrum Turn.; 5. Cosmarium 
sp.; 6. Staurastrum sexangulare var. subglabrum West and West; 7. Staurastrum orbi- 
culare var. deprcssum Roy and Biss. 



J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 77 
Bongale & Bharati: Freshwater Algae 




Figs. 1-8: 1. Staurastrum dickie Ralfs.; 2. Staurastrum dickie Ralfs.; 3. Staurastrum 
tohopekaligense var. insigne West and West; 4. Spondylosium planum (Wolle) West 
et G. S. West; 5. Onychonema laeve var. latum West and West; 6. Onychonema laeve 
var. micracanthum Nordst.; 7. Desmidium aptagonum Brebisson; 8. Staurastrum 
leptodadum Nordst. 



J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 77 
Bongale & Bharati: Freshwater Algae 



Plate VIII 




Figs. 1-6: 1. Spirogyra borgeana Transeau; 2. Phacus longicauda (Ehrenb.) Dujar- 
din.; 3. Mougeotia sp.; 4. Oeodogonium sp.; 5. Trache/omonas mamillosa Prescott; 
6. Trachelomonas acanthostoma (Stokes) Deflandre. 



ALGAE OF DAVAN AGERE & RAICHUR 



C. moniliforme (Turp.) Ralfs. (PI. V, fig. 
6) Marie. P. 172, pi. 23, fig. 12. Length 19.0 
to 22.0 /x, breadth 13.0 to 14.5 ju. isthmus 3.0 
to 3.5 ,x. 

C. obsoletum var. sitvense Gutw. (PI. V, 
fig. 5) Scott and Prescott, p. 63, pi. 25, fig. 11. 
Length 55.0 to 61.0 ju, breadth 59.0 to 66.0 p., 
isthmus 15.0 to 16.5 p. 

C. perfissum G. S. West (PI. V, fig. 10) Scott 
and Prescott p. 65, PI. 26, fig. 8. Length 20.0 
to 23.5 fx, breadth 21.0 to 24.0 p., isthmus 
4.5 to 5.0 p. Slightly narrower than the type. 

C. retusiforme (Wille) Gutw. (PI. V, fig. 3). 
Scott and Prescott P. 68, PI. 32, fig. 15. Length 
32.0 to 34.5 p, breadth 30.0 to 31.5 /x, isthmus 
8.0 to 8.5 [i. Bigger than the type. 

C. speciosum var. simplex Nordst. (PI. V, 
fig. 9) Marie, p. 204, pi. 30, fig. 8. Length 
30.0 to 32.0 ^, breadth 20.0 to 22.5 p,, isthmus, 
6.0 to 6.5 p. Smaller than the type. 

C. subcucumis Schmidle (PI. VI, fig. 1) 
Marie P. 161, PI. 25, fig. 3. Length 41.0 to 
45.0 [x, breadth 28.0 to 33.0 p, isthmus 7.0 to 
8.5 ll. Smaller than the type. 

C. scabrum Turn. (PI. VI, fig. 4) Scott and 
Prescott, p. 68, PI. 29, fig. 3. Length 30.0 to 
32.5 fx, breadth 30.0 to 32.0 ll, isthmus 7.0 
to 7.5 /x. But much differs and is smaller than 
the type. 

Arthrodesmus convergens Ehrbg. (PI. VI, 
figs. 2a, b). Scott and Prescott. P. 74, PI. 34, 
figs. 7-10. Length 27.0 to 34.0 /x, breadth 27.0 
to 44.0 ll, isthmus 6.5 to 8.0 ll, arm length 
5.0 to 15.5 ll. 

Staurastrum dickie Ralfs. (PI. VI, fig. 3, PI. 
VII, fig. 1) Marie, P. 275, PI. 44, fig. 10. 
Length 70.0 to 85.5 ll, breadth 60.0 to 76.0 



Li, isthmus 9.5 to 14.5 p, arm length 10.0 to 
11.5 ii. Much larger than the type. 

St. dickie Ralfs. (PI. VII, fig. 2) Marie, p. 
275, pi. 44, fig. 10. Length 32.0 to 33.5 ,/., 
breadth 29.0 to 32.0 /x, isthmus 6.5 to 8.0 p., 
arm 4.0 to 4.5 ll. This form differs from the 
type in having conical to dome shaped semi- 
cells. The basal angles of the semicells are 
more concave than the type. In the top view, 
the margins are straight or slightly concave. 
The spines appear inside the semicell. 

It is possible that this may be a new variety 
of the type. 

St. orbiculare var. depressum Roy and Biss. 
(PI. VI. fig. 7) Scott and Prescott p. 100, pi. 
52, fig. 12. Length 23.0 to 25.5 /x, breadth 
22.0 to 24.5 Li, isthmus 4.0 to 4.5 ll. 

St. leptocladum Nordst. (PI. VII, fig. 8). 
Marie p. 299, pi. 53, fig. 4. Length 36.0 to 
38.5 fi, breadth in the middle 10.0 to 10.5 /x, 
breadth total including the arms 85.0 to 88.0 
ll isthmus 9.0 to 9.5 p.. 

St. sexangulare var. subglabrum West and 
West (PI. VI, fig. 6). Scott and Prescott, p. 
107, pi. 46, figs. 1 and 2. Length 35.0 to 37.5 
jj., breadth total, including the arms 60.0 to 
64.0 fi, breadth in the middle 12.0 to 13.5 ll 
isthmus 10.0 to 11.0 p. 

St. tohopekaligensc var. insigne West and 
West (PI. VII, fig. 3) Scott and Prescott, p. 
113, pi. 47, figs. 12-15. Length 33.0 to 34.5 p, 
breadth 26.0 to 27.5 ll, isthmus 5.0 to 5.5 Li, 
arm length about 24.0 ll. 

Spondylosium planum (Wolle) West et G. 
S. West (PI. VII, fig. 4.) Marie p. 353, pi. 61, 
figs. 17, 18. Length 9.00 to 12.5 ll, breadth 
6.5 to 7.0 ix, isthmus 5.0 p. Little narrower 
than the type. 



9 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Onychonema laeve var. latum West and 
West (PI. VII, fig. 5) Scott and Prescott, p. 
121, pi. 60, fig. 13. Length 14.0 to 15.5 fi, 
breadth 17.0 to 19.0 p., isthmus 3.0 /i arm 
3.5 to 4.0 p. 

O. laeve var. micracanthiini Nordst. (PI. 

VII, fig. 6). Marie p. 345, pi. 61, figs. 4-6. 
Length 13.0 to 14.5 xx, breadth 11.0 to 12.0 p, 
isthmus 6.0 /x, arm 2.5 to 3.0 p.. 

Desmidium aptagonum Brebisson (PI. VII, 
fig. 7). Prescott 1966, p. 42, pi. 11, fig. 14. 
Length 15.0 to 17.0 p breadth 22.0 to 24.5 tx 
Smaller than the type. 

Spirogyra borgeana Transeau (PI. VIII, 
fig. 1). Prescott 1951, p. 311, pl. 77. figs. 7. 
8. Cells 55.0 to 61.0 p., in diameter, 65.0 to 
77.0 /x long. Chloroplast solitary making 2-4 
turns. Zygospores ellipsoid, smooth walled 
37.0 to 43.0 /x in diameter and 55.0 to 62.0 ju 
long. 

Phacus longicauda (Ehrenh.) Dujardin (PI. 

VIII, fig. 2). Prescott 1951. p. 400, pl. 87, fig. 
1 . Cells tapering gradually in to a long caudus 
at the posterior end, 55.0 to 61.0 p. in diameter 
69.0 to 74.0 p. long, caudus 35.0 to 40.0 /x 
long. Shorter than the type. 

Trachelomonas acanthostoma (Stokes) De- 
flandre (Pl. VIII, fig. 6) Prescott 1951, p. 410, 
pl. 85, fig. 3. Test subglobose, 19.0 to 20.0 fx 
in diameter, 20.0 to 21.0 /x long. Collar not 
very low, slightly longer than the type. 

T. mamiMosa Prescott (Pl. VIII, fig. 5) Pres- 
cott 1951, p. 415, pl. 85, fig. 12. Test 46.0 to 
49.0 \>. diameter and 36.5 to 38.0 /x long. 

Flagellum aperture in a mamillate swelling 
as in the type. But unlike the type, test is 
ovate, and covered throughout with promi- 
nent spines. Also it is larger than the type. 



So it is possible that this might be a new 
variety. 

Mougeotia sp. (Pl. VIII, fig. 3). 
Oeodogonium sp. (Pl. VIII, fig. 4). 

Bacillariophyceae 

Synedra ulna var. aequalis (Kiitz.) Hustedt 
(Pl. IX, fig. 15). Hustedt 1937, p. 199, fig. 691 
a, d. Length 100.0 to 112.0 p., breadth 6.0 to 
7.5 /x. Striae 9.0 in 10.0 ,x. 

S. ulna var. biceps (Kiitz.) (Pl. IX, fig. 14) 
Hustedt. 1937, p. 200, fig. 691, g. Length 
300.0 to 340.0 /x, breadth 6.5 to 7.0 \x. Striae 

9 in 10.0 ix. 

Cymbella ventricosa Kiitz. (Pl. IX, fig. 2.) 
Hustedt 1949, p. 116, pl. 9, figs. 8-11. Length 
31.0 to 33.0 /x, breadth 9.5 to 11.0 /x, Striae 

10 to 13 in 10 ix. 

Cymbella mulleri Hustedt (Pl. IX, fig. 1) 
Hustedt 1949, p. 115, pl. 9, figs. 1-7. Length 
89.0 to 93.5 p., breadth 20.0 to 21.5 fx, striae 
7 in 10.0 p.. 

Cocconeis disculus (Schumann) Cleve (Pl. 
IX, fig. 17) Hustedt 1937, p. 345, fig. 799. 
Length 24.0 to 26.5 p., breadth 14 to 15.5 fx. 
Striae 15 to 17.0 in 10.0 p.. (Raichur). 

Surircila novilis Smith (Pl. IX, fig. 5) Smith 
1853, p. 32, pl. VIII, fig. 63. Length 159.0 
to 166.0 w, breadth 38.0 to 42.0 p. Costae 3 
in 10.0 p. 

S. splendida var. minor Meister (Pl. IX, fig. 
6) Majeed 1935 p. 41, pi. VI, fig. 6. Length 
116.0 to 121.0 p.1 breadth 38.0 to 41.0 p., cos- 
tae 2 in 10.0 p. 

Nitzschia obsoleta (Pl. IX, fig. 13). Hustedt 

1949, p. 146, pl. 13, figs. 94-99. Length 45.0 

to 49.5 p, breadth 7.5 to 8.0 ,x. Striae 10 in 
10.0 p.. (Raichur). 



10 



J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 77 
Bongale & Bharati: Freshwater Algae 



Plate IX 




10x62 



Figs. 1-17: 1. Cytnbella mulleri Hustedt; 2. Cymbella vcntricosa Kiitz.; 3. Navicula 
crucicula (W. Sm.) Donkin; 4. Pinnularia major W. Sm.; 5. Surirclla novilis Smith; 
6. Surirella splendida var. minor Meister.; 7. Navicula bacilloides Hustedt; 8. Stauro- 
neis wislouchii Poretzky et Anisinova.; 9. Stauroneis data Hustedt; 10. Acanthes cxilis 
Kutzing; 11. Caloneis clcvci (Lagerstedt) Cleve; 12. Nitzschia umblicata Hustedt; 
13. Nitzschia obsoleta Hustedt; 14. Synedra ulna var. biceps (Kiitz.); 15. Synedra 
ulna var. acqualis (Kutz.) Hustedt; 16. Rhopaloclia gibberula (Ehr.) O. Mull.; 
17. Cocconeis disculus (Schumann) Cleve. 



ALGAE OF DAV AN AGERE & RAICHUR 



Nitzschia iimblieata Hustedt (PI. IX, fig. 
12) Hustedt. 1949, p. 129, pi. 11, fig. 65. 
Length 33.0 to 36.5 jx, breadth 10.0 to 10.5 p, 
Striae 10 in 10.0 /x. Slightly broader than the 
type. 

Navicula bacilloides Hustedt (PI. IX, fig. 7) 
Hustedt 1961, p. 117, fig. 1250. Length 41.0 
to 44.5 ji breadth 15.0 to 16.4 //, striae 13 
in 10.0 p.. Larger than the type (Raichur). 

N. crucicula (W. Sm.) Donkin (PI. IX, fig. 
3) Hustedt 1962, p. 318, fig. 1436, a-c. Length 
81.5 to 84.0 ii, breadth 27.0 to 29.5 fi, striae 
16.0 to 17.0 in 10.0 M (Raichur). 

Pinnularia major W. Sm. (PI. IX, fig. 4.) 
Smith 1853, p. 54, fig. 162, pi. XVIII, fig. 162. 
Length 130.0 to 146.0 [i, breadth 20.0 to 21.5 
ju. at the middle, 14.0 to 15.0 [i at the pole, 
costae 9-10 in 10.0 fi (Davanagere and Rai- 
chur). 

Stauroneis elata Hustedt (PI. IX, fig. 9.) 
Hustedt 1959, p. 794, fig. 1139. Length 58.0 
to 61.5 (i, breadth 16.5 to 18.0 p., striae 20.0 
in 10.0 /x (Raichur). 

S. wislouchii Poretzky et Anisinova (PI. IX, 
fig. 8) Hustedt 1959, p. 792, fig. 1137. Length 



51.0 to 54.5 (i, breadth 15.0 to 16.5 striae 
15-18 in 10.0 fi, dissolving (Raichur). 

Caloness clevei (Lagerstedt) Cleve (PI. IX, 
fig. 11) Hustedt 1949, p. 98, pi. 11, fig. 33, 
Length 48.0 to 51.0 F , breadth 8.5 to 9.0 fi, 
striae 12 in 10.0 jx. 

Acanthes exilis Kutzing (PI. IX, fig. 10) 
Hustedt 1937, p. 378, fig. 822. Length 60.0 
to 66.0 ,u breadth 9.0 to 10.5 striae 15.0 
to 17 in 10.0 it. 

Rhopaiodia gibberula (Ehr.) O. Mull. (PI. 
IX, fig. 16) Majeed 1935 p. 36, pi. V, fig. 15. 
Length 41.0 to 45.5 ,x, breadth 23.0 to 24.5 /x, 
costae 9 to 10 in 10.0 /x, broader than the type. 

16 Cyanophyceae, 48 Chorophyceae (in- 
cluding 33 desmids) from Davanagere and 17 
Bacillariophyceae from both Davanagere and 
Raichur have been described. 

Acknowledgements 

We are thankful to the U. G. C. for finan- 
cial assistance to one of us (U. D. Bongale) 
and to Prof. M. S. Chennaveeraiah, for the 
facilities offered. 



References 



Bharati, S. G. and Bongale, U. D. (1975): 
Systematic account of fresh water algae of Raichur. 
Karnatak State, India. Karnatak Uni. J. Sci., 20: 
130-141. 

Desikachary, T. V. (1959): Cyanophyta. ICAR. 
Publ. New Delhi. 

Hustedt, F. (1937, 1949, 1959, 1961, 1962): 
Dr. L. Rabenhorsts Kryptogamen Flora Akademisch 
Vertagsgesellschaft M. b. H. Leipzig Publ. 

Marie— Irene, F. (1938): Flora Desmidiale de 
la Region Montreal, Laprairie, Canada Publ. 

Majeed, M. A. (1935): The Fresh Water Algae 
of The Punjab Part I. Bacillariophyta (Diatomeae). 
The Uni. of Punjab, Lahore. Publ. 



Messikommer. P. E. (1942): Beitrag zur Kennt- 
nis der Algen flora und Algenvegetation des Hoch- 
gebirgcs um Davos. Verlag Hans Habcr Bern Publ. 

Philipose, M. T. (1967): Chlorococcales. ICAR 
New Delhi Publ. 

Prescott, G. W. (1951): Algae of the Western 
Great Lakes Area. Cranbrook Inst, of Sci. Publ. 

(1966): Algae of the Panama 

Canal and its Tributaries-II, Conjugales. Phykos 5, 
(Iyengar Memorial Volume): 1-49. 

Scott, A. M. and Prescott, G. W. (1961): Indo- 
nesian Desmids. Hydrobiologia, 17 (1 and 2). 

Smith, W. (1853) : A synopsis of the British Dia- 
tomaceae. Jon. van Vorst, Paternoster Row. Publ. 
Vol. 1. 



11 



BIRD NOTES FROM BALUCHISTAN PROVINCE, 
PAKISTAN 1 



T. J. Roberts 2 



Introduction 

Practically nothing has been recorded about 
the avifauna of this fascinating area since the 
second world war, when Brigadier A. F. P. 
Christison gave an account of the birds seen 
in the south-western part of the Province 

(1941) and subsequently described some new 
records for the northern part of Baluchistan 

(1942) . In fact most of our knowledge about 
the breeding birds in Baluchistan is based 
upon earlier writers (Meinertzhagen 1914, 
Ticehurst 1926-27, and Williams & Williams 
1929). Since the area is in the south-eastern 
fringe of the great Palaearctic region and is 
characterised by mountain steppe or cold 
desert, it tends to have faunal affinities with 
Afghanistan, and Soviet Asia rather than the 
rest of the Indian sub-continent. The purpose 
of this note is to give detailed descriptions of 
two places of considerable ornithological in- 
terest in order to reflect the present day status 
of one and to draw attention to the other 
which seems to have been missed by earlier 
ornithologists working in the region. 

Sirandah lake 

In Dr. Salim Ali's handbook series (The 
Birds of India and Pakistan) this lake is men- 
tioned as the only locality within the territo- 
rial limits covered by these ten volumes, where 
the Slenderbilled Gull (Larus gcnei) and the 

1 Accepted July 1979. 

2 P. O. Box 3311, Malir City Post Office, 
Karachi-23 Pakistan. 



Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia, synonym 
Sterna caspia) (de Voous 1973) are known 
to breed. Sirandah is also recorded in the 
handbook as a regular breeding site for Gull- 
billed terns {Gelochelidon nilotica) and the 
Marbled Teal (Anas angustirostris) . 

When I moved to Karachi in the autumn 
of 1973 I was naturally keen to visit this lake 
and studied all available literature. I had dif- 
ficulty in locating the lake until 1974, and 
because I could learn so little about the place 
I feel that my limited observations are worth 
recording. Perhaps some twentyfirst century 
ornithologist, writing about the extinct or vani- 
shing birds of the Middle East region will 
find my notes of value! 

General Bentham and Mr. Ludlow, two Bri- 
tish Government officials visited Sirandah lake 
around the turn of the century and submitted 
manuscript notes to Stuart Baker, who edited 
the Ornithological Journal for the region in 
those times, "Stray Feathers". Dr. Claude B. 
Ticehurst, a Captain Surgeon in the Army was 
stationed in Karachi from 1917 to 1918 and 
mentions Sirandah in his comprehensive 
account of the Birds of Sind (Ibis 1922-1924) 
but he did not apparently go there personally. 
Kenneth Eates of the Indian Police, a great 
oologist and authority on the birds of Sind, 
visited Sirandah in the early 1930s. I know 
of no other written records about this lake 
and imagine that it has been very seldom visit- 
ed by any competent ornithologists within the 
past 50 years. 

Despite the huge growth of Karachi City, 



12 



BIRDS FROM BALUCHISTAN 



now a sprawling metropolis of 4.5 million 
people, the adjacent hinterland is still very 
sparsely populated being not only desert, but 
rocky and unsuitable for cultivation. Sirandah 
Lake lies 90 Km. west north west of Karachi 
in Las Bela District in the extreme south 
eastern corner of Baluchistan Province. Its 
approximate location is 66° 40' East and 25° 
30' North. It is a good three Kilometres from 
the only road in the region which runs to the 
towns of Uthal and Bela. There are no vil- 
lages anywhere nearby and even today the 
lake is seldom disturbed by human visitors. 
It lies in a shallow basin near Sonmeani La- 
goon connected to the open sea 6^ km. to the 
west, and is surrounded to the north and west 
by sedimentary sandstone hills. It is cut off 
from the sea by a spectacular series of 50 
metre high barren sand hills. The area receives 
absolutely no rainfall from end September till 
early July and the monsoon influence is erra- 
tic, hardly bringing any rain in some years. 
The few dry nullahs which drain to the coast 
are blocked off by the above mentioned high 
sand dunes and hence after monsoon rains a 
lake tends to form in the bottom of the basin. 
It is always highly brackish and due to fluc- 
tuating water levels there are no sedges or 
reeds established along its barren margins. The 
only vegetation consists of scattered trees of 
Prosopis spicigcra, much lopped for goat 
browse, and in the low lying areas stunted 
Tamarix troupii bushes. The ground consists 
of undulating sand hills upto 2 to 3 metres in 
height and dotted with salt-wort bushes, both 
Sueda jruticosa and Salsola foetida. The area 
is severely hot in summer with temperatures 
exceeding 44°C in June. 

When first visited by me in 1974, guided by 
some local fisherman, the lake was much 
shrunk in size and no one could recall any 



terns or gulls nesting there within recent 
years. Because of its remoteness, the lake 
always has 100 or 200 Greater flamingos 
(Phoenicopterus ruber) and a few Pelicans 
(both species). In winter small numbers of 
coot and dabbling ducks use it as a resting 
ground and perhaps the most interesting bird 
in the Common Sheld duck (Tadorna tadorna) 
which spends the winter in fair numbers on 
the lake. In 1977 I counted a flock of 80. In 
wildfowl censuses of Pakistan conducted over 
5 years by Mr. F. Koning for the I.W.R.B. 
during the early 1970s, at the most 3 to 5 
Sheld ducks were recorded per annum be- 
tween all the major wetlands of Pakistan and 
apart from the Marbled Teal, this is Pakis- 
tan's rarest duck. In one year on June 9th I 
saw many Rednecked Phalaropes (Phalaro- 
pus lobalus). Though so close to the open 
sea on which they spend the winter, it seemed 
late for migrating waders to be tarrying on 
this lake at the start of their migration. During 
other summer visits I have got the impression 
that a few Curlew Sandpipers {Calidris ferru- 
ginea), Little Stints (Calidris minuta) and Dun- 
lin {Calidris alpina) spend the entire summer 
around the lake shores. In February 1978 the 
lake was very shallow and had shrunk to a 
mere 30 hectares and I did not bother to visit 
it again. Indeed I believed that no terns or 
gulls could have nested there for many de- 
cades. I have never seen any Marbled Teal 
there. Stuart Baker, who lived and worked in 
North East India, referred to Caspian Terns 
nesting in bushes on an island in the lake. 
(fauna of British india Vol. VI). There are 
no permanent vegetated islands in the lake 
and his observations about nests on bushes 
were so untypical of Sterna species as to imply 
that this was some second-hand account ema- 
nating rather from the reports of uneducated 
egg collectors. Great was my excitement, 



13 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



therefore when in May, 1979 a fisherman 
friend from nearby Sonmeani came to report 
that 'hundreds of Terns', were nesting at Siran- 
dah. The Mekrani language for Tern is 
"Khora" and for Gull is "Kinari". May 24th 
was the first Friday when an opportunity al- 
lowed the lake to be visited. The 3 Km walk 
over soft sand dunes, coupled with the terrific 
heat made prolonged observations difficult. 
Added to this we discovered a temporary 
settlement of fishermen on the extreme south- 
ern corner of the lake. These men, occupying 
two palm thatched huts, insisted on accom- 
panying us and this added to the disturbance 
of the nesting birds. The monsoon rains of 
1978 were unprecedently heavy in Las Bela 
district. Road bridges were swept away and 
many heads of livestock as well as people 
were drowned by flash floods pouring down 
normally dry sandy nullahs. The lake was 
transformed from my memories of February 
1978. It now stretched for perhaps 6 kilo- 
metres in a north south axis with numerous 
inlets and lagoons between the sand hills and 
several islands. The nearest of these, located 
\\ kilometres from the fishing camp, revealed 
great activity with wheeling flocks of Slender- 
billed Gulls. By wading thigh deep, we could 
reach the island which was a long narrow 
sand bar, some 200 metres in length and prac- 
tically devoid of vegetation. In the middle and 
highest part of the island was a colony of 
some 60 pairs of Slenderbilled Gulls. 

Most nests contained two downy young, 
and only about ten still contained eggs, all 
with clutches of two. No nests had three eggs, 
or appeared to have 3 young. I thought this 
was due to heavy egg predation by the fisher- 
men as there was a basket full of gulls eggs 
in one of their huts collected the week be- 
fore. However Meinertzhagen records that 2 
is the normal clutch size in Sind (birds of 



Arabia 1954). The nests, about 11 cm in dia- 
meter and as close as 0.75 metres apart, were 
quite substantial saucers of blackened bits of 
saltwort with stalks and stems and a surpris- 
ing number of both gull and flamingo feathers 
in the cup lining. The eggs are pale greenish 
to almost white in ground colour and much 
paler than any other gulls eggs I know of. 1 
believe that the parent birds must have to wet 
their eggs regularly and incubate them also 
throughout the day, simply to prevent the 
developing chicks from overheating and being 
killed by the intense heat. The chicks had 
black feet and bills (unlike their parents), 
their body covered with almost white down 
with small black spots forming bars along the 
crown and wings. They were most attractive 
and when picked up did not regurgitate their 
food as Herring gull chicks (Larus argentatus) 
in Britain commonly do. Possibly this was be- 
cause they had not been fed by their parents 
since early morning, these gulls confining their 
foraging to morning and evening. 

On the far side of the island, nearer to the 
waters edge were six Caspian terns nests. These 
were hollows in the sand, devoid of any lining 
or decoration, and located 10 to 15 metres 
from each other. Unlike the wheeling flock 
of Slenderbills, the Caspian terns repeatedly 
dived over our head and uttered harsh alarm 
cries. All contained two eggs of a pale greyish 
stone colour with comparatively small spots 
of olive brown and violet grey under mark- 
ings. In body size the Caspian tern is not 
much bigger than L. genei but its eggs are 
quite remarkably bigger and more pointed at 
the narrow end. Between the Caspian Terns 
and the Slenderbill gulls nests, were two dis- 
junct colonies of Gullbilled Terns {Gelocheli- 
don) comprising about 17 nests in all— each 
with two eggs only and no chicks hatched. 
These nests were noticeably decorated with 



14 



BIRDS FROM BALUCHISTAN 



bits of leaves and stems and shells and the 
eggs were much smaller than those of the 
Caspian terns or Slenderbilled Gulls. 1 esti- 
mated in the gull colony, that nest building 
must have commenced from early April and 
egg laying from mid April. Ticehurst (Birds 
of Sind, op. cit.), records their nesting in June 
and this is repeated in other books. The terns 
had obviously started nesting three or four 
weeks after the gulls and towards the middle 
of May. 

Conversation with the fisherman was dis- 
turbing. Not only did they regularly collect 
gulls and terns eggs to eat, but also one of 
their number was skilled at snaring flamin- 
goes. Equipped with a long shaft propellor, 
out board motor and a rickety boat, they had 
been at the lake since October 1978 and dur- 
ing the winter had killed two adult flamingoes, 
bearing rings on their legs. I have not seen 
nor been able to recover these, but my fisher- 
man friend said he saw them and they were 
Iranian rings. Rather surprising as I would 
otherwise have assumed them to be Bombay 
Natural History Society rings from the Rann 
of Kutch. 

I arranged with another intelligent and re- 
liable fisherman who had accompanied me on 
May 24th that he should visit Sirandah Lake 
a second time. This was possible on June 12th 
and he brought back the following report. 
Due to evaporation the lake had become in- 
creasingly brackish and many fish were dying 
off. The fishermen had abandoned their tem- 
porary camp at Sirandah. Worse still, the 
nearby island was also deserted and hardly 
any Slenderbilled Gulls could even be observ- 
ed. On this island addled eggs remained in a 
few nests but no chicks. All the terns nests 
were also deserted. The colony had deserted 
either as a result of excessive human egg pre- 
dation or more probably because of difficulty 



in feeding the chicks. Gulls must dip for sur- 
face swimming fry and monsoon conditions 
would make it difficult for them to catch fish 
from the open sea 6\ kilometres distant. The 
chicks in hunger may have attempted to swim 
from the island. They were active and running 
around on May 24th. There are lots of foxes 
(Vulpes vulpes pusilla) and Jackals in the 
area and only island nesting birds would be 
safe from their predation. 

Some 2 kilometres further north were two 
more islands now inhabited by terns which 
were not in evidence on May 24th. The largest 
of these islands had an unmixed colony of 
Caspian terns numbering atleast 150 pairs. 
No other species were present and Natha my 
fisherman friend made several interesting ob- 
servations. At least two nests contained 3 eggs, 
all the rest only 2 and most nests now had 
some decoration around the rim of bits of 
blackened Salsola leaves and stems. Also 
these nest were within two metres of each 
other. About ten per cent of the eggs were 
olive buff in ground colour and a few also 
beautifully marked with curly black lines. On 
the second island were about 30 Caspian terns 
nests and also 4 Gullbilled terns nests, two 
containing chicks. These were more grey than 
the gull chicks, with brownish red legs and 
fleshy pink at the base of their mandibles. A 
bluish darker area of naked skin through the 
eye and almost pure white throat and breast 
(a specimen preserved in formaldehyde was 
brought back). The downy wings were pre- 
dominantly black. 

Regarding other birds, there were many 
Whiskered terns {Chlidonias hybrida) hunt- 
ing over the lake but no sign of breeding. Also 
we encountered on the May 24th visit, a 
colony of some 15 pairs of Blackwinged 
Stilts {Himantopus himantopus) on the first 
island. They build quite a thick pad of dried 



15 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



stems and leaves for a nest and some had a 
full clutch of four eggs. On the lake shore it- 
self in the recently dried out part were pairs 
of Snowy or Kentish Plovers {Charadrius 
alexandrinus), and we stumbled across one 
nest on May 24th. This was under the shelter 
of a Sueda bush and its rim was decorated 
with tiny shells. Hopefully the Caspian terns 
can hunt for fish in Sonmeani Lagoon and 
they will rear their chicks, as these powerful 
terns dive deeply and can catch fish upto 20 
cms in length. 

Nearby Sonmeani is a very extensive lagoon 
averaging not more than 5 to 10 metres in 
depth. It is extremely rich in marine life with 
mangrove fringed shores, but a description of 
its ornithology is outside the scope of this 
note. Only one record seems appropriate to 
include. In early winter, shrimp fishing with 
throw nets is the most profitable occupation 
for the fishermen. The state of the tide is 
apparently critical for success and they com- 
monly encamp overnight with their boats along 
the shores of the lagoon. Large Cormorants 
(Phalacrocorax carbo) are a favoured food at 
this time, the birds being skinned and roasted 
over open fires. In December 1977 a cormo- 
rant with a ring was shot, and though I failed 
to recover this ring, it apparently bore 
"foreign letters" on it and could have been 
Russian. During March I have often seen these 
cormorants in the distinctive breeding plum- 
age of Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis which 
sub-species has a Russian breeding population. 
Later in the summer I have only seen birds 
in non-breeding or immature plumage and I 
cannot find evidence of local breeding. The 
Indian Shag (P. juscicollis) does breed during 
the monsoon in the Sonmeani mangroves. 

Surkhab Valley — Pishin District 

Located at approximately 30° 35' N and 



67° 20' E, the Valley is situated in Pishin 
District, approximately 45 kilometres due 
north of Quetta City and 65 km by road. 

I first discovered the place in March 1974 
and have been able to visit it in April, May 
or June each year subsequently. It is almost 
unique in the region as being one of the few 
places with a perennially flowing stream and 
some relatively well grown surviving tree 
cover which stretches for a distance of about 
2\ km where the valley is so restricted by 
surrounding hills that it does not afford op- 
portunity for cultivation. Two species regu- 
larly nest here which I have not been able to 
locate anywhere else in Pakistan, namely the 
Rufoustailed Chat (Cercotrichas galactoles) 
and Menetries's Warbler (Sylvia mystacea) 
and the area seems worthy of recording in 
this note about the birds of Baluchistan. I have 
searched in vain for the Rufoustailed Chat in 
the Chaghai District, where Christison (1941) 
thought it probably bred. 

The Valley itself is relatively flat and level 
with low surrounding hills of conglomerate 
and gravel. The Surkhab Lora, as it is called, 
is a shallow but fast stream flowing over gra- 
vel beds. The elevation is 1500 metres and 
average annual rainfall in Pishin town, 17 km 
distance, is 22 centimetres including light snow- 
fall which falls every winter. It is severely 
cold and dry from October often until late 
March and has a relatively restricted resident 
bird population, but in summer it attracts a 
number of breeding migrants. On the gravel 
and shale hills abutting the valley are scatter- 
ed bushes of Artemesia scoparia, Prunus jac- 
quemonlii (the wild almond) and spiny 
clumps of Convolvulus spinosus with showy 
white flowers in late April. In the valley floor 
itself are groves of Populus species and Salix 
viminalis, forming trees upto 10 metres height, 
in the open drier areas are a number of 



16 



BIRDS FROM BALUCHISTAN 



shrubs and thorny bushes; Tamarix species, 
Berberis gambleana and Caragana ambigua 
have been identified. There are also scattered 
brakes of the reed Arundo donax. In spring 
the ground is also carpeted with the hoary 
leaved vetchlike plant Sophora alopeeuroides, 
which in April has creamy yellow flowers in 
a cluster at the tips of its stems. Clumps of 
the tall grass Chrysopogon aucheri also sur- 
vive in the shelter of bushes, and though the 
area is heavily grazed by goats and cattle, 
there is good cover for nesting warblers. 

My accumulated notes from five annual 
visits between 1974 and 1979 are summarised 
below, with more details covering the less well 
known species. 

1. Little ringed plover Charadrius dubius. 
Breeding confirmed. 

2. Kestrel Fako tinnunculus. 

No nearby suitable breeding cliffs, but 
a pair haunts the area each year. 

3. See-See Ammoperdix griseogularis. 

Seen drinking from Surkhab in late 
evening and breeds in surrounding hills. 

4. European or Common Kingfisher Alcedo 
atthis. 

Breeding confirmed. 

5. Golden or European Bee-eater Merops 
apiaster. 

Nests in the earth cliffs. Exca- 
vation of the nest hole is a prolonged 
business and observed in one year, as 
late as June 29th. 

6. Little Brown Dove Streptopelia senegal- 
ensis. 

Very common throughout Baluchistan. 

7. Common Cuckoo Cuculus canorus. 

Seen every year and on May 2nd a pro- 
able egg found in a Brown Shrikes nest. 
See below. 

8. Hoopoe Upupa epops. 

This species seems to nest in holes in 



earth cliffs as there are no suitable tree 
holes for nesting sites. 
9. Red-rumped swallow Hirudo daurica 
rufula. 

This sub-species has a practically 
white rump but the breast is quite fulv- 
ous. They shun human habitation and 
nest upto 2700 metres elevation in the 
higher hills. At Surkhab they hawk in- 
sects along the valley and must nest 
nearby. 

10. Magpie Pica pica. 

The most conspicuous bird in the val- 
ley and a family party of eight on June 
29th seemed to confirm breeding. I have 
also seen its old unoccupied nests in the 
valley. It is an early breeder. 

11. Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus. 

In the latest Palaearctic Checklist this 
species is Lanius isabellinus. The Russians 
call it Lanius cristatus, whereas in 
Salim Ali's handbook it is listed 
as Lanius collurio (de Voous 1977, 
Ali 1972 and Dementiev et al. 1954). 
However, in all three instances the sub- 
species is the same L. I. phoenicuroides 
and this very distinctive bird is certainly 
the same species in all referred cases. It 
is Pakistan's rarest breeding Shrike and 
normally prefers higher elevations than 
Surkhab at least in Baluchistan. In fact 
I only saw it in one year out of five. Its 
nest, about 2 metres from the ground on 
a horizontal fork of a Willow tree, was 
not very neatly made but the cup was 
snugly lined with rootlets and shredded 
grasses. On May 2nd there were three 
pale pinkish buff eggs thickly speckled 
with grey and red brown forming a zone 
at the blunt end. A fourth egg was more 
green than turquoise with quite sparse 
red brown speckling. I presumed this was 



17 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



a Cuckoo's egg but it was the same shape 
and size as the other three eggs. Demen- 
tiev (op. cit.) records that in Turkestan 
this Shrike frequently becomes host to the 
Cuckoo (Page 19 Vol. vi). I note that in 
the handbook the ground colour of their 
eggs are described as greenish white. In 
Dementiev's account a reddish buff or 
pink ground colour is usual. 
The Brown Shrike has many similar calls 
to other Shrikes, particularly the loud 
harsh rasping near the nest. The female 
was larger than her mate with a less dark- 
ly contrasting eye stripe. The male with 
shining white throat and upper breast, 
warm buff flanks and vent, has pinkish 
chestnut crown and tail; grey buff back 
and shoulders and his dark brown flight 
feathers were conspicuously bordered 
with paler buff. The eye streak seemed 
quite jet black and extends from the fore 
crown to well behind the eye. 

12. Long tailed or Rufousbacked Shrike 
Lanus schach. 

In every other year conspicuous breed- 
ing pairs in the valley. 

13. Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata. 

This species normally breeds in the 
Juniper forest zone at higher elevations. I 
could not find its nest but at least one 
bird was haunting the tree groves every 
year and in March a pair were seen. 

14. Menetries's Warbler Sylvia mystacea. 

I first encountered this species in March 
1974, a new record for the subcontinent 
(Roberts 1975). At the time I presumed 
it to be a spring passage migrant since 
such avid egg collectors as Williams & 
Christison (op. cit.) had failed to record 
it. I have searched in vain for a nest 
but the Donax thickets are impenetrable. 
It seems to arrive earlier and start nest- 



ing sooner than the Rufoustailed Chat. 
(They were plentiful on March 25th when 
no Rufous Chats were in evidence). I 
have seen a nest building male bird with 
a beak full of vegetable floss on May 
2nd and on June 29th a family of at 
least three fully fledged young (with stubby 
tails and wisps of head down) were be- 
ing fed by their parents who attracted 
me to the spot by their agitated alarm 
calls. In the whole valley I estimate there 
may be ten to fifteen pairs and in forag- 
ing, at least, their territories seem to over- 
lap considerably. The male has a notice- 
able dark grey tail which is bordered with 
white outer tips as he dives into a bush. 
They feed well inside bushes and thickets 
rarely affording a clear view but are tame 
enough to allow approach to within 2 
metres. Their contact call is the typically 
sylvine 'tak-tak-tak.' It is more diminu- 
tive than the lesser white throat and if it 
pauses long enough for a good view the 
brick red flush to its upper breast, pro- 
minent white malar streaks and red eye 
ring make it a striking and beautiful 
little warbler. I have recordings of its 
song which can continue uninterrupted 
for upto half-a-minute. I have only once 
seen it flutter into the air during the dis- 
play song which is mostly given from well 
inside a thicket. It is quite melodious in 
short phases and to my ear superior to 
the song of the Sykes' Tree Warbler. 
15. Rufoustailed Chat or Greybacked Warb- 
ler Erythropygia galactotes. 

In habits this bird is very like the 
Indian Robin and the Himalayan Ruby 
Throat and therefore the name Chat 
seems much more appropriate than 
warbler. It feeds mostly on the 
ground running in little spurts at 



18 



BIRDS FROM BALUCHISTAN 



the end of which it raises its tail and 
often fans it. It only passes through Paki- 
stan for a period of a few days in Sep- 
tember on its return to its wintering 
grounds in North West Africa, and I was 
unfamiliar with the species until I learn- 
ed where to find it in the hills around 
Karachi. The males probably arrive in the 
extreme border regions of Baluchistan in 
mid April and do not start vigorous ter- 
ritorial singing until early May. The sweet 
little song is always given from the top 
of a bush with the bird conspicuous and 
lasts two to three seconds, and may be 
repeated for upto a minute. It soon re- 
sumes feeding and then flies upto another 
bush to sing, travelling round its territory 
fairly systematically. Again I have failed 
to find a nest but Donax thickets with 
last year's dried stems encompassed by 
new green growth seem to be favoured 
and I never went to Surkhab armed with 
a suitable machete or billhook to cut open 
these thickets. However, on June 29th a 
pair were watched both carrying insect 
larvae and ants into a reed thicket and 
my annual observations leave no doubt 
that they are regular breeders. From ter- 
ritorial singing I estimated that there were 
6 to 8 pairs in 1979. 
16. Sykes Tree Warbler Hippolais caligata 
rama. 

This bird is fairly wide-spread as 
a summer breeder in the lower valley of 
Baluchistan and they abound in the Sur- 
khab valley. Their song is given almost 
continuously throughout the day in the 
breeding season. It is louder and coarser 
than that of Menetries's warbler but like 
the latter invariably given from well in- 
side a bush and during pauses between 
foraging for insects. 



17. Pied Wheatear Oenanthe picata picata. 

This bird forages in the valley bottom 
but nests in the surrounding low milk — 
a hole under a rock being favoured. 

18. Pied Bush Chat Saxicola caprata. 

No different from its habits in the plains. 

19. Rock Pipit Anthus similis. 

A nest with downy young was in a 
grass clump, perhaps fortituously well 
roofed over and concealed. This was right 
on the valley floor in sandy substrate, 

20. Grey Wagtail Motacilla caspica. 

Single birds seen and possibly breeding. 

21 . House Sparrow Passer domesticus parki- 
ng?) 

Besides a small resident population 
in the towns, huge migrant flocks, 
shunning villages, sweep through in late 
March to early May presumably breeding 
further North in Afghanistan or Turkes- 
tan. But small colonies stay to breed in 
isolated valleys or higher hill-slopes 
where there is some tree-cover. The birds 
look bigger and more richly coloured 
than P. domesticus indicus and the sub- 
species P. domesticus bactrianus, which 
I would have expected, is supposed to 
be smaller and paler than the resident 
Indian race. 

22. Trumpeter Bullfinch Bucanetes githagi- 
neus syn. Rhodopechys githaginea. 

This thirsty little finch is rare in Central 
and Northern Baluchistan, commoner in 
the warmer more southern latitudes. I 
have seen it drinking from the Surkhab 
stream and it may well breed locally. 

23. Striolated Bunting Emberiza striolata. 

Also seen drinking from the stream and 
may well breed locally. 
Birds like the Rock Nuthatch (Sitta teph- 
ronota), Orphean Warbler (Sylvia hor- 



19 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 

tense) and Desert Lark (Ammomones them in that particular patch of valley. 1 

deserti) are typical of this elevation in did not visit the valley late enough in the 

Baluchistan but I have never encountered evening to identify any owls or nightjars. 

References 



Ali, Salim and Ripley, S. D. (1968-72): Hand- 
book of the Birds of India and Pakistan. Vol. I. 
Vol. Ill (Laridae) and Vol. V (Lanidae). Oxford 
University Press, Bombay. 

Baker, Stuart (1929): Fauna of British India. 
Birds Vol. VI. Francis and Taylor, London. 

Christison, A. F. P. (1941): Notes on the Birds 
of Chagai. Ibis 1941: 531-556. 

(1942): Some additional notes on 

the distribution of the Avifauna of northern Balu- 
chistan. /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 43: 478-487. 

Dementiev, G. P. and Gladkov, N. A. ct al. 
(1954) : Birds of the Soviet Union. Vol. VI. Moscow. 

Hue, Francois and Etchecopar, R. D., (1970) : 
Les Oiseaux du Proche et du Moyen Orient. Bou- 
bee & cie, Pare. 

Meinertzhagen, R. (1914): Birds nesting at 



Quetta. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 23: 362-363. 

(1954) : Birds of Arabia. Oliver & 

Boyd Ltd. Edinburgh. 

Roberts, T. J. (1975): Ornithological Records 
for Pakistan. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 72(1) : 
201-204. 

Ticekurst, Claude, B. (1922-1924): The Birds 
of Sind. Ibis. Parts I to VIII. 

(1926-1927): The Birds of British 

Baluchistan Parts I & II. Vol. 31 and Part HI. Vol. 

32. 

Voous, de K. H. (1973): List of Recent Holar- 
ctic Bird species. Ibis, Vol. 115. 

(1977) : ibid. Ibis, Vol. 119. 

Williams, C. H. and Williams, C. E. (1929): 
Some notes on the Birds breeding round Quetta. 
/. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 33: 598-613. 



20 



OBSERVATIONS ON FOOD AND GROWTH OF BUFO 
MELANOSTICTUS TADPOLE 



J. H. Sabnis and Ku. S. M. Ku the j 
{With a text -figure) 

Studies on the food and its effect on growth in the tadpoles of Bufo melanostictus 
were undertaken to determine food preference in natural condition on the basis of 
prevalent of food items in guts of naturally occurring tadpoles. The faecal contents 
of the same tadpoles indicated as to which food items were digested. Tadpoles fed 
exclusively on spinach, Spirogyra, starch and detritus indicated that normal growth 
occurs when fed on Spinach and Spirogyra. Weight gain in the final stage of meta- 
morphosis in Bufo melanostictus is remarkable. 



To obtain a complete knowledge of the life 
histories and habits of each species it is neces- 
sary to study the relationship between the 
available food and larval growth rate. 

The food and feeding habits of the frog 
Rana tigrina were studied in detail recently 
by Wadekar (1963), Joshee (1968), Isaac 
and Rege (1975). While Behura, et al. (1971) 
studied the diet and feeding habits of the 
common toad Bufo melanostictus. 

The studies on the role of natural food on 
larval growth of tadpoles has received little 
attention in India except for the observations 
made by Kamat (1962) and Sabnis and Kol- 
hatkar (1977). 

This paper describes observations on the 
food and its effects on the growth of tadpoles 
of the toad Bufo melanostictus. 

Materials and method 

The material for study was collected at 
Amravati (M.S.) (20° 56' N. 77° 47' E.) 
Breeding of Bufo melanostictus occurs from 

1 Accepted April 1978. 

- Department of Zoology. Vidarbha Mahavidya- 
laya, Amravati 444 604, India. 



July to September and about 8,000 eggs are 
laid in long spiral strings, the diameter of the 
spiral strings is about 1.4 to 1.5 mm. Each 
egg measures about 1 to 1.3 mm. in diameter. 

To study food preference and dietary com- 
ponents, data were obtained from gut and 
faecal analysis under microscope. 

About 200 eggs were collected and kept in 
the laboratory for development. A set of 
twentyfive tadpoles were fed on different diets 
such as Starch, Spinach, Spirogyra and Detri- 
tus. 

At intervals five tadpoles were collected 
from experimental sets as well as from Natu- 
ral Pond for comparative growth studies. They 
were preserved in 10% formalin and their 
length and weights were recorded. Atmosphe- 
ric and water temperatures were also recorded. 

Observations and discussion 

The toad Bufo melanostictus is very com- 
mon in ponds, puddles and tanks at Amravati. 

Data on gut contents given in Table 1 re- 
veals variations in dietary components at dif- 
ferent growth stages. The apparent preference 
of food items is as follows :- 

Eudorina > Cosmarium > Watermites > 



2! 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Data on percentage occurrence of food items in the guts of tadpoles of Bufo melanostictus. 

(Number— 25 per stage) 



Intestinal Contents 


Prehind limb stage 


Hind limb stage 


Fore & Hind limb stage 


Desmid 


71.4 


100 


100 


Diatom 


85.7 


100 


100 


Eudorina 


100 


100 


85.7 


Opalina 






100 


Spirogyra 


14.2 


57.1 


14.2 


Ulothrix 


85.7 


85.7 


28.5 


Euglena 


57.1 


71.5 


57.1 


Seemedesmus 


71.4 


14.2 


14.2 


Cosmerium 


100 


100 




Watermites 


100 






Navicula 


71.4 




28.5 


Closterium 




85.7 




Pleurococcus 


100 







Pleurococcus > Diatom > Desmid > Clos- 
terium > Ulothrix > Euglena > Navicula 
> Spirogyra > Seemedesmus. 

The study of excreta revealed that they 
were able to digest Spirogyra and Spinach. 
The Diatoms, spores of Eudorina, and zoos- 
pores of Spirogyra remained unchanged in 
excreta. The Eudorina, starch granules, xylem 
and Phloem vessels were partially affected. 

The time taken for the metamorphosis 
varies when fed on different food items 
(Table 2). It appears that on certain diets 
they metamorphosed successfully under labo- 
ratory conditions. The tadpoles fed on Spiro- 
gyra metamorphosed in 2 months and 11 
days and those fed on Spinach metamorphos- 
ed in 2 months and 15 days, while in nature 
they metamorphosed in 2 months and 6 days. 

The weight gain percentage by tadpoles fed 
on different food items and their percentage 
of successful metamorphosis is given in 
Table 3. The maximum increase in their 
average body weight 31.86%, was when there 



were fed on Spinach, though the gain of weight 
by them showed considerable variations at 
different growth stages. 

During the entire period of successful meta- 
morphosis of Spirogyra and Spinach fed tad- 
poles, the tadpoles which were fed on starch, 
detritus remained in prehind limb stage only. 

It is also interesting to note that under 
laboratory condition tadpoles metamorphosed 
successfully when fed on Spirogyra; but their 
average body weights at different stages were 
half that of Spinach fed tadpoles (Table 3). 

Sabnis and Kolhatkar (1978) observed that 
tadpoles of frog Rana cyanophlyctis fed on 
Spirogyra showed maximum increase in their 
average body weight, i.e. 74 per cent. But in 
the present observations, tadpoles feeding on 
Spirogyra showed increase in average body 
weight, i.e. 29.36 per cent. 

In conclusion it may be pointed out that 
simple analysis of gut contents of tadpoles 
does not give clear idea of its food habits. 
Kamat (lf£>2) studied the gut contents of 



22 



FOOD & GROWTH OF BUFO MELANOSTICTUS 




10 10 30 4o 50 60 70 75 



DAY5 

Fig. 1. Shows the comparative growth of Bufo melanostictus tadpoles fed on 
different diets. 



23 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 



77 



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24 



FOOD & GROWTH OF BUFO MELANOSTICTUS 



Shows body weight gain by tadpoles of Bufo melanostictus fed on different diets and 

PERCENTAGE OF SUCCESSFUL METAMORPHOSIS 



Average body weight gain percentage for 



Percentage of 



Food item x^lf Pre hind Hind limb Hind & fore Average Metamor- 

Tadpoles )jmb stage stage llmb stage phos 1S 

Spirogyra 25 22.2% 25.9% 40% 29.36% 20% 

Spinach 25 41.6% 9 % 45% 31.86% 32% 

Starch 25 10 % 0% 

Detritus 25 20 % — — 0% 



tadpoles and algae of small ponds and came 
to the conclusion that tadpoles do not feed 
on all available algae. In 1941 Rugh states, 
"the anura do better on food wih green colour 
while Urodela do better on living moving 
food such as Daphnia". 

Sabnis and Kolhatkar (1978) observed in 
Rana cyanophlyctis decrease in body weight 
in the final stage of metamorphosis, i.e. after 
shedding of the tail. No such decrease in body 
weight was observed in the present investiga- 
tion. On the contrary in the tadpoles of Bufo 
melanostictus a progressive increase in weight 
was maintained throuughout the process of, 

Refei 

Behura, B. K., Das, P. K., Mohanty, P. and 
Ghosh, G. S. (1971) : On the diet and feeding habits 
of the common toad Bufo melanostictus Schneid. 
Prakruti — Utkal University Journal of Science 8(1): 
79-86. 

Briggs, R. and Davidson, M. (1942): Some 
effects of Spinach feeding on Rana pipiens tadpoles. 
J. Exp. Zoo. 90: 401. 

Isaac, S. and Rege, M. S. (1975) : Food of Rana 
tigrina (Daud.). J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 72(1): 
143-157. 

Joshee, A. K. (1968): Food habits of the Bull 
frog Rana tigrina (Daud.). /. Bombay nat. Hist. 
Soc, 65: 498. 



metamorphosis (Fig. 1). This disparity may 
be either due to the comparatively bigger size 
of the tail in Rana cyanophlyctis or it may be 
due to a better tolerance of the change in 
feeding habit from herbivorous to insectivorous 
feeding in Bufo melanostictus. 

Acknowledgements 

We express our thanks to Dr. K. V. R. Mur- 
thy, Head of the Zoology Department, Vidar- 
bha Mahavidyalaya, Amravati for providing 
necessary facilities to undertake the investiga- 
tion. 

e n c e s 

Kamat, N. D. (1962): On Intestinal contents of 
tadpoles and algae of small ponds. Curr. Sci. 31: 
300-301. 

Rugh, R. (1941): Experimental Embryology 
Mennesota. Burgess publishing Company. 

Sabnis, J. H. and Kolhatkar, B. L. (1977): 
Observations on the food preference of Rana cya- 
nophlyctis tadpoles. Comp. Physiol. Ecol. 2 (4) : 
232-233. 

Sabnis, J. H. and Kolhatkar, B. L. (1978): 
Observations on the growth of Rana cyanophlyctis 
tadpoles ibid. 5(2) : 71-72. 

Wadekar. U. L. (1963): The diet of the Indian 
Bull frog (Rana tigrina Daud.). J. Bombay nat. 
Hist. Soc. 60 ( 1 ) : 263-268. 



25 



DISTRIBUTION OF MOLLUSCS IN AND AROUND THE 
CORAL REEFS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN COAST 
IN INDIA 1 

C. S. GOPINADHA PlLLAI AND K. K. APPUKUTTAN 2 

(With three plates, jour text -figures and a map) 



Introduction 

The report presents the results of a syneco- 
logical analysis of the molluscan fauna asso- 
ciated with the different hard and soft sub- 
strates in and around the fringing coral reefs 
of Palk Bay and Gulf of Mannar around Man- 
dapam (Map 1) between the longitudes 79° 
8' and 79° 14' E, and latitudes 9° 12' and 
9° 18' N. This study forms part of a program- 
me of survey of the reef-associated living re- 
sources of the seas around India. An attempt 
has been made to identify and to assess 
the comparative dominance of the molluscan 
communities in the different habitats as also 
to delineate the physical and biological fac- 
tors that influence their selection of habitats. 

The molluscs of this area are fairly well 
known, thanks to the works of Hornell (1915, 
1917, 1922, 1951), Gravely (1927), Satya- 
murthi (1952, 1956), Rao (1970), Jones 
(1970), Silas (1968) and many others whose 
contributions are listed by Nair and Rao 
(1974). Though about 450 species are known 
from this area, there appears to be little at- 
tempt in the past to discuss the synecological 
aspects of molluscan distribution but for the 
work of Rao and Sundaram (1972). Satya- 
murthi (1952, 1956) has mentioned the natu- 

1 Accepted August 1978. 

2 Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, 
Cochin. India. 



ral habitat of many species he has described. 
The present collection includes only 112 spe- 
cies (Table 2) — roughly one fourth of the 
known species, partly because we have not 
accounted the many dead shells found except 
from the raised reefs. In the recent past there 
has been considerable destruction to reefs due 
to indiscriminate quarrying of corals and this 
has directly caused a dwindling of the mol- 
luscs associated with the reefs. (Pillai 1975). 

Materials and method 

Sixteen stations (Map 1) were selected, re- 
presenting almost all the types of specialised 
habitats seen in this region. 

The collections were made at low tide with 
the aid of face mask and snorkel, where depth 
permitted. In Palk Bay, the survey was car- 
ried out during August-September; in Gulf 
of Mannar, during January-February; when 
calm conditions prevailed. The unit for the 
survey and population analysis was a sample 
plot of quarter square metre marked out with 
the aid of a metal frame. In addition to these 
observations and analyses relevant portions of 
our earlier studies on corals (Pillai 1971a, 
1972) and on boring bivalves (Appukuttan 
1972) were also incorporated to make the 
account comprehensive. The nomenclature of 
the various intertidal zones used in this work 
is that of Lewis (1955, 1961 & 1972), and 
Newell (1969). 



26 



MOLLUSCS IN AND AROUND CORAL REEFS 




JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Details of stations studied: 
Station 1. Vedalai, Gulf of Mannar. Sandy 
beach with open circulation, not protected by 
a reef. Dominated by Wedge-clams. 
Station 2. About 700 m east of station 1 
Sublittoral zone. Sandy bottom with seagrass 
bed. Depth about 0.5 m at low tide with 
a very high concentration of Pinna bicolor. 
Station 3. About 300 m further east of sta- 
tion 2 below the CMFR Institute Jetty in 
Gulf of Mannar. The groyne of the Jetty in 
the upper zone provides an artificial habitat 
and is designated as 3, whereas the lower zone, 
about 50 m into the sea with a depth of about 
50 cm at low tide, is marked 3a. Station 3a 
has a rich growth of higher algae. The upper 
zone is typical eulittoral while lower zone is 
sublittoral. 

Station 4. About 1 km east of station 3 in 
Gulf of Mannar. The station slopes steeply 
from the elevated sandstones on the shore at 
a height of nearly 2 m to the low water mark. 
(PI. 1, Figs. 1, 2) The upper part of the sand 
stones represents the littoral fringe zone while 
the lower zone is typically eulittoral. Littori- 
nids are the dominant molluscs. 
Station 5. Manacadu Point on the Palk Bay 
side of the Mandapam peninsula with remnants 
of a raised reef. Semifossilised coral boulders 
on the water mark which harbour many gas- 
tropods and is marked 5, is typically eulittoral. 
(PI. 3, Fig. 1). The semifossilised coral 
boulders in the lagoon bottom at a depth of 
0.5 to 0.75 m at low tide, marked station 5a, 
is sublittoral with a dominant assemblage of 
bivalves. 

Station 6. The landing centre at Mandapam 
in Palk Bay. The upper sandy beach in the 
eulittoral zone, marked station 6, and the 
lower sublittoral with algal growth and sandy 
bottom is 6a. (Plate 3, Fig. 2). 
Station 7. The blocks of sandstones under the 



Pamban Bridge subjected to heavy current, 
mostly submerged with a luxuriant growth of 
edible algae on them. 

Station 8. Northwestern tip of the Rames- 
waram Island on Palk Bay side. A raised reef 
with an elevation of nearly 1.5 m. Equivalent 
to Littoral fringe zone. 

Station 9. Western side of Rameswaram 
Island near the Pamban bridge. Sandy eulit- 
toral zone. 

Station 10. Eastern tip of Krusadai Island in 
the Gulf of Mannar where the reef with a 
boulder zone approaches the shore. Eulittoral, 
with a dominance of gastropods. This is the 
only undisturbed reef available for investiga- 
tion at present here. 

Station 11. Sandy beach at the southern side 
of Krusadai Island. A lower zone in the 
lagoon with corals and algae is designated as 
11a. The beach is protected by a fringing 
reef. 

Station 12. The reef of Manauli Island in 
Gulf of Mannar. The reefs have mostly been 
removed and only a few scattered, dead, up- 
turned colonies of Acropora and Porites are 
seen, with intermittent large areas of sand. 
Station 13. The lagoon of Manauli Island. 
Bottom sandy with sea grass and other edible 
algae. Mostly submerged and represents the 
sublittoral zone. The nearshore area is with- 
out vegetation and gets exposed at low tide. 
Station 14. A mangrove growth at the north- 
eastern shore of Manauli Island. A mud flat, 
that gets exposed fully at low tide, and team- 
ing with Cerithidea, adjoins the mangroves. 
Stations 51 and 16. The reef of Palk Bay 
along the Mandapam Peninsula. The reef crest, 
outer and inner sides of the reefs were in- 
vestigated. The outer reef shows a preponder- 
ance of ramose corals while the inner (shore- 
ward) side is rich in massive corals (Pillai 



28 



J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 77 
Pillai & Appukuttan: Molluscs 



Plate 1 




1. Beach sandstones at Station 4. 
2. Closer view of the square cut blocks. 



J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 77 
Pillai & Appukuttan: Molluscs 



Plate 2 




1. Exposed lagoon bottom at Mandapam Palk Bay showing the unvegetatcd sand, 
west of Station 5. 

2. Ulva reticulata. Large quantities are found washed ashore during September in 
Palk Bay shore habitated by several gastropods. 



MOLLUSCS IN AND AROUND CORAL REEFS 



1971a). The reef crest is typical eulittoral and 

is devoid of any living corals. 

The molluscan assemblages in different 

HABITATS 

Sandy shore 

(Without vegetation) 

The mainland coast along Mandapam and 
the shores of the near by sand cays in Gulf 
of Mannar (Stoddart and Fosberg 1972) are 
mostly sandy, though outcrops of sandstones 
are found along the mainland coast. Typical 
rocky shore does not exist. The beach sand 
is fine-grained, the grains ranging from 2 to 
4 mm in size and with an admixture of corals 
and molluscan shells. The molluscan fraction 
is mostly of the shells of Cerithium, JJmbo- 
nium, Dentalium, and Donax. The subsurface 
has a high percentage of black clay (at a 
depth of 10 cm and below) with a foul smell 
of hydrogen sulphide. At Mandapam (Palk 
Bay) the grain size increases towards the 
deeper layers with an unconsolidated grit of 
gastropod shells. The grain size as well as the 
calcareous content of the beach sand varies 
from place to place. At station 1 the sand is 
0.5 to 1.5 mm in grain size and a sample 
from the surface yielded 85.66% of insoluble 
silicon in hydrochloric acid and 14.44% solu- 
ble calcareous matter. However, the beach 
sand of the islands has a very high percentage 
of calcareous matter. Analysis of a sample 
from station 11 in Krusadai Island yielded 
96.48% of soluble calcareous matter in hydro- 
chloric acid. The high calcareous content in 
Krusadai is mostly due to the presence of 
coral fragments. The following discussion of 
the molluscs of sand is based on stations 1, 
6, 9 and 11. 

At the low water mark, Murex trapa. 
Bursa spinosa, Drupa margiriticola and Ceri- 
thium spp. are present. During December, 



1973 and January, 1974 Aplysia lineolala was 
found in fair numbers at Vedalai. The mud 
flat at the northern side of the Manauli Island 
which gets exposed at low tides harboured 
plenty of Cerithidea jluviatilis, their number 
varying from 100 to 150 per square metre. 
However, along the mainland coast this gas- 
tropod is rare and replaced by Cerithium 
trailli. 

On the eulittoral beaches the molluscan 
fauna is rich, composed of Donax spp. and 
Atactodea glabrata with a high concentration 
of the individuals at the mid-beach at a depth 
of 20 to 25 cm. The deeper muddy substraum 
is unsuitable for these filter feeders. However, 
there is local variation in the occurrence and 
abundance of these two genera of burrowing 
bivalves. Donax spp. are common along the 
mainland coast. At Station 1 their concentra- 
tion was 40 to 60 individuals per square metre 
in January, 1974, represented mainly by D. 
faba and D. cuneatus. Alagarswami (1968) 
reported a concentration of 89 to 217 clams 
from the same site during December 1962 to 
November, 1963. He has also reported the 
presence of D. spinosus, D. apertus and D. 
incur nat us at Vedalai, however, our collections 
during January, 1974 yielded none of these 
species. On the Palk Bay side the intensity 
of Donax was less, only 10 to 15 individuals/ 
sq. metre were recorded. This may be due to 
the more muddy nature of the subsurface 
sand along Palk Bay coast. At station 1, 
though D. faba and D. cuneatus occur, there 
seems to be a sort of grouping among the 
species, i.e. individuals of the same species in- 
cline to concentrate. When one sample plot 
yielded one species, another plot yielded 
only the other though both faba and cuneatus 
are found at the same level of the beach. 
Further, individuals from the same plot are 
more or less of the same size probably of 



29 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



same age. This shows that there is very little 
tendency among the members to disperse. 
The burrowing clams of the islands are pre- 
dominantly Atactodea glabrata (20-30/sq. m 
in Krusadai). Donax faba and D. cuneatus 
are rare. 

The ecological factors that determine such 
a distribution of Donax along the mainland 
coast and Atactodea on the island are not 
clear. The calcareous content of the beach 
sands on the islands, as already mentioned, 
is much higher than that of the mainland 
coast. Further, the mainland coast is subjected 
to more wave action and beach circulation 
than the islands protected by the fringing reef. 
The tendency of Donax to concentrate on un- 
protected beaches with high circulation of 
water was already pointed out by Taylor 
(1968). He also stated that though Donax 
faba and Atactodea glabrata may occur in the 
same beach at Mahe, Seychelles, the latter 
species always occupies a higher and more 
sheltered position on the beach. In general, 



our observations also show that protected 
island beaches with a high calcareous content 
in this area form a favourable habitat for 
Atactodea, while fine-grained sand with very 
little calcareous content, with good water cir- 
culation, is the more favoured habitat for 
Donax spp. 

The sandstones : 

Blocks of elevated sandstones are found 
along the Mandapam Peninsula on the Gulf 
of Mannar side. A small outcrop is seen near 
the Pamban Bridge at the Palk Bay side also. 
The sand cays situated in the vicinity of Man- 
dapam are devoid of any sandstone outcrops 
(Stoddart and Fosberg 1972), though Red- 
diah (1972) has reported its occurrence along 
the beaches of Appa Island, further north, in 
the Gulf of Mannar. The sandstones are ele- 
vated up to 2 m in certain places showing 
signs of wave-cut aberrations. Structurally, 
they are conglomerate of sand grains of dif- 
ferent sizes with molluscan shells, predomi- 




Fig. 1. Zonation of various molluscs at Station 4. The thick vertical lines show the 
vertical range of species. 1. Littorina undulata; 2. Nodilittorina pyramidalis; 3. N. 
leucostica; 4. Cellana radiata; 5. Craspidochiton sp.; 6. Trochus radiatus; 7. Drupa 
margeriticola; 8. Nerita spp.; 9. Thias (Purpurea) rudolphi; 10. Crassostrea cucullata. 



30 



MOLLUSCS IN AND AROUND CORAL REEFS 



nantly of Cerithium. The sandstone assembl- 
age of molluscs discussed below is based on 
observations at station 4. 

In the absence of any rocky outcrops in 
this area, the typical rocky shore animals 
occupy the sandstones. At station 4 the mol- 
luscan fauna display a pattern of vertical 
zonation (Fig. 1). At the higher levels repre- 
senting the Littoral fringe zone (Lewis 1961, 
Morton and Challis 1969, Newell 1970, Arud- 
pragasam 1970) the dominant animals are the 
littorinids. At a height of nearly 1.75 m from 
the high neap tide level Littorina undulata, 
L. krausi and large individuals of Nodilitto- 
rina pyramidalis are found. The first men- 
tioned species is found at the highest zone 
and displays a lot of phenotypic variations in 
the colour of their shells. It has a tendency 
to crowd together under the overhanging cliff 
and in crevices. The species is not generally 
seen on the surface of sandstones exposed to 
scorching sun. L. krausi is rare here. Though 
Nodilittorina pyramidalis is found mixed with 
L. undulata its concentration is at a lower 
level, where they have a tendency to flock to- 
gether, sometimes in hundreds as we observed 
in January, 1974. Lower down, below the 
zone of N. pyramidalis, there is a heavy con- 
centration of Nodilittorina leucostica where 
there is a constant splash of water. From a 
sample plot we collected as many as 621 speci- 
mens of N. pyramidalis and from a plot below 
that 180 specimens of N. leucostica. However, 
we have not observed a zone where these two 
species mingle, the position of the former being 
always above the level of the latter. Among the 
four species of littorinids found here, N. 
pyramidalis has the widest range of vertical 
distribution from the upper limit of the litto- 
ral fringe to the upper limit of the eulittoral 
zone. The younger specimens occupy a lower 
level while the large adults migrate to the 



upper level of the littoral fringe. A similar 
pattern of vertical distribution of this species 
at Ceylon was recorded by Arudpragasam 
(1970), while Atapattu (1969) observed a 
similar phenomenon in N. granularis. 

Size range and density of population of 
littorinids at station 4 during January, 1974 
was analysed. In random samples of 284 spe- 
cimens of Littorina undulata, the height of 
shells ranged from 2 to 13.8 mm, the majority 
being in the range of 8 to 10 mm (Fig. 2b); 
only 10 specimens were in the range of 1 to 
6 mm. 180 specimens of N. leucostica examin- 
ed from a sample plot ranged 1 to 11 mm, 
the maximum number being in the range of 
8 to 9 mm (Fig. 2a). A sample plot yielded 
621 specimens of N. pyramidalis ranging from 
1 mm to 10 mm, the maximum being in the 
range of 6 to 7 mm (Fig. 2 e). Presence of 
small specimens in the range of 1 to 2 mm 
in the natural population of littorinids suggests 
that breeding and recruitment of individuals 
to the population occur shortly before Janu- 
ary. On the Ceylon coast recruitment of N. 
granularis to the population takes place at the 
tail end of Southwest monsoon, i.e. during 
October to November (Atapattu 1969). This 
seems to be true of all the members of the 
Littorina and Nidilittorina of this area. 

Below the zone of littorinids (eulittoral 
zone) occur the limpets Cellana radiata and 
a small species of Craspidochiton. The edible 
oyster Crassostrea cucullata is seen fully ex- 
posed at low tides, the habitat of which in 
general is within a narrow belt between tide 
marks (Hornell 1951). They attach firmly to 
the sand stones. At low water marks the car- 
nivorous gastropod, Thias {Purpurea) rudol- 
phi and T. carnifera as well as Drupa margi- 
riticola are seen. Cerithium trailli are also 
found in fair numbers. Very rarely the eulit- 
toral sandstones are found to have the boring 



31 



JOURNAL. BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY. Vol. 77 



70- 

' 60- 



rm.iT 



2 3 4 5 

HEIGHT IN mm 

Nodilittorina leucostica 



tn 



Litton na undulate 



is su I c a tus 



mi 



9 10 11 12 13 



19 20 21 22 23 



tonna pyrar 



Centhium trailli 

Fig. 2. Size range of some intertidal gastropods collected from sample plots at 
different stations, a. Nodilittorina leucostica from Station 4, during January, 1974. 
No. of specimens measured 180. b. Litlorina undulata from Station 4. January, 1974, 
based on 284 specimens, c. Planaxis sulcatus from Station 5, September, 1973, based 
on 96 specimens, d. Cerithium trailli from Station 5, September, 1973, based on 271 
specimens, e. Nodilittorina pyramidalis from Station 4, January, 1974, based on 621 
specimens. 



MOLLUSCS IN AND AROUND CORAL REEFS 



bivalve, Lithophaga (Appukuttan 1972). 

Raised reefs 

The raised reefs of Ramanathapuram in 
South India are already described (Foote 
1889, Sewell 1935, Stoddart and Pillai 1972). 
Two stations, 5 and 8 were studied for their 
living molluscs, and were found to be mostly 
similar to the elevated sandstones discussed 
earlier. This includes both the littoral fringe 
and eulittoral forms. 

Mangroves 

Mangroves are characteristic of areas with 
variable salinities, muddy or sandy bottom 
and calm conditions (Cooman 1969, Macnae 
1968, Macnae and Kalk 1962). The molluscan 
fauna of mangroves in general includes a limit- 
ed number of gastropods and bivalves. There 
appears to be no earlier information on the 
mangrove fauna of this area, though Stoddart 
and Fosberg (1972) have recently listed the 
vegetation and discussed the zonation at 
Manauli Island (Station 14). The molluscan 
fauna associated with the mangroves can be 
broadly divided into those that actually live 
on the vegetation and those that live around. 
At station 14 the mangroves are of Avicennia 
marina, Bruguiera cylindrica and Rhizophora 
mucronata. A. marina forms a low wooded 
forest. According to Macnae and Kalk (1962) 
the animals found in the mangroves are only 
fortuitously associated depending on the level 
of water table, resistance to waterloss, demand 
for protection from sun, degree of consolida- 
tion of substratum and availability of food. 

The breathing roots of Avicennia at Manauli 
Island are inhabitated by Planaxis sulcatus 
often mixed with Littorina melanostoma. They 
are found 50 cm above the lowest water- 
mark. On the trunks and leaves of trees, L. 
scabra occupy upto one and a half metres 



from the ground level. Other conspicuous 
animals on the roots are the barnacles. The 
spaces among the breathing roots in the eulit- 
toral zone harbours Cerithidea fluviatilis in 
plenty. The gastropod Cassidula sp. was also 
collected. The only bivalve we could find in 
the ground was Gafrarium tumidum, a. species 
that is found commonly in several other habi- 
tats. 

It is interesting to compare the mangrove- 
associated molluscs of this area with those 
of the East Indies and Western Indian Ocean, 
though the information from this part is by 
no means complete. Both L. melanostoma and 
Cassidula sp. are listed as true mangrove 
forms of the East Indies (Cooman 1968). 
Cerithidea is common to East Indies and 
Indian Coast, but the species listed by Cooman 
from the East Indies is different. Cooman 
(1968) lists 20 species of molluscs from the 
East Indies against six species we have col- 
lected from here. Isognomon, Crassostrea, 
Modiolus and Teredo found in the mangroves 
of East Indies do occur in other habitats in 
south India, though we could not collect any 
of them specifically from the mangroves we 
investigated. L. scabra is common to southern 
and western Indian ocean mangroves (Tay- 
lor 1968) but is not known from East Indies. 
L. melanostoma found in southeast coast of 
India and eastern Indian mangroves is not 
listed from western Indian ocean. In this 
respect, our mangroves have faunal elements 
from both eastern and western Indian oceans. 
However, there is need for more intensive col- 
lection of the faunal elements of our man- 
groves. 

Eulittoral Boulders 

a. Semifossilised loose lying corals: 

At Manacadu Point (Station 5) the raised 
reef gradually dips into the sea with a lot of 

33 



3 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



semifossilised loose lying coral boulders of 
Favia, Favites, Platygyra, Pontes, Goniastrea 
and Acropora having a coating of green 
algae. The boulders are exposed at almost 
every tidal change and are covered only at 
the spring tides. These were found to be an 
ideal habitat for many algal grazing gastro- 
pods. Planaxis sulcatus are abundant and 
occupy the highest position in the vertical 
range of distribution. They show a tendency 
to crowd together in small crevices and de- 
pressions of the boulders and those of the 
same size are found together. In September, 
1973 there were 120 to 130 individuals per 
square metre and their size ranged from 10 
to 25 mm. Very small animals were not seen 
and this suggests that their reproductive period 
probably coincides with that of Littorina at 
the tail end of the southwest monsoon. The 
size range of 96 specimens, all from a sample 
plot is presented in Fig. 2C, and it shows 
that the maximum number of individuals was 
within the range of 20 to 21 mm. Onchidium 
verruculatum was very common on the under- 
sides of the boulders inhabitated by Planaxis. 
At fully exposed condition, four to five indi- 
viduals were found crowded together in cre- 
vices. Lower in the vertical range there is a 
preponderance of Cerithium trailli. The zone 
of Cerithium is subjected to lesser duration 
of exposure than the zone of Planaxis. There 
is a clear-cut demarcation between the zones 
of Planaxis and Cerithium and we failed to 
observe any mingling of the two genera. It is 
likely that Cerithium is less tolerant to ex- 
posure than Planaxis. The number of indivi- 
duals of Cerithium trailli per square metre 
averaged 286 with an average total weight of 
204 gm. In size they ranged from 7 to 22 mm 
during September, 1973; specimens of smaller 
size were apparently absent. The maximum 
number of individuals was seen in the size 



range of 10 to 17 mm (Fig. 2d). From the 
analysis of the size range of individuals during 
September, it is clear at these gastropods also 
breed during the tail end of southwest mon- 
soon as in the case of littorinids. The smallest 
ones (7 to 8 mm) belonged to the latest 
brood. 

Below the zone of Cerithium, Nerita was 
very common, represented by at least three 
species, viz. N. maura, N. albicella and N. 
chaemelon, found in a totally exposed condi- 
tion. Mingled with Nerita were seen four spe- 
cies of Gafrarium, viz. G. pectinatum, G. dis- 
par, G. divaficatum and G. tumidum: how- 
ever, Gafrarium has a wider range of habitat 
selection and is often found on the sandy and 
vegetated lagoon bottom. Crassostrea cucul- 
lata is common here. 

b. Eulittoral granite boulders: 

At station 3 the groynes of the jetty form 
an excellent artificial habitat for many gastro- 
pods. At low tide, these blocks get exposed 
for a long time, and reveal underneath the 
loose boulders, several species such as Purpu- 
rea rudolphi, P. carnifera. Conus amadis, C. 
coronatus, Cyprea moneta, C. caputserpentis 
and Aplysia lineolata occur. On the surface of 
boulders Trochus radiatus and Turbo inter- 
costalis were seen. Bivalves were not seen, 
though Mytilus, recently introduced by the 
Institute, for mariculture experiments was 
thriving. 

c. The reej crest and reef flat: 

There seems to be no well demarcated reef 
crest or reef flat in this area since the fringing 
shallow reefs have not developed into a well 
consolidated structure. Further, whatever 
existed has been destroyed in many places. 
In an earlier paper Pillai (1971a) used the 
term reef crest to denote the highest part of 
the reef in Palk Bay. This part of the reef is 



34 



J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 77 
Pillai & Appukuttan: Molluscs 



Plate 3 




1. The raised reef and eulittoral coral boulders at Station 5, teamed with Planaxis 
and Cerithium. 

2. Eulittoral sandy beach at Mandapam Palk Bay, where Donax is plenty. One of 
the Sample plots is seen in foreground. 




MOLLUSCS IN AND AROUND CORAL REEFS 



composed of dead boulders subjected to inter- 
mittent exposure as in a typical reef flat. An 
area similar to reef flat with a boulder zone 
is present at Krusadai Island (Station 10) 
and is subjected to heavy breakers. In the 
Palk Bay, Trochus radiatus, Turbo intercos- 
talis, Astrea semicostata and Drupa margiriti- 
cola are seen at the top of the boulders sub- 
jected to prolonged exposure at low tides. On 
the sides of the boulders, at a lower level, 
Area spp. and Isognomon isognomon are 
rarely seen. Crassostrea eucullata is common. 
Pinctata sp. is also rarely seen. At Krusadai 
(Station 10) the fauna was found to be rich 
and varied, probably due to the undisturbed 
condition of the reef. Gastropods were very 
common and were represented by Cerithium 
moms, Pyrine versicolor, P. zebra, Drupa 
margiriticola, D. tuberculata, D. horrida, 
Cyprea arabica, C. moneta, Trochus radiatus, 
Turbo intercostalis, Thias (Purpurea) rudol- 
phi, Cantharidus undosus, and Nerita albicella. 
Among the Amphineura a species of Ischno- 
chiton was very common. Bivalves were poor- 
ly represented, but for the presence of young 
specimens of Crassostrea eucullata. 

The submerged or sublittoral habitats 

a. The unvegetated sand: 

At several spots in Palk Bay and Gulf of 
Mannar, the bottom sand is clean and fine 
grained, (PI. 2, Fig. 1) with an admixture of 
clay and dead shells at the subsurface, often 
with a foul smell. The muddy subsurface is 
unsuitable for burrowing bivalves and digging 
scarcely revealed the presence of any infauna. 
On the surface, Drupa margiriticola, Ceri- 
thium spp., Murex tarpa, and Bursa spinosa 
are generally seen. However, the ideal habi- 
tats of all these animals are elsewhere, and 
many bivalves are seen either lying on the 
surface or partly buried, like Gajrarium tumi- 



dum. At Manauli Island, G. tumidum is found 
along with Mactra cuneata, Dosinia cretacea 
and Mesodesma trigona. The mud flats were 
found to be teeming with Cerithidea fluviatilis 
in Manauli Island. The other gastropods 
rarely seen are Nassa thirstis and Polinices 
mamilla, the former generally harbouring a 
symbiotic anemone on the shell. The younger 
specimens of P. mamilla are purple whitish 
while the adults are milky white and feed on 
bivalves (Taylor 1968). Cardium edulae 
occurs in Palk Bay and their dead shells are 
found on the surface. Rarely Pinna bicolor 
is seen half buried in sand, though it is abun- 
dant on seagrass beds. 

b. Submerged dead coral shingle: 

At Station 5a, the lagoon bottom is strewn 
with loose, semifossilised coral boulders with 
intermittent sandy areas. The nature and com- 
position of the boulders are similar to those 
already described from Station 5. The sandy 
areas have many algae like Sargassum, Padi- 
na, Turbinaria and the calcareous alga Am- 
phiroa. For details of the algae reference may 
be made to Rao (1972). The depth at lowest 
tide is about 50 cm. These boulders harbour 
a rich and varied fauna of molluscs, especially 
bivalves. Most of them are found attached to 
the boulders, the most common being Area 
represented by at least three species, viz. A. 
symmetrica, A. avellana and A. complanata. 
The swimming bivalve Galeomma paucistriata 
occurs in fair numbers. It is pale yellowish 
white with a dark brown prolongation of the 
mantle in the living condition (Satyamurthi 
1956). Yet another very common bivalve seen 
here is Scintilla, represented by two species, 
viz. S. hanleyi and 5. timorensis. Vulsella vul- 
sella with its commensal sponges is fairly com- 
mon. Isognomon isognomon and Pinctada 
anamoides are found in fair numbers. The 



35 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



larger specimens of P. anomoides ranged from 
50 to 65 mm in length. Gastropods are by no 
means a conspicuous element in the fauna of 
this habitat, though Drupa margin ticola, Ceri- 
thium trailli, Turbo intercostalis, Cellana ra- 
diata and Eumarginula obovata are re- 
presented. 

c. The sea grass fauna: 

At station 2, 6a & 13 the sea grass vegeta- 
tion is composed of Cymodocea rotunda, C. 
serrulata, Halodule sp. Syringodium isoeti fo- 
lium and T halassodendron ciliatum (Stoddart 
& Fosberg 1972). They are locally abundant 
at several places both in Gulf of Mannar and 
Palk Bay. Grass beds are excellent habitat 
for burrowing molluscs while their leaves and 
stems afford substratum and protection to 
epifaunal elements (Taylor & Lewis 1970). 
Among the epifauna of this area the bivalves 
are represented by Gafrarium tumidum and 
rarely Circe scripta. Cyprea histrio, C. arabi- 
ca, Murex virgineus and Cerithium scabridum 
and C. trailli the last two being found on the 
leaves and stems of sea grass. Yet another 
common gastropod, Pyrene seen on the leaves 
and stems is represented by three species, P. 
versicolor, P. vulpeula and P. flavida. How- 
ever, Pyrene is more abundant on various algae 
{vide infra). During January-February young 
ones of Trochus radiatus and T. stellatus were 
seen on the leaves, the adults of which are 
common inhabitants of eulittoral hard sub- 
stratum. Neritina oualaniensis is also found 
in Manauli Island. The opisthobranch Dola- 
bella rumphii was found in fair numbers at 
Station 2 during January, 1974. 

The molluscan fauna of the grass beds in 
this area is dominated by Pinna bicolor, and 
a variety of animals found attached on their 
shells. There is a very heavy concentration 
of Pinna at Station 2 which is near a sewage 



outlet. A similar situation in Seychelles, where 
sewage disposal encouraged the settlement of 
Pinna was recorded by Taylor (1968). The 
larger specimens in Gulf of Mannar measure 
30 to 35 cm in shell length and as many as 
15 are found per square metre at sites of high 
concentration. A few species of molluscs such 
as Modiolus metcalfei and M. carvalhoi among 
the bivalves and Ischnochiton among the Am- 
phineura and Neritina oualaniensis among the 
gastropods are found attached on the shells 
of Pinna. 

d. Alga associated molluscs: (Fig. 3) 

Stations 3a, 7, 11a and 13. 

The sublittoral algal communities afford a 
very suitable habitat for both young and adult 
molluscs. The common algae, searched for 
their molluscan macrofauna were Sargassum, 
Turbinaria, Padina, Viva, Caulerpa, Gracilaria, 
Gelidiella and Hypnea. The molluscan assem- 
blage associated with each of these is briefly 
presented below. 

Viva recticulata forms extensive green pat- 
ches in the lagoon bottom of Palk Bay along 
Mandapam during July to October and is 
often found washed ashore in large quantities. 
(PI. 2, Fig. 2). Many gastropods are found 
attached to this alga, such as Catharidus inter- 
rupts, Thais tissoti, Cerithium scabridum, 
Drupa margiriticola, and Trochus radiatus 
(very small ones 3 to 5 mm in diameter) and 
Planispira fallaciosa. Almost all the specimens 
collected were young ones, their adults being 
characteristic inhabitants of other substrata. 

Caulerpa racemosa is common on the reefs 
and other isolated hard substrata. Many nudi- 
branchs are reported to be associated with 
this alga, though our collection yielded none. 
The bivalve gastropod Berthelinia Umax was 
found in fair numbers in Palk Bay. These ani- 
mals have a brilliant green colour, perfectly 



36 



MOLLUSCS IN AND AROUND CORAL REEFS 





Fig. 3. A general representation of the molluscs associated with various algae. 
1. Ischinochiton sp. x 2.5; 2. Pyrine zebra x 1.3; 3. P. versicolor x 1; 4. Drupa mar- 
geriticola x 1; 5. Trochus stellatus x 1; 6. Planispira fallaciosa x 1.5; 7. Phasionella 
nivosa X 1; 8. Pyrine vulpecula x 1; 9. Cerithium scabridum x 1; 10. Nodilittorina 
pyramidalis x 1; 11. Pinctada anomoides x 0.5; 12. Berthelinia Umax. 



matching that of the alga, and it is difficult to 
spot the animals in the field. There seems to 
be a sort of specificity in the association be- 
tween Berthelinia and Caulerpa and we failed 
to collect this mollusc from any other algae 
we examined. It may be noted that the first 
Carribbean bivalve gastropod, B. caribbea, was 
also recorded on Caulerpa (Edmunds 1962). 

Padina gymnospora is found on the reefs 
and in the lagoon. There is a preponderance 
of this at Station 3a from where we collected 
several samples during January, 1974. At least 
four species of gastropods, viz. Drupa tuber- 



culata, D. margiriticola, Pyrene zebra and 
Trochus radialus were found on the leaves 
along with J schnochiton sp. Bivalves were not 
represented. Padina is a less favoured habitat 
for molluscs when compared to other higher 
algae from the same locality such as Sargas- 
sum and Turbinaria. 

Turbinaria sp. grows in patches in several 
places and was found to be common at station 
3a. The economically important small gastro- 
pod Pyrene zebra is common on the stems 
and leaves of this alga. Drupa mangiriticola 
and D. tuberculata also occur but in very few 



37 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



numbers. Planispira fallaciosa and Phasionella 
nivosa occur rarely. Juveniles of Trochus 
radiatus were found in January with planti- 
grades of the bivalve Modiolus sp. Turbinaria 
ornata from Palk Bay yielded Pyrene versi- 
color a species which we could not collect 
from T. conoides. 

Two species of Sargassum, viz. S. wighli and 
5. myriosystem are common here. On the 
former Pyrene zebra and P. versicolor are very 
abundant. Juveniles of Trochus radiatus and 
plantigrades of Pinctada anamoides are also 
rarely seen. Sargassum growing on hard sub- 
strata seems to be the most ideal habitat for 
Pyrene in this area. 

Yet another common alga in almost all 
localities of both Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay 
is Gracilaria edulis. G. edulis yielded Pyrene 
versicolor, P. zebra, Phasionella nivosa and 
Drupa margiriticola, Cantharidus undosus and 
Astrea semicostata though none of the species 
is common. During December- January, juve- 
niles of Trochus were common. All the mol- 
luscs found on Gracilaria were gastropods. 

Two species of Hypnea, viz. H. musciformis 
and H. valentiae, were found to be common 
on the sandstone blocks under the Pamban 
Bridge. (Station 7). In January, it was found 
that all the samples contained several planti- 
grades of Modiolus in the size range of 2 to 
5 mm. Very rarely juveniles of pearl oysters 
were also seen. Juveniles of Trochus, Cellana 
and Ischnochiton were also collected. How- 
ever, the commonest and most abundant mol- 
luscs associated with Hypnea during January 
was Modiolus. 

A notable feature of the alga-associated 
molluscs of this area during the December- 
February period was the presence of a large 
number of juveniles of both gastropods and 
bivalves. These include those of Trochus, Cel- 
lana, Cerithium, Caniharus and Pyrene among 



the gastropods, and of Pinctada and Modiolus 
among the bivalves. There exists a constant 
association between the developing stages of 
some bivalves such as Mytilus edulis and vari- 
ous filamentous algae (Colman 1940; Chip- 
perfield 1953; Bayne 1964). It has been shown 
that mussels rarely settle on existing beds of 
adults, probably to avoid competition. The 
juveniles get attached and detached more than 
once on filamentous substrates before they 
finally get settled. The presence of juveniles 
of various molluscs on different algae indi- 
cates that there is no strict specificity during 
their primary settlement to any alga, all avail- 
able filamentous substrata being utilised. The 
presence of juveniles during the December- 
January period is again an indication to the 
breeding period of these molluscs here coin- 
ciding with those of littorinids. 
Coral-associated molluscs: 

Corals afford a substrate for several types 
of animals, providing food and shelter. Men- 
tion has already been made of the molluscs 
associated with the reef flat and dead bould- 
ers. In the living corals, the branching forms 
provide loose interspace where many animals 
including molluscs can live free from the at- 
tack of predators. Massive corals provide at- 
tachment surface as well as penetrable sub- 
stratum for boring animals (Morton and Chal- 
lis 1969). The reef associated animals can be 
broadly divided into: Hypobion — those con- 
cealed in the shade or under the substratum: 
the parabion — composed of those animals liv- 
ing on the lighted reaches of living corals; 
and epibion — constituting those living on re- 
cently dead corals or algae. A fourth group 
is cryptobion composed of burrowing forms 
or those which live in the burrows of other 
animals (Morton and Challis 1969). Taylor 
(1971a) categorises reef-associated molluscs 



38 



MOLLUSCS IN AND AROUND CORAL REEFS 



into those that use corals as a convenient sub- 
strate for protection and the others that actu- 
ally feed on coral polyps. 

The structure of the living reef and the 
zonation of corals in this area have been al- 
ready discussed by Pillai (1971a, 1971b) and 
Mergner & Scheer (1974). Though zonation 
on the fringing reef is indistinct, we recognise 
here an Acropora community to include 
ramose corals, a Pontes community to de- 
signate massive corals dominated by Pontes 
spp., and an Echinopora community to incor- 
porate foliaceous corals such as Echinopora 
and Montipora foliosa. 

The major components of the Acropora 
community are Pocillopora damicornis, Mon- 
tipora divaricata, Acropora jormosa, A. cory- 
mbosa, A. hyacinthus, A. millepora, A. nobi- 
lis, and A. humilis. A, millepora and A. nobi- 
lis are more common on the Gulf of Mannar 
reefs while A. corymbosa is abundant on the 
Palk Bay side. P. damicornis is omnipresent. 
Most of these small-polyped ramose corals 
establish themselves at the outer side of the 
reef where water is clearer and deeper (Pil- 
lai 1971a). 

The branching corals seem to be favoured 
by many gastropods where they seek protec- 
tion in the interspaces of branches and under- 
sides. We could not collect any coral-eating 
molluscs. Pyrene versicolor, Drupa spp. and 
Cerithiwn spp. are common among the bran- 
ches of Acropora millepora and A. corymbosa. 
Trochus spp. were found on the dead upper 
regions and bases of several colonies. A. mille- 
pora from Manauli Island yielded Spondylus 
layardi. A. jormosa and A. nobilis with their 
arborescent coralla are less favoured habitats 
than the corymbose forms probably due to 
non-availability of closely placed branches 
that afford protection. On the dead parts of 
all ramose corals, Crassostrea curuUata, Area 



spp., Isognomon isognomon, Pinctada and 
Lithophaga spp. were seen. 

Porites community (Fig. 4) forms the basic 
structure of the reefs in this area. P. solida, 
P. lutea. and P. somaliensis are fairly common 
both in the living and semifossilised condition. 
Among and on Pontes are seen Favia javus, 
Favites abdita, Favia pallida, Leptaslrea spp., 
Cyphastrea spp., Platygyra lamellina etc. (see 
Pillai, 1972 for the list of corals from this 
area). 

Both gastropods and bivalves are found on 
the massive corals. A few gastropods such as 
Drupa margiriticola, Pyrene spp. and Ceri- 
thiwn spp., were found crawling on the sur- 
face of massive corals. D. margariticola is 
abundant on the Palk Bay and a large number 
of them get into the traps set by the local 
fishermen for catching reef fishes. Astrea semi- 
costata and Planispira fallaciosa are also seen. 
Lambis lambis is found between the massive 
coral heads, sometimes in the sandy areas; 
sometimes the living molluscs afforded sub- 
stratum to small colonies of Porites or Side- 
rastrea, the corals thus getting free transport. 
Among the bivalves attached to the surface 
and undersides of massive corals were Area 
spp., Isognomon, Pinctada and Crassostrea. 
However, the intensity of surface living bival- 
ves was more on the dead coral shingle than 
on the living corals. 

The dead, and rarely living corals, harbour 
a rich and varied fauna of burrowing bivalves 
(Appukuttan 1972). The mytilids are by far 
the commonest. Lithophaga is represented by 
at least five species, viz. L. nigra, L. gracilis, 
L. teres, L. stramineus and L. levigata; L. 
nigra being the commonest. The lithophaga 
make deep burrows generally double the 
length of their shells. Botulla cinnamonea 
makes shallow burrows. The venerid bivalves 
Venerupis macrophyllia and the petricolid. 



30 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 

6 





10 




Fig. 4. A general representation of the molluscs a associated with massive corals. 
1. Venerupis macrophyllia x 0.5; 2. Lithophaga spp.; 3. Area spp. 4. Isognomon 
isognomon x 0.5; 5. Crassostrca cucullata x 0.5; 6. Pinctada anomoides x 1; 7. Jouan- 
netia cumingii X 0.5; 8. Pyrine spp.; 9. Drupa margeriticola X 0.5; 10. Cerithium 



trail I i > 
lambis 



0.5; 11. N odilittorina leucostica x 1; 12. Ti/rfto intercostalis x 1; 13. Lambis 
< 0.5. 



Petricola lithophaga and P. divergence, are 
also common in shallow burrows. 
Jes sulculosa, Gastrochaenia, Pholadides, 
Jouannelia, Parapholas and Clavagella are the 
other common burrowing bivalves of this area 
[For others see Table 1, a detailed account of 
which has been already published by Appu- 
kuttan (1972)]. Though most of the burrowing 
forms are found in the dead parts of the 
corals, rarely L. gracilis was collected from 
the living parts of Porites solida and Favia 
pallida. 



Discussion 

Species diversity and percentage composition 

The percentage composition of the main 
molluscan groups in the collections from each 
habitat is presented in Table 2. The entire 
molluscan fauna found on the mangroves be- 
longs to Gastropoda. Adult gastropods were 
more on the eulittoral boulders than bivalves, 
while the submerged shingle has the maximum 
(85%) concentration of surface living bival- 
ves. The maximum number of species was 



40 



MOLLUSCS IN AND AROUND CORAL REEFS 



found in massive corals (38) of which 26 were 
bivalves, 18 of them being boring forms and 
the rest surface living. The mollusca of the 
littoral fringe was composed entirely of 
gastropods, while the eulittoral zone had 
3.75% Amphineura, 68.5% gastropods and 
27.75% bivalves. In the sublittoral molluscan 
fauna, Amphineura constitute 1.3%, gastro- 
poda 38.7% and bivalves 60%. 

Taylor (1971b) has attributed increased 
diversity of species in the sublittoral zone at 
Aldabra to tolerance of species to emersion. 
According to him (p. 206) this factor will 
account for the reduced diversity of species on 
higher shores. Those few species capable of 
inhabiting higher zones will exploit the avail- 
able habitat resulting in a high density 
of population. In essence, the organisms of 
the intertidal zone are predominantly physi- 
cally regulated communities and their major 
adaptations are of a physical nature, since the 
environment is subjected to varying physical 
factors. In the lower level (sublittoral) the 
animal communities are biologically controlled 
since the environment is mostly uniform. The 
biological inter- reaction result in a greater 
diversity of species (Sanders 1968). In such 
a situation the density of individuals of vari- 
ous species may not be as high as on the 
higher levels. 

Factors Influencing the Distribution of 
Molluscs in Different Substrates 

1) Adaptation to physical conditions: 

Temperature tolerance and ability to with- 
stand desiccation is the largest single factor 
that restricts the distribution of many inter- 
tidal animals. Smith and Newell (1955) have 
shown that the initial settlement of periwink- 
les takes place on a lower level, the upper 
tidal levels being later colonised by adults. A 



similar phenomenon is shown here by Nodi- 
littorina pyramidalis on sandstone. Planaxis 
sulcatus and Cerithium trailli occupy different 
levels, the former always being at a higher 
level at Mandapam. Ability to restrict the loss 
of water during exposure and the thickness 
of shell are major adaptations for a success- 
ful life on intertidal areas. Among the Plana- 
xis and Cerithium trailli collected from the 
same station there was a notable variation in 
their fresh flesh and shell weight ratio. The 
ratios of flesh weight to shell weight in Plana- 
xis and C. trailli were 1:7.2 and 1:5.8 respec- 
tively as calculated from 50 specimens from 
random samples. This clearly indicates a 
higher ratio in shell weight to that of flesh in 
Planaxis which will probably account for its 
ability to occupy a higher position in the verti- 
cal range of zonation, than C. trailli. 

ii) Feeding relationship and distribution: 

Availability of food is a major factor that 
influences the distribution of animals. The 
concentration of Pinna bicolor among the sea- 
grass beds is correlated with the availability 
of rich food from the plant material found 
in the sediments around (Taylor & Lewis 
1970). The preponderance of Pinna near the 
site of sewage disposals lends further support 
to the view that supply of food for these filter 
feeders immensely influences their abundance. 
The presence of Thias (Purpurea) rudolphi 
and Drupa margariticola also appears to be 
correlated with their carnivorous feeding re- 
lationships. Thias feeds on Cellana, Gafrarium 
and other gastropod found on the upper zone 
of the eulittoral. Polinices mamilla and other 
gastropod found on the eulittoral zone feed 
on bivalves found on the same zone. The 
mangrove associated Littorina scabra are able 
to feed on mangrove vegetation. The occur- 
rence of large populations of Planaxis and 



41 



JOURNAL. BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



42 



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43 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



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44 



MOLLUSCS IN AND AROUND CORAL REEFS 



The total number of species of molluscs collected at each habitat with the percentage repre- 
sentation of different classes 

_ , Percentage composition 

Habitat Total No. 

of species Amphineuia Gastropoda Bivalvia 



Raised Reef 


14 


8 


25 


67 


Sandstones 


14 


7 


79 


14 


Eulittoral boulders 


32 


6 


78 


16 


Submerged shingle 


13 


nil 


15 


85 


Unvegetated sand 


22 


nil 


63 


37 


Seagrass 


19 


5 


52 


43 


Algae 


21 


5 


85 


10 


Mangrove 


5 


nil 


100 


nil 


Reef flat 


21 


5 


71 


24 


Massive corals 


38 


2.5 


28.5 


69 


Branching corals 


26 


nil 


43 


57 



Cerithium on the eulittoral boulders in Palk 
Bay is also associated with the presence of 
algae like Chaetomorpha and Euteromorpha 
on which these gastropods feed (Rao & Sun- 
daram 1972). 

iii) Protection: 

Many molluscs select a substratum free from 
predators and wave action. Several gastropods 
live among the branches of ramose corals and 
algae. Wieser (1952) pointed out that the 
principal factor controlling the nature and 
abundance of organisms of intertidal seaweeds 
is the growth form of the species of seaweed. 
Variations in the density of gastropod popu- 
lation on different algae have been discussed 
earlier. Boring bivalves are typical examples 
of marine animals on penetrable substrates like 
corals and wood. Some molluscs have cryptic 
colours for protection. Berthelinis Umax on 
Caulerpa is a classic example in this regard. 

iv) Larval behaviour: 

The presence of juveniles of eulittoral gas- 



tropods on sublittoral algae may be due to a 
larval adaptation. The larvae or juveniles are 
unable to thrive or are less successful on 
the more exposed conditions subjected to much 
physical changes and hence first get settled on 
lower levels and later migrate to their ulti- 
mate ecological niches. This will also avoid 
competition for food from the adults. The pri- 
mary settlement of mytilid larvae on filament- 
ous substrate away from the adult beds has 
already been discussed. This will also help the 
dispersal of young ones to an extent. The oc- 
currence of juveniles of Trochus, Cellana and 
Nodilittorina on sublittoral algae may be a 
larval adaptation to more favoured habitats 
than their adults normally live on. 

Summary 

The eulittoral, and littoral fringe sandstones 
of this area show a clear vertical range of 
zonation by different gastropods, correlated 
with the conditions of wave action, exposure, 



45 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



desiccation, temperature and availability of 
food. 

There is a preponderance of gastropods on 
the littoral fringe and eulittoral hard substra- 
tes while the submerged hard bottom supports 
mostly bivalves. Wherever gastropods are 
plenty, bivalves are of little significance, and 
vice versa. 

The molluscan fauna of the seagrass com- 
munity is dominated by Pinna bicolor. At the 
sites of waste sewage disposal, the density of 
population is very high. 

Beach-clams are represented by Donax and 
Atactodea. The former is very common along 
the mainland coast while the latter occurs on 
the island shores. 

No species of molluscs exists in large quan- 
tities though Cerithium, Cerithidea, Drupa, 
Thias and Planaxis are common in the inter- 
tidal zones. The commercially important ges- 
tropod, Pyrene spp., occurs in large numbers 
on reefs and higher algae. Among the bivalves 
Pinna, Gafrarium, Donax, Grassostrea and 
Area are very common. Recently there is a 
settlement of pearl oysters at the bottom 
boulders of Palk Bay lagoon along Manda- 
pam. 

The presence of juveniles and spat of several 
molluscs during the onset of northeast mon- 
soon indicates that most of the common mol- 
luscs of this area breed towards the close of 
southwest monsoon. 

The young ones often choose a safer or 
more protected environment different from the 
ecological niche at which the adults ultimately 
settle. 

Quarrying of corals for industrial purposes, 
resulting in the destruction of the reefs in 



several places around Mandapam, has caused 
the dwindling of the reef associated molluscs. 
This was ascertained by a comparative study 
of the fauna of disturbed and undisturbed 
reef tracts. 

The major factors that limit the distribution 
and abundance of various species in different 
habitats are — nature of bottom, wave action, 
exposure, temperature, availability of suitable 
food, and behavioural aspects of larvae and 
adults. 

The qualitative abundance of common mol- 
luscs in different habitats is discussed. Numeri- 
cal assessment of individuals of some com- 
mon species was made by analysing sample 
plots. 

ACK N OWLEDGE MENTS 

We are grateful to Dr. E. G. Silas, 
Director, Central Marine Fisheries Research 
Institute for his constant interest and encour- 
agement in this work. Thanks are due to 
Mr. C. Mukundan, Mr. M. S. Rajagopalan, 
Dr. K. S. Rao and Mr. V. Kunjukrisha 
Pillai for offering constructive criticism to- 
wards improvement of the manuscript at 
various stages of preparation. Mr. C. P. Gopi- 
nathan gave valuable advice on the preparation 
of the figures and Mr. K. L. Kesavan, artist 
of this institute, drew them. It was a matter 
of great pleasure for the authors to have the 
constant company of Dr. K. P. Kuriakose, 
and Mr. P. N. Radhakrishnan Nair during 
field trips and collection of data. Mr. S. Kali- 
muthu has identified the different algae men- 
tioned in the text. Miss A. Kanagam offered 
secretarial assistance. 



46 



MOLLUSCS IN AND AROUND CORAL REEFS 



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/. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., 31: 145-174. 



48 



A MARCH BIRD COUNT IN POONA 1 



Prakash Gole 2 



How many birds are there in an Indian 
city? To arrive at an estimate of the bird 
population of the city, a group of twenty 
bird-watchers from Poona decided to pool 
their energies to make a bird-count. The city 
was divided into sectors and a pair or group 
of bird-watchers was allotted one sector to 
make notes and count species and individuals. 
All birds that could be seen and heard (and 
definitely identified) while moving along the 
streets and lanes were counted. There are cer- 
tain groups of trees in the city and on its 
river-banks which are favoured by birds for 
roosting. Counts of common Indian mynah, 
house and jungle crow, cattle and little egrets 
and pond herons where chiefly made at these 
places. 

It was not possible to cover the city area 
in one day. Sectors had to be divided into 
sub-sectors. Each sub-sector was visited once 
to avoid double counting. Of course, a certain 
percentage of double counting is unavoidable 
as birds are highly mobile. However, care was 
taken to avoid it, mainly by restricting the 
count of such mobile birds as crows and 
mynahs to their roosting sites only. The total 
effort was spread over the duration of a week 
— the first week of March 1979. 

During the week 130 bird-species were noted 
with a total population of more than 22,000 
individuals. The count was spread over about 
12,120 hectares or about 30,000 acres. The 

1 Accepted June 1979. 

2 277 Sindh Housing Society, Poona-411 007. 
(M.S.). 



area includes the main wards of the city and 
the cantonment but excludes suburban areas 
such as Kirkee, Yerawada, Ghorpadi, Katraj, 
Hingne and some other small areas on the 
periphery. Out of the total area included in 
the bird-count about 60% was more or less 
fully covered, 24% partially covered, while 
over about 16% of the area observations were 
poor. Our coverage of garden birds was poor 
for obvious reasons. We could not enter pri- 
vate gardens and had to restrict counting to 
public parks and gardens only. 

The total of about 22,000 birds counted 
gives a figure of less than one bird per acre 
or 1.8 birds per hectare. The actual number 
of birds per hectare is probably greater. As 
already pointed out, our coverage of garden 
birds was poor. Even if the number of garden 
birds is increased by 100 p.c, we will still be 
erring on the safe side. Our coverage of 
water-birds and birds of grasslands and fields, 
is better, believed to be around 60 p.c. This 
also includes common birds like house spar- 
row, house and jungle crow and common 
mynah. A 40 p.c. increase in the number of 
all these birds may not probably be out 
of proportion. These adjustments give us a 
total of about 32000 birds, i.e. 1.06 birds per 
acre or 2.6 birds per hectare. Comparable 
figures for other Indian cities are not avail- 
able. However, for Inner London area a den- 
sity of 0.9 to 1.75 breeding pairs per acre, 
has been given by Murton (Murton R. K. 

MAN & BIRDS, 1971). 

It must be made clear that the figure in- 
cludes migratory birds, both local and conti- 



49 



4 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



nental. A count taken in June and July will 
probably show a lower density as most of 
the migratory birds will have left by then. 
However, these migrants spend almost eight 
months of the year (September to April) in 
our land and there is no reason why we should 
exclude them while estimating the bird popu- 
lation of a particular area. 

Admittedly, the count was weighted in 
favour of birds which are commensals of man 
namely house sparrow and crow, mynah and 
parakeet, pariah kite and blue rock pigeon. 
In Murton's figures also 88 p.c. of the breed- 
ing birds are feral pigeons and house sparrows. 
Here, the common Indian mynah formed al- 
most a third of the total number of indivi- 
duals. The mynah outnumbered the crow and 
the sparrow by almost 2 to 1. Not all the 
mynahs forage within the city however. They 
are commuters, flying out every morning to 
fields and grasslands to feed and flying in to 
roost each evening. We were surprised to find 
the number of house sparrows so low (1600). 
Probably these drab-coloured birds failed to 
attract our attention. Big flocks of sparrows 
were seen mainly in the evening when num- 
bers collected and flew to roost. One roosting 
tree near the railway station attracted more 
than 500 of them. 

Even crows were found to be more numer- 
ous than the house sparrow. About 2500 of 
them were counted. It was not always possible 
to distinguish between a house and a jungle 
crow, as counts were made mainly in the 
evenings. We suspect however, that there are 
as many jungle crows as there are house crows. 

Early in the morning crows appeared to be 
the first to wake up and move about; while 
in the evening they were preceded by the com- 
mon mynah for roosting. They flew in to roost 
in flocks of 20-30 or gangs of 5-10, in a lei- 
surely fashion, flying at about tree-top height. 



Sometimes they used to make a sudden stoop 
on to a tree on the way, the flying army arrest- 
ing flight suddenly and diving down to alight 
on the tree to the accompaniment of much 
noise. After a pause they continued their 
flight. They also perched on adjacent build- 
ings before settling on the roosting trees. Even 
after reaching these trees some took to wing, 
flew about, made a detour only to come back 
to settle on the trees. 

The common mynah roosts were nothing 
short of spectacular. At one roost more than 
4000 mynahs were counted. They flew in to 
roost in flocks of 2-4, 7-8, 20-30 and 30-50. 
Most of them flew at moderate heights, 
though some coming into city from the west 
over the hills flew higher. Before reaching 
the trees mynahs too collected first in a con- 
venient sport, a hill-slope, a grassy patch on a 
river-bank, even a tall theatre-building. Here 
they made a pause of 15 to 30 minutes before 
flying in en masse into the trees to the accom- 
paniment of a deafening cackle. 

House and jungle crows were found to be 
associating with common mynahs on all the 
roosts; while at one roost near the river about 
350 cattle and little egrets and 325 pond 
herons came to roost with the mynahs and 
crows. They however, occupied acacia trees 
while the latter roosted on the banyan, the 
peepul and the rain tree. Egrets came in flocks 
of 10 to 25 birds, flying along the course of 
the river, while pond herons came one by one. 
Brahminy mynahs have smaller roosts scat- 
tered all over the city. They do not associate 
with the common mynah but roost separately 
in groups of 5 to 50. Normally in the first 
fortnight of March every year, rosy pastors 
arrive and spend some days in the city. They 
also were seen to roost with the common 
mynah. 400 were counted at one roost alone. 

While the mynah roosts are mostly in the 



50 



BIRD COUNT IN POONA 



central, southern and western parts of the city, 
the rose-ringed parakeet prefers chiefly the 
Koregaon Park area to the east. In the even- 
ing they were seen to fly energetically in 
groups of 20-40 birds to settle in large banyan 
and peepul trees. Smaller groups coalesced 
into larger ones as roosting trees drew near 
and they used to settle with an incessant chat- 
ter which normally went on with interruptions 
till late at night. They appear to be late-risers 
too, leaving the roost after sunrise when most 
of the other birds are up and about. More 
than 1000 parakeets roost there. 

As in other Indian cities some pariah kites 
and whitebacked vultures are usually to be 
seen quartering the skies of Poona city. Kites 
were found to be numerous in the Canton- 
ment area and in early mornings these hand- 
some birds were very active, diving, swooping 
on the ground for tit-bits and squealing. Breed- 
ing season of these birds was on and on a 
busy thoroughfare a nest with a sitting bird 
could easily be seen on a peepul tree about 
10 metres up from the street level. Most of 
the vultures scavenge near the bone-crushing 
plant located at south-east of the city. Com- 
pared to whitebacked vultures, the number of 
neophron vultures was insignificant. 

Out of the 130 species counted, 35 may 
be called garden and woodland birds which 
including bulbuls, magpie and Indian robins, 
sunbird, barbet, warblers, flycatchers, tit, 
woodpecker, flowerpecker, koel, golden oriole, 
iora, grey hornbill, white-eye, little minivet, 
spotted owlet etc. 37 species belonged to grass- 
land, scrub and fallow-land. These included 
drongo, shrikes, babblers, munias, quails, bush- 
chats, pipits, larks, doves, bee-eater, hoopoe, 
Indian roller, yellow-wattled lapwing, crested 
bunting etc. Ten species of birds of prey were 
recorded. They included three eagle species, 
blackwinged and large Indian kite, kestrel, 



shikra, sparrow-hawk, redheaded merlin and 
marsh harrier. 

Poona's river banks harbour a rich variety 
of bird-life; 110 species have so far been re- 
corded in the Mula-Mutha Bird Sanctuary 
area alone. During the present count 39 spe- 
cies of water-birds were recorded. These in- 
cluded dabchick, kingfishers, wagtails, coots, 
terns, egrets, swallows, ducks like garganey 
teal and pintail, and a variety of waders such 
as black-winged stilt, sandpipers, green and 
redshanks, little ringed plover, little stint, 
jacanas etc. 

Out of the 130 bird species, 90 species were 
resident birds and the remaining migratory. 
Of the latter 18 are known to breed within 
Indian limits, but migrate either locally from 
the north or from the Himalayas. These in- 
cluded Indian Roller, collared bushchat, black- 
winged stilt, black redstart, blue rock thrush, 
lesser whistling teal etc. Species that habitual- 
ly migrate over long distances numbered 22. 
They are winter visitors to our land and in- 
cluded ducks like garganey teal and pintail, 
wagtails, rosy pastors, desert wheatears etc. 

What other peculiarities of bird-life could 
be noted during the count? As the breeding 
season was approaching songsters were slowly 
getting into form. Though the redvented bul- 
bul and the magpie robin were not yet in full 
song, calls of iora and golden oriole could 
be heard. The koel was making feeble at- 
tempts to produce its characteristic call; the 
male would burst into his full song towards 
the end of the month. Surprisingly, a hawk- 
cuckoo was vocal in a park even though the 
weather was clear and sunny. 

Pair-formation was still in its initial stages. 
The male magpie robin chased the female 
desultorily and without any fervour. The 
Indian robin had paired already but feed- 
ing of the female by the male could not yet 



51 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



be observed. The rufousbacked shrike utter- 
ed harsh notes from a tree or a telegraph 
cable as if proclaiming territorial rights but 
his mate was nowhere nearby. The purple 
sunbird was not yet in full breeding plumage 
and the male and the female foraged sepa- 
rately. 

Cattle and little egrets and pond herons and 
pheasant-tailed jacanas were also not yet in 
breeding plumage. However, some dabchick 
pairs were busy constructing their floating 
nests near the far end of a reed-bed; while 
one pair of dabchick had already laid and was 
incubating a clutch of two eggs. On a steep 
bank even a small blue kingfisher was seen 
excavating a nest-hole. 

Most of the migrants were still to be found 
in the city. The Indian redstart was still here 
though most would leave by the 10th. Blyth's 
reed and greenish leaf warblers could still be 
heard in the trees and in the morning the bril- 
liant blossom of the silk cotton attracted hor- 
des of chattering rosy pastors who would 
proceed north around 15th March. The blue 
rock thrush still lurked in the eaves of tall 
buildings and on hills and among boulders 
on the river bank. The Indian roller on the 
telegraph pole, the collared bush-chat on a 
bush-top, a bluethroat in a reed-bed and a 
lesser whitethroat skulking in bushes, was 
still a common sight. Some of the yellow wag- 
tails had donned their distinctive dress and 
the greyheaded, the blueheaded and the 
blackheaded could be distinguished. Even 
some of the blackwinged stilts had put on 
their black caps, their restless flocks flying to 
and fro on the river. Most of the other waders 
appeared a shade brighter but still hunted 
singly or in flocks. Gatherings of common 
swallows hawked insects in the sky morning 
and evening though the number of redrumped 
swallows appeared to be surprisingly low. 



Moreover, there was a large influx of ducks, 
presumably returning from the south, in the 
Mula-Mutha Bird Sanctuary and the Pashan 
reservoir. The number of garganey teals had 
shot up from a hundred to over 500. Some 
pintails and redcrested pochards could also 
be seen among them. At this time and at this 
time only, a flock of lesser whistling teals 
visits Pashan reservoir every year. It was 
dutifully there this year also. 

On the outskirts of the city, song of the 
redwinged bushlark and the Indian skylark 
was increasingly evident. On barren patches 
pairs of yellow-wattled lapwing could be seen 
silently creeping away from the observer. Here 
they will lay in the first week of April. Flocks 
of spotted and red munias gathered seeds 
quietly in grassland and along dusty tracks 
and baya flocks zoomed from tree to tree as 
if in search of a suitable nesting place. 

A short-toed eagle, a few blackwinged kites 
and an occasional tawny eagle are usually to 
be seen on the periphery of the city. The 
great army of tawny eagles that at one time 
patronised the garbage dump is now no lon- 
ger there. A large Indian kite, a booted eagle 
and a few marsh harriers were recorded on 
the river and reservoirs, while a kestrel, a 
shikra and a sparrowhawk were encountered 
in better wooded areas. Interestingly, for the 
last three years a pair of redheaded merlins 
have nested on the market-place tower in the 
busiest and most densely populated part of 
the city. 

Such is the glimpse in the life of birds of a 
busy Indian city. For us city-dwellers it was 
an exciting and thrilling experience to count 
birds and record their characteristics. As the 
city continues to grow it will unwittingly affect 
the lives of its birds, until a stage comes when 
its citizens may feel like having a second look 
at the birds living in it. 



52 



BIRD COUNT IN POONA 



List of birds observed during the Bird-count 



Scientific Name English Name 



1 . 


Podiccps ruficollis 


Indian Little Grebe 


2. 


Phalacrocorax niger 


Little Cormorant 


3. 


Ardeola grayii 


Indian Pond Heron 


4. 


Bubulcus ibis 


Cattle Egret 


5. 


Egretta intermedia 


Indian Smaller Egret 


6. 


Egretta garzetta 


Little Egret 


7 " 


Dendrocygna javanica 


Lesser Whistiling Teal 


8. 


Anas querquedula 


Garganey Leal 




Nettapus coromandelianus 


Cotton Teal 


10. 


Anas acuta 


Pintail 


11 . 


Elanus caeruleus 


Blackwinged Kite 


w 


Milvus migrans 


Common Pariah Kite 




Milvus migrans hneatus 


Large Indian Kite 


it 


Bulastur teesa 


White-eyed Buzzard 


■ 


Gyps bengalensis 


White-backed Vulture 


16. 


Neophron percnopterus 


White Scavenger Vulture 


II' 


Circus aeruginosus 


Marsh Harrier 


18. 


Circaetus gallicus 


Short-toed Eagle 


19 


S pilornis cheela 


Crested Serpent Eagle 


20 


Aquila rapax 


Tawny Eagle 




Falco chicquera 


Red-headed Merlin 


22 


Falco tinnunculus 


Kestrel 


23 


Acci pifcr badius 


Shlkia 




Mieradetus pennatus 


Booted Hawk Eagle 


25 


Accipiter nisus 


Sparrow-hawk 


26 


Perdicula argoondah 


P^fV Riieh Oll^iil 

kock Diisn v^udii 


27 


Amaurornis akool 


Brown Crake 




Amauromis phoenicurus 


Whitebrea steel Waterhen 


29 


CJallimila chloropus 


Indian Moorhen 


30. 


Fulica atra 


Coot 


31 . 


Porphyrio porphyria 


Purple Moorhen 


32. 






33. 


Vanellus indicus 


Red-wattled Lapwing 


34. 


Vanellus malabaricus 


Yellow-wattled Lapwing 


35. 


Charadrius dubius 


Little-ringed Plover 


36. 


Tringa totanus 


Redshank 


37. 


Tringa nebularia 


Greenshank 


38. 


Tringa ochropus 


Green Sandpiper 


39. 


Tringa glareola 


Wood Sandpiper 


40. 


Tringa hypoleucos 


Common Sandpiper 


41. 


Cape! la gallinago 


Common Snipe 


42. 


Calidris minutus 


Little Stint 


43. 


Philomachus pugnax 


Ruff & Reeve 


44. 


Himantopus himantopus 


Black-winged Stilt 



53 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 





ci n l c 


ng is ame 


45. 


Rostratula benghalensis 


Painted Snipe 


46. 


Chlidonias hybrida 


Whiskered Tern 


47. 


Gelochelidon nilotica 


Gull-billed Tern 


48. 


Columba livia 


Blue Rock Pigeon 


49. 


Streptopelia chinensis 


Spotted Dove 


50. 


Streptopelia senegalensis 


Little Brown Dove 


51. 


Psittacula krameri 


Roseringed Parakeet 


52. 


Psittacula cyanocephala 


Blossom-headed Parakeet 


53. 


Cuculus varius 


Common Hawk-cuckoo 


54. 


Eudynamys scolopacea 


Koel 


55. 


Centropus sinensis 


Crow-pheasant 


56. 


Athene brama 


Spotted Owlet 


57. 


A pus affinis 


House Swift 


58. 


Halcyon smyrnensis 


White-breasted Kingfisher 


59. 


Alcedo atthis 


Common Kingfisher 


60. 


Ceryle rudis 


Lesser Pied Kingfisher 


61 . 


Merops orientalis 


Small Green Bee-eater 


62. 


Coracias benghalensis 


Indian Roller 


63. 


Upupa epops 


Hoopoe 


64. 


Tockus birostris 


Grey Hornbill 


65. 


Megalaima haemacephala 


Crimson-breasted Barbet 


66. 


Picoides mahrattensis 


Mahratta Woodpecker 


67. 


Eremopterix grisea 


Ashy-crowned Finchlark 


68. 


Ammomanes phoenicurus 


Rufous-tailed Finchlark 


69. 


Galerida malabarica 


Malabar Crested Lark 


70. 


Mirafra erythroptera 


Red-winged Bushlark 


71. 


Alauda gulgula 


Eastern Skylark 


72. 


Hirundo concolor 


Dusky Crag Martin 


73. 


Hirundo rustica 


Eastern Swallow 


74. 


Hirundo daurica 


Red-rumped Swallow 


75. 


Hirundo smithii 


Wire-tailed Swallow 


76. 


Lanius vittatus 


Bay-backed Shrike 


77. 


Lanius schach 


Rufous-backed Shrike 


78. 


Lanius excubitor 


Grey Shrike 


79. 


Oriolus oriolus 


Indian Oriole 


80. 


Dicrurus adsimilis 


Black Drongo 


81. 


Sturnus pagodarum 


Brahminy Myna 


82. 


Sturnus roseus 


Rosy Pastor 


83. 


Acridotheres tristis 


Common Myna 


84. 


Acridotheres fuscus 


Jungle Myna 


85. 


Corvus splendens 


House Crow 


86. 


Corvus macrorhynchos 


Jungle Crow 


87. 


Coracina melanoptera 


Black-headed Cuckoo-shrike 


88. 


Pericrocotus cinnamomeus 


Small Minivet 


89. 


Aeg'thina tiphia 


Common Iora 


90. 


Pycnonotus jocosus 


Red-whiskered Bulbul 


91. 


Pycnonotus cafer 


Red-vented Bulbul 



54 



BIRD COUNT IN POONA 





Scientific Name 


English Name 


92. 


TuTuOldCS WMXlCOitYll 


Large Grey Babbler 


93 


P urdoidcs st fiat us 


Jungle Babbler 


94. 


Chrysontma sinensis 


Yellow-eyed Babbler 


95 . 


iVf ; f sc ica pa parva 


Red-breasted Flycatcher 


96 


R ipidti I'd GU T € ol CI 


White-browed JFantail Flycatchei 


97 . 


Cisticolci juncidis 


Streaked Fantail Warbler 


98 . 


Prin in su bfla va 


Indian Wren Warbler 


99. 


Prinia social is 


Ashy Wren Warbler 




Orthotoffius sutorius 


T o ;| r , r Vtirr) 

i aiior Diru 


101 


A croccphal us sten tore us 


vJlCdl J\tcU WdlUltl 




A croccphalus dutnetoruni 


Jtsiytn s K.eea waroier 


mi 
1 - 


Prin ia h odgson it 


Franklin s Wren Warbler 


1 ' 


PhyJJoscopus trochiloides 


Greenish Leaf W^arbler 




Sylvia curruca 


Lesser Whitethroat 


y 

106. 


Erithacus svecicus 


Blue-throat 


107 


Co psvehus saularis 


Magpie Robin 


108 


Saxwola caprata 


Pied Bushchat 


109 


Saxicola tor an at a 


oione t^nat 


110 


Saxicol oides fulicata 


Indian Robin 


111. 


■ i ^ r ■ 


Desert Wheatear 




At onticola solitavius 


Blue Rock Thrush 


1 1 3 


Phoenieurus oehrurus 


Black Redstart 


1 14 


Pants major 


Grey Tit 


115 


Ant hits sitn il is 


Brown Rock Pipit 


116 


A nth us irivialis 


Tree Pipit 


117. 


Motacilla caspwa 


Grey Wagtail 


1 1 8 


jvTotactlla flava beema 


Blue-headed Yellow Wagtail 


1 1 9 


Jvfotacill a citr cola 


Yellow-headed Wagtail 


120 


Jvfotacilla alba 


White Wagtail 


121 


h/l otacill a niaderaspatensis 


Large Pied Wagtail 


1 22 


Dicaeutn cry throrhy rich os 


Tickell's Flowerpecker 


123 


A' cctarin ia zcylonica 


Purple-nimped Sun bird 


124 




Purple Sunbird 


125. 


Zoster ops palpebrosa 


White-eye 


126. 


Passer domesticus 


House Sparrow 


127. 


Plocet/s ph il ip p in u s 


Weaver Bird 


128. 


Lonchura malabarica 


White-throated Munia 


129. 


Lonchura pundit lata 


Spotted Munia 


130. 


Estrilda amandava 


Red Munia 



Acknowledgements M. Lokhandwala, Prof, and Mrs. Vijay 

Paranjpye, Lokesh Khanna and Mrs. Swati 
I am indebted to the following bird-watchers Gole. Assistance from the Department of 
who took part in this count; Messrs Thomas Geography, University of Poona, is also grate- 
Gay, Ramesh Bidwe, Sai Pattabhiram, S. In- fully acknowledged, 
galhallikar, S. Dharap, Shabbir Lokhandwala, 



55 



MAMMALS FROM NEPAL 1 

David H. Johnson, S. Dillon Ripley, and Kitti Thonglongya 2 
(With a text -figure) 

In 1948-1949, S. Dillon Ripley led a field party to Nepal to collect natural history 
specimens for Yale University and the Smithsonian Institution. One hundred twelve 
specimens of mammals were obtained. Subsequent study showed that thirty-five species 
were represented. New records from Nepal include Tnpaia glis, Vulpes bengalensis 
and Lepus grahami. The latter identification, based on an immature specimen, is in- 
cluded with reservation. 



Introduction 
S. Dillon Ripley 

In 1947 I made my first visit to Nepal at 
the conclusion of a six-month bird collecting 
reconnaissance in the subcontinent of India. 
Prior to that time, my Indian colleague, Dr. 
Salim Ali, and I made an informal pact that 
we would work together to prepare an up- 
to-date listing as well as a handbook on the 
bird fauna of this huge region, a project on 
which we would be occupied for the next 
twenty-seven years. In fact, we are still (in 
1979) engaged in revising my synopsis of the 
birds of the region, published in 1963, and 
now being reprinted. The first two volumes 
of our joint ten-volume handbook (1968- 
1974) are being re-edited and published anew. 

In 1948-1949, I revisited Nepal, encouraged 
by the then Government and financed with a 
major grant-in-aid from the National Geogra- 

1 Accepted April 1979. 

2 David H. Johnson (retired) , and S. Dillon 
Ripley, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, National 
Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, Washington, D.C., 20560; Kitti Thonglongya 
(deceased). 



phic Society, as well as support from Yale 
University (my then employer), and the 
Smithsonian Institution, whose Secretary, Dr. 
Alexander Wetmore, distinguished naturalist of 
his time, was always keen to stimulate natural 
history research. On this lengthy trip, 1 was 
joined by two graduates of the year, room- 
mates at Yale, whom I had come to know as 
a Resident Fellow in theirs and my college, 
Jonathan Edwards. The two young men, 
Richard Mack and Howard Weaver, knocked 
on my door one evening and said that they 
had heard I was off again to Nepal and could 
they come? I responded by saying that I need- 
ed some help in small mammal collecting and 
if they would learn from our Peabody Mu- 
seum assistants, perhaps they could qualify. 

The collection which they subsequently 
made, assisted in part by Edward C. Migdal- 
ski, my principal assistant, who had helped 
me on my trek in the previous season, is 
finally reported on herewith. The research was 
begun in the late 1950's by David H. Johnson, 
formerly of the National Museum of Natural 
History's staff, and continued in the 1960's by 
the late Kitti Thonglongya, a research fellow 
on a visit from Thailand. The publication ful- 
fils a pledge which I made to the then Secre- 



56 



MAMMALS FROM NEPAL 



tary of the National Geographic Society, Mel- 
vin M. Payne, that publications in natural his- 
tory would indeed follow from this expedi- 
tion! I have dedicated much subsequent cor- 
respondence over the years to this end, but 
still have to report failure in having the col- 
lection of fishes published as reported in my 
Research Report to the National Geographic 
Society (1975). 

The collection of thirty-five species and one 
hundred twelve specimens, while not startling 
in its addition to new knowledge of Nepalese 
mammals, seems worthy of putting on record 
to inform future workers of the material that 
is available for study in the National Museum 
of Natural History. 

I am most grateful to my colleagues, 
Messrs Mack and Weaver, for their partici- 
pation, as well as to the societies and institu- 
tions which afforded us the opportunity for 
our field work. It has been a recent great 



pleasure to me and to the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution to pick up the threads of collaboration 
again with the Government of Nepal in con- 
nection with the first scientifically-documented 
study of the life-history of the tiger, Panthera 
tigris, now being undertaken at the Royal 
Chitwan National Park in Nepal by a Nepa- 
lese-American team with support from the 
Smithsonian Institution and the World Wild- 
life Fund. Much of what I wrote earlier (1950 
et seq.) about the deforestation and decline 
of animal life along the broad sweep of the 
Himalayas has come to pass. It is rewarding 
to note, however, that the Royal Government 
of Nepal has seen fit to take positive steps to 
protect certain areas as national parks, and 
to institute research on life-history studies of 
the larger mammals such as rhinoceros, tiger, 
and some species of deer. All of these studies 
promise well for the future economy and pre- 
servation of this unique part of the world. 

as 

3* 



(\\ \ *7- 
I 



t — ~ — r 




Fig. 1. Collecting localities. 



57 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Collecting Localities 

The itinerary of the expedition has been 
outlined by Ripley (1950: 355-359), who also 
gives brief descriptions of some of the collect- 
ing localities. The places at which mammals 
were collected are listed below in the order 
that the first specimens were taken. The lati- 
tude and longitude are from Army Map Ser- 
vice 1 : 250,000 maps of India and Pakistan, 
Series U-502, published in parts from 1958 
to 1963. The inclusive dates on which speci- 
mens of mammals were collected and a list 
of the kinds found at each place are also in- 
cluded. The serial numbers correspond to 
those on the accompanying map (Fig. 1). 

1 . Raxaul-Birganj, adjacent border towns in 
Bihar and Nepal, respectively, 350 feet. 
27° 0' N., 84° 57' E. November 16-18 
and December 7. Suncus caerulaeus, Sco- 
tophilus heathii heathii, Canis aureus in- 
die us. 

2. Chandragiri Pass, central Nepal, 7000- 
7500 feet. 27° 41' K, 85° 10' E. Novem- 
ber 22 and December 6, Dremomys lok- 
riah lokriah. 

3. Godaveri, central Nepal, 6000-7000 feet. 
27° 34' N., 85° 24' E. November 27-28. 
Dremomys lokriah lokriah, Rattus nitidus 
nitidus, Mus nagarum.. 

4. Katmandu, central Nepal, 4271-4500 feet. 
27° 42' N., 85° 20' E. December 2-5. 
Bandicota hengalensis hengalensis, Vul- 
pes hengalensis. 

5. Kauriala Ghat, United Provinces, 400 
feet. 28° 22' N., 81° 02' E. December 
11-12. Lepus ruficaudatus ruficaudatus, 
Tatera indica indica. 

6. Tikapur, western Nepal, 500 feet. 28° 30' 
N., 81° 10' E. December 13 and January 
6-9. Suncus murinus tytleri, Tatera indica 
indica, Rattus rattus gangutrianus, Mus 



booduga hooduga, Mus dunni, Mus cer- 
vicolor cervicolor, Her pest es edwardsii 
nyula. 

7. Chisapani, western Nepal, 950 feet. 28° 
38' N., 81° 17' E. December 16-21. Sun- 
cus murinus tytleri, Cynopterus sphinx 
gangeticus. Presbytis entellus schistaceus, 
Rattus rattus gangutrianus, Mus booduga 
booduga, Mus saxicola gurkha, Canis 
aureus indicus, Lutra perspicillata perspi- 
cillata. 

8. Rekcha, western Nepal, 5000 feet. 28° 
53' N., 81° 10' E. December 27-31. Sun- 
cus murinus tytleri, Rattus rattus gangu- 
trianus, Rattus turkestanicus vicerex, Mus 
cervicolor cervicolor. 

9. Biratnagar, eastern Nepal, 250 feet. 26° 
28' N., 87° 17' E. January 18. Mus boo- 
duga booduga. 

10. Dharan Bazar, eastern Nepal, 1000 feet. 
26° 49' N„ 87° 17' E. January 22. Cal- 
losciurus pygerythrus lokroides, Sus scrofa 
cri status. 

1 1 . Chitre, eastern Nepal, 7500 feet. A hamlet 
not shown on current maps but located 
on the main ridge twelve miles north of 
Dhankuta (q.v.) January 28. Soriculus 
caudatus, Rattus niviventer niviventer, 
Mus musculus homourus. 

12. Dur, eastern Nepal, 8500 feet. A hamlet 
not shown on current maps but located 
on the main ridge eighteen miles north 
of Dhankuta (q.v.). January 29. Rattus 
eha eha. 

13. Mangalbare, eastern Nepal, 8650-8750 
feet. 27° 16' N., 87° 30' E. January 30- 
February 6. Soriculus caudatus, Soriculus 
macrurus, Lepus grahami, Petaurista mag- 
nificus, Rattus rattus brunneusculus, Rat- 
tus eha eha, Mus musculus homourus, 
Martes flavigula flavigula. 

14. Chainpur, eastern Nepal, 4300 feet. 27° 



58 



MAMMALS FROM NEPAL 



17' N., 87° 19' E. February 9. Herpestes 
auropunctatus auropunctatus. 

15. Riphavas, eastern Nepal, 1150 feet. Not 
shown on current maps. On the east bank 
of the Arun Kosi just south of its conflu- 
ence with the Legua river. 27° 9' N., 87° 
16' E. February 11, Mus nagarum. 

16. Dhankuta, eastern Nepal, 4200 feet. 26° 
59' N., 87° 21' E. February 14. Callosciu- 
rus pygerythrus lokroicles. 

17. Chatra, eastern Nepal, 500 feet. 26° 51' 
N., 87° 10' E. February 18-21. Tupaia 
glis lepcha, Callosciurus pygerythrus lok- 
roides, Rattus rattus brunneusculus, Para- 
doxurus hermaphroditus pallasii. 

Order INSECTIVORA 
Family Soricidae 

Soriculus caudatus (Horsfield, 1851) 
Ten specimens: Chitre, 7500 feet, January 

28, 1 (290036); Mangalbare, 8650-8750 feet, 

January 31-February 4, 9 (290037-45). 
We consider Soriculus leucops (Horsfield, 

1855) with very similar characters, to be a 

synonym of S. caudatus. 

Soriculus macrarus Blanford, 1888 
Two specimens: Mangalbare, 8750 feet, 
February 2 and 4 (290034-35). 

The two species of Soriculus reported upon 
here may be separated on the basis of tail 
length and colour. S. caudatus has the tail simi- 
lar to or approaching the head and body in 
length (an index ratio of 80-108 per cent in 
the specimens examined), and in its general 
aspect the dorsal coloration is a warm dark 
brown; whereas, macrurus has the tail consi- 
derably longer than the head and body (an 
index ratio of c. 140 per cent) and the dor- 
sal coloration is a cold gray hue approaching 
Chaetura Drab of Ridgway (1912). 
Ellerman and Morrison-Scott (1951, p. 59) 



recognize the dark caudatus and the very 
similar leucops as separate species and un- 
accountably consider the very pale and dis- 
tinct macrurus to be a synonym of leucops. 

Suncus murinus tytleri (Blyth, 1859) 
Ten specimens: Chisapani, 950 feet, (De- 
cember 16-19, 3 (290047-49); Rekcha, 5000 
feet, December 27-29, 6 (290050-55); Tika- 
pur, 500 feet, January 9, 1 (290056). 

The entire series of brown musk shrews 
from localities at different elevations in west- 
ern Nepal is uniformly pale in colour, show- 
ing affinity with the pallid shrews of the drier 
parts of north-western India rather than with 
the darker coloured races towards the east. 
Apparently they are similar to the eight spe- 
cimens from western Nepal referred to tytleri 
by Lindsay (1929, p. 332). No specimens of 
tytleri are now available to us, but the colour 
"light rufescent sandy-brown" originally as- 
cribed to it by Blyth would seem to indicate 
a population even paler than that in western 
Nepal. 

Suncus caeruSaeus (Kerr, 1792) 
One specimen; Raxaul-Birganj, 350 feet, 
November 18 (290046). 

The external and cranial dimensions of this 
species are less than those of adults of Suncus 
caerulaeus but exceed adults of Suncus muri- 
nus. {caerulams — one female head and body 
length 123; breadth of braincase 13.4, vs. 
murinus — four females average 112.5; 121 mm 
respectively.) Ellerman and Morrison-Scott 
(1951, pp. 65-66) have merged these two spe- 
cies but such an arrangement is untenable 
when specimens are compared. 

Family Tupaiidae 
Tupaia glis lepcha Thomas, 1922 

Two specimens: Chatra, 500 feet, February 
18 and 20 (290063-64). 



59 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



This is apparently the westernmost record 
of the occurrence of tree shrews north of the 
Ganges river, and it definitely establishes the 
presence of the group in Nepal. 

Order CHIROPTERA 
Family Pteropodidae 

Cynopterus sphinx gangeticus Anderson, 1910 : 
Four specimens: Chisapani, 950 feet, De- 
cember 20-21 (290057-60). 

Family Vespertilionidae 

Scotophilia heathii heathii (Horsfield, 1831) 
Two specimens: Raxaul-Birganj, 350 feet, 
November 16-17 (290061-62). No. 290061 is 
a skin only. 

Order PRIMATES 
Family Cercopithecidae 

Presbytis entelius schistaceus (Hodgson, 1840) 
Two specimens: Chisapani, 950 feet, De- 
cember 20, 1 (290065); Chatra, 500 feet, Feb- 
ruary 17, 1 (290066). 

Order LAGOMORPHA 
Family Leporidae 

Lepus ruficaudatus ruficaudatus 

I. Geoffroy, 1826 

One specimen: Kauriala Ghat, U.P., 400 
feet, December 11 (290067, skull only). 

Among the few skulls of hares from the 
Indian region in the National Museum of 
Natural History, the present one best matches 
specimens from Sirsa and Ladak labelled Lepus 
ruficaudatus rajput, differing from them only 
in having smaller auditory bullae. Contradic- 
tory opinions as to the relationship of Lepus 
ruficaudatus to the Oriental hares have been 
expressed by Ellerman and Morrison-Scott 

8 Agarwal (1973) considers gangeticus to be a 
synonym of C. s. sphinx. 



(1951, p. 437) and Petter (1961, pp. 36-38). 
These authors studied different specimens and 
relied on different morphological characters. 
The need for a comprehensive revision is 
evident. 

Lepus graham! subsp? 

One specimen: Mangalbare, 8750 feet, Feb- 
ruary 2 (290068). 

A woolly-coated juvenile hare from Man- 
galbare is too young for positive identification. 
It is hoped that those who have the opportu- 
nity to make new collections in Nepal, or to 
study some of the old material will look for 
adult hares of whatever race the young Man- 
galbare specimen represents. 

Order RODENTIA 
Family Sciurjdae 

Callosciurus pygerythrus lokroides 

(Hodgson, 1836) 

Five specimens: Dharan Bazar, 1000 feet, 
January 22, 1 (290074); Dhankuta, 4200 feet, 
February 14, 2 (290075-76); Chatra, 500 feet, 
February 18-19, 2 (290077-78). 

As arranged by Ellerman (1947, pp. 266- 
267), all the recognizable forms of this group 
of squirrels are currently treated as subspecies 
of a single species, which takes the earliest 
name, pygerythrus. Under this convenient but 
perhaps overly simplified classification, all the 
populations inhabiting the base and lower 
slopes of the Himalayas from northern Assam 
to Nepal are referred to one subspecies, C. p. 
lokroides. For present purposes, we have fol- 
lowed Ellerman's arrangement, but with some 
doubt as to its ultimate stability. 
Drenioinys lokriah lokriah (Hodgson, 1836) 

Five specimens: Chandragiri Pass, 7500 and 
7000 feet, November 22 and December 6, 4 
(290069-71, 290073); Godaveri, 7000 feet, 
November 27, 1 (290072). 



60 



MAMMALS FROM NEPAL 



Petaurista magnificus (Hodgson, 1836) 
One specimen: Mangalbare, 8750 feet, Feb- 
ruary 4 (290079). 

Family Cricetidae 

Tatera ircdica iisdica (Hardwicke, 1807) 
Two specimens: Kauriala Ghat, 400 feet, 
U.P., December 12, 1 (290080); Tikapur, 500 
feet, January 7, 1 (290081). 

Family Muridae 
Bandicota bengalensis bengalensis 
(Gray, 1833) 
One specimen: Katmandu, 4271 feet, De- 
cember 2 (290082). 

Rattus rattus gangutrianus Hinton, 1919 
Eight specimens: Chisapani, 950 feet, De- 
cember 16-19, 3 (290084-86); Rekcha, 5000 
feet, December 17-31, 4 (290087-90). 

An immature animal, sex not recorded on 
the specimen tag but noted in the field-notes 
as a male, from Tikapur, 500 feet, January 9, 
1949 (290091). 

All of the specimens treated in this and the 
following accounts are of the white-bellied 
type which students of Indian house rats have 
generally designated as "outdoor" forms. None 
of the dark-bellied "indoor" rats are repre- 
sented. The subspecies of Rattus rattus are 
notoriously difficult to define, and it is there- 
fore gratifying to find that the present Nepa- 
lese material divides readily into uniform 
western (gangutrianus) and eastern (brun- 
neusculus) series separated by easily recogniz- 
able colour differences. The simplicity of this 
distributional pattern is probably in part an 
illusion, made possible by the smallness and 
wide geographic separation of the series. Both 
Hinton (1918-1919) and Ellerman (1947) 
studied much larger series and found a more 
complex and confused taxonomic situation. 



Rattus rattus brunneusculus (Hodgson, 1845) 
Nine specimens: Mangalbare, 8750 feet, 
January 31 -February 4, 8 (290092-99); Cha- 
tra, 500 feet, February 21, 1 (290100). 

Rattus turkestanicus vicerex (Bonhote, 1903) 
Two specimens: Rekcha, 5000 feet, Decem- 
ber 28-31, 1948, 2 (290102-290103). 

For use of the above name, see Schlitter and 
Thonglongya (1971). 

Rattus nitidus nitidus (Hodgson, 1845) 
One specimen: Godaveri, 6000 feet, Nov- 
ember 28 (290083). 

An adult female, with three pairs of pecto- 
ral and three pairs of inguinal mammae. 

Rattus eha eha (Wroughton, 1916) 
Twelve specimens: Dur, 8500 feet, January 
29, 1 (290109); Mangalbare, 8750 feet, Janu- 
ary 31 -February 3, 11 (290110-20). 

Rattus niviventei- niviventer (Hodgson, 1836) 
Five specimens: Chitre, 7500 feet, January 
28 (290104-08). 

Mus booduga booduga (Gray, 1837) 
Four specimens: Chisapani, 950 feet, De- 
cember 18, 1 (290127, skin only); Tikapur, 
500 feet, January 7, 1 (290130); Biratnagar, 
250 feet, January 18, 2 (290132-33, the first 
a skin only). 

Mus nagarum (Thomas, 1921) 
Four specimens: Godaveri, 6000 feet, Nov- 
ember 28, 1 (290126); Rekcha, 5000 feet, De- 
cember 28-29, 2 (290128-29); Richavas, 1150 
feet, February 11, 1 (290134). 

Mus dunni (Wroughton, 1912) 
One specimen: Tikapur, 500 feet, January 
9, 1 (290131). 

Mus musculus homourus Hodgson, 1845 
Two specimens: Chitre, 7500 feet, January 



61 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



28, 1 (290124). Mangalbare, 8750 feet, Feb- 
ruary 6 (290125). 

Mus saxicoSa gurkha (Thomas, 1914) 
Three specimens: Chisapani, 900 feet, De- 
cember 21 (290121-23). 

Order CARNIVORA 
Family Canidae 

Canis aureus indicus Hodgson, 1833 
Two specimens: Raxaul-Birganj, 350 feet, 
December 7, 1 (290135); Chisapani, 950 feet, 
December 18, 1 (290136). 

Vuipes hengaiensis (Shaw, 1800) 
One specimen: Katmandu, 4500 feet, De- 
cember 5 (290137, skin only). 

This specimen is significant in that it pro- 
vides a first definite locality record for the 
Bengal fox in Nepal and eliminates any doubt 
as to the occurrence of the species in that 
country. As reviewed by Pocock (1936, pp. 
49-53, and 1941, pp. 129-138), the earliest re- 
cords include only two specimens presumed to 
have been collected somewhere in Nepal. One 
from the collection of B. H. Hodgson became 
the type of Vuipes hodgsonii Gray; the other 
was collected by Colonel Cobb (or Cobbe) 
and, according to Pocock, it served as type 
for Canis chrysurus and Vuipes xanthura, both 
proposed by Gray. 

The specimen is a female in fresh winter 
pelage. It matches in almost exact detail the 
description by Pocock (1941, p. 131). The 
external measurements, as recorded by the 
collectors are: Length of head and body 474, 
tail 267, hind foot 105, ear 87. 

Family Mustelidae 

Martes flavigula flavigula (Boddaert, 1784) 
Three specimens: Mangalbare, 8750 feet, 
January 30- February 3 (290138-40). 



Lutra perspicillata perspicillata 

I. Geoffroy, 1826 

One specimen: Chisapani, 950 feet, Decem- 
ber 20 (290145). 

The name perspicillata is applied to this 
large otter for reasons discussed in detail by 
Pocock (1941, pages 292-303). 

Family Viverridae 
Paradoxurus hermaphroditus pallasii 

Gray, 1832 

One specimen: Chatra, 500 feet, February 
21 (290144). 

On geographic grounds, this specimen might 
be considered intermediate between Parado- 
xurus h. pallasii, which has its principal range 
to the eastward in Sikkim, Assam, and Burma, 
and P. h. bondar of Bihar and the Nepal terai 
to the westward. It is here assigned to the race 
pallasii because it closely resembles the des- 
cription given by Pocock (1939, pp. 401-402) 
of other specimens in winter pelage under that 
name. 

Herpestes auropunctatus auropunctatus 

(Hodgson, 1836) 

One specimen: Chainpur, 4300 feet, Feb- 
ruary 9 (290141). 

Herpestes edwardsii nyula (Hodgson, 1836) 
Two specimens: Tikapur, 500 feet, Decem- 
ber 13 and January 6 (290142-43). 

Variations in colour of this species have 
been thoroughly discussed by Pocock (1941, 
pp. 9-12). 

Order ARTIODACTYLA 
Family Suidae 

Sus scrofa crista tus Wagner, 1839 
One specimen: Dharan Bazar, 1000 feet, 
January 22 (290146). 



62 



MAMMALS FROM NEPAL 



References 



Agarwal, V. C. (1973): Second Zoological Sur- 
very of India— 1967: Calcutta. 

Ali, S. & Ripley, S. D. (1968-1974): Handbook 
of the Birds of India and Pakistan together with 
those of Bangladesh, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and 
Sri Lanka. 10 volumes. Oxford University Press, 
Bombay. 

Ellerman, J. R. (1947): A key to the Rodentia 
inhabiting India, Ceylon, and Burma, based on col- 
lections in the British Museum. /. Mammal. 28: 
249-278, 357-387. 

Ellerman, J. R., & Morrison-Scott, T. C. S. 
(1951): Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian Mam- 
mals 1758 to 1946. British Museum (Natural His- 
tory). London, pp. 810, map. 

Hinton, Martin, A. C. (1918-1919) : Scientific 
Research from the Mammals Survey, xviii: Report 
on the House Rats of India, Burma and Ceylon. 
J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc, 26: 59-88, 384-416, 716- 
725, 906-918. 

Lindsay, Helen M. (1929): Scientific Results 
from the Mammal Survey, xlviii: Indian Shrew, 
ibid. 33: 326-340. 

Petter, F. (1961) : Elements d'une revision des 
Lievres europeens et Asiatiques du sous-genre Lepus. 
Zeitschrift fiir Sdugetierkunde. 26 (1): 30-40. 

Pocock, R. I. (1936): The foxes of British 
India. /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 39(1): 36-57. 

(1939): The Fauna of British 

India, Including Ceylon and Burma: Mammalia, 
volume I: Primates and Carnivora (in part), Fami- 
lies Felidae and Viverridae. Taylor and Francis, 
London, pp. 463. 

-(1941): The Fauna of British 

India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia, 
Volume II. Carnivora (continued from Vol. I), sub- 



order Aeluroidea (part) and Arctoidea. Taylor and 
Francis, London, pp. 503. 

Ridgway, R. (1912): Color Standards and Color 
Nomenclature. Privately printed, Washington, pp. 
43, pi. 53. 

Ripley, S. D. (1950): Birds from Nepal, 1947- 
1949. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 49(3): 355-417. 

(1950a): New Birds from Nepal 

and the Indian Region. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 
63: 101-108. 

(1950b): Peerless Nepal— A Natu- 
ralist's Paradise. Nat. Geog. Mag., 97(1): 1-40. 

(1951): Exploration in Nepal. The 

Minnesota Naturalist, 7(4) : 7. 

(1952): Search for the Spiny Bab- 
bler: and adventure in Nepal. Houghton Mifflin, 
Boston, pp. 301 (Republished 1953, London, Victor 
Gollancz Ltd.) 

(1961): A Synopsis of the Birds 

of India and Pakistan together with those of Nepal, 
Sikkim, Bhutan and Ceylon. Bombay Natural His- 
tory Society, Bombay, pp. 703. (new and revised 
edition in press, 1980). 

(1975): Zoological Expedition to 

Nepal, 1948-1949. (Paul H. Oehser, editor). Nat. 
Geog. Soc. Res. Reports, 1890-1954 Projects, pp. 
271-276. 

(1978): A Naturalist's Adventure 

in Nepal. Bibliotheca Himalayica. Ratna Pustak 
Bhandar, Katmandu, pp. 301. (A reprint of Search 
for the Spiny Babbler, 1953). 

Schlitter, D. A. & Thonglongya, K. (1971): 
Rattus turkestanicus (Satunin, 1903), the valid name 
for Rattus rattoides Hodgson, 1845 (Mammalia: 
Rodentia). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 84(20): 
171-174. 



63 



PARENTAL CARE IN THE SALTWATER CROCODILE 
(CROCODYLUS POROSUS SCHNEIDER) AND 
MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS 1 

H. R. Bustard 2 and B. C. Choudhury 3 

Local people, who know these crocodiles' habitat intimately, are aware that porosus 
opens the nest, takes hatchlings into their mouths, and assume this as an act of can- 
nibalism. The possible role of the mother taking threatened young in the water back 
into the mouth is discussed. The female in the water with her brood of approximately 
25 young, close to her head is described. Three instances of human attack, two in 
1978, by nest-guarding female porosus are described, and in all the three instances, 
the attack was not pursued and is considered as purely defensive of the area adjacent 
to the nest. 



Introduction 

Detailed reviews of parental care in croco- 
dilians are given by Cott (1971) and Bustard 
(in press, a) with special reference to the Nile 
Crocodile (C. niloticus) and Indian crocodil- 
ians (Gavialis gangeticus, Crocodylus palustris 
and C. porosus respectively). The present 
paper, therefore, does not attempt to review 
the literature for species other than C. porosus. 
For accounts of parental care in general, the 
reader is referred to the review papers cited 
above. 

Smith (1931) wrote of the female porosus, 
"She is said to remain in the vicinity until 
the young are hatched possibly to assist them 
to the water when they emerge from the shell". 

This has now been confirmed. 

C. porosus is now well-known to protect 

1 Accepted January 1 980. 

2 Central Crocodile Breeding and Management 
Training Institute, Rajendranagar Road, 19-4-319, 
Lake Dale, Hyderabad-500 264 (A.P.). 

3 Research Scholar, Andhra Pradesh Forest De- 
partment, Crocodile Conservation Project, Nehru 
Zoological Park, Hyderabad. 



its mound nest Deraniyagala (1939); Cott 
(1971); Bustard (in press, a); Choudhury and 
Bustard (1979). Nest-guarding is usually 
carried out from specially constructed wallows 
adjacent to the nest (Deraniyagala 1939; 
Loveridge 1946; Choudhury and Bustard 
1979). It is remarkable that Neill (1971) does 
not believe this species constructs wallows for 
nest-guarding, and that Webb et al. (1977) 
could write, 

"It is not known whether C. porosus protects 
the nest against predators or not". 

As pointed out by both Cott and Bustard 
(see, for instance, Cott 1971; Bustard, in press, 
b) behaviour of crocodiles has been much 
altered by massive human hunting activity. 
Nest-guarding females are particularly vulner- 
able (Bustard 1969, in press, b; Choudhury 
and Bustard 1979). This has resulted in 
the destruction of those females which guard 
the nest against humans, so that this trait — 
at least in as far as humans are concerned — 
is not now frequently exhibited. However, 
Bustard and Kar (in press) present recent 
data from Orissa, (see below for other recent 
instances) and there is no reason to believe 



64 



PARENTAL CARE IN CROCODILE 



that nest-gu aiding does not still continue 
against animals other than man. Cott (1971) 
documents several attacks directed against man 
by nest-guarding female C. porosus. It is note- 
worthy, however, that all occurred at least 
three decades ago, prior to the massive hunt- 
ing phase which commenced in the post-war 
years. 

According to our data the female crocodile 
does not remain at the nest throughout the 
incubation period but comes and goes from 
the river (Choudhury and Bustard 1979) 
along a path which may be well worn in the 
presence of grassy vegetation (Bustard unpub. 
obs.). The first quantitative study of nest- 
guarding, by a captive C. porosus, given by 
Bustard and Maharana (in press), demonstra- 
tes that absences from the nest, usually of 
short duration, are common place. 

Pooley (1974) and Pooley and Gans 
(1976) have recorded female C. nilotious col- 
lecting newly hatched young, storing them in 
her gular throat pouch, then taking them to 
the water for liberation. 

Webb et ah (1977) record nest opening by 
the female and state, 

"Most hatchlings remained with the adult, 
grouped in a few square metres for up to and 
possibly more than two months after hatch- 
ing." j ; ; 

C. porosus is, therefore, known to guard the 
nest, presumably to liberate the hatchlings and 
facilitate their reaching the water, and to stay 
with them for an extended period thereafter. 

Materials and methods 

The data presented here are based on dis- 
cussions with people who have had a lifetime's 
experience with C. porosus when it was still 
abundant and had little contact with hunters. 
Such data cannot be obtained today. It is also 
based on personal observations where stated. 



Results 

Discussions with Australian aborigines: 

One of us (H.R.B.) worked closely with 
Australian aborigines, particularly in North 
Queensland, but also in the Northern Territory 
and in Western Australia, in the late 1960's 
and early 1970's. On several occasions he was 
told quite adamantly by tribal aborigines, 
whose very survival depends on their acute 
powers of observation, that they had personal- 
ly observed C. porosus taking the young into 
their mouth (they said "gobbling up the 
young"'). This behaviour was cited as evidence 
of cannibalism. The informants were tribal 
elders, who had spent a lifetime observing 
nature. 

At the time, while I doubted that a parent 
would eat its own young — as was inferred by 
an adult with a brood of young taking them 
into its mouth — I was unable to explain what 
they had obviously seen. It was not until A.C. 
Pooley told me that the mother C. niloticus 
collects the young in the gular throat pouch to 
take them to the water from the nest follow- 
ing hatching, that I realised what the abori- 
gines had witnessed. They had witnessed 
females at the time of hatching, collecting the 
young as described by Pooley (1974), and 
Pooley and Gans (1976), and mistakenly de- 
duced that the adult crocodile, presumbaly the 
mother, was in the act of eating her young. 

I have also heard from the same informants 
that the adult crocodile may take the recent 
hatchlings into her mouth when they are in 
the water, that is some time after hatching. 
Again they assume that this is an act of can- 
nibalism. Could it be that, suddenly suprised, 
the female gathers up a number of her brood 
to take them to safety? This suggestion may 
not be as far fetched as it sounds as is out- 
lined below. 

65 



5 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Discussion with an Oriyan crocodile hunter: 
One of us (H.R.B.) talked to an old man, 
a former crocodile hunter, employed by the 
former Raja of Kanika in Bhitar Kanika the 
famous crocodile habitat in the Brahmini- 
Baitarani deltaic area of the Eastern Indian 
State of Orissa. His task was to keep a watch 
on people who purchased the right to shoot 
crocodiles from the Raja, in order to ensure 
they kept to the stipulated conditions. This 
informant gave me an eye-witness account of 
an event which happened over thirty years ago. 
He remembered it clearly, being interested in 
crocodiles, as it was the only time he ever 
observed this, 

"I came upon a large crocodile one day when 
I was out in my dinghy and I noticed that 
there were a number of babies around its 
head. I paddled closer to have a good look. 
Before I could get very close the adult cro- 
codile took the babies into its mouth and 
swam away." 

If this account is to be believed — and there 
is no reason to doubt it, as the old man is 
only reporting what he saw with his own eyes 
— then it is a clear account of a female re- 
moving hatchlings, presumably recently hatch- 
ed, from the scene of presumed danger, by 
taking them back into the gular throat pouch. 
Discussions with a crocodile hunter in the 
Andaman Islands: 

While carrying out field work relating to 
nest location and nesting ecology on North 
Andaman Island in 1978, one of us (B.C.C.) 
employed as guides, persons with at least seve- 
ral years experience in crocodile hunting. One 
of these guides had migrated to India from 
what is now Bangladesh in the late 1940's. 
He operated as professional saltwater croco- 
dile hunter first in Sunderbans (West Bengal), 
then in the Bhitar Kanika area of Orissa and 
later with the East Bengal refugee settlement 



he went to the Andamans where he continued 
crocodile hunting. This informant, aged about 
50 years, has an intimate knowledge of salt- 
water crocodiles having observed them in all 
three of their surviving Indian habitats. In a 
discussion of the ease with which nest-guard- 
ing females can be killed, he confirmed that 
he had been charged at by many nest-guard- 
ing female saltwater crocodiles. 

This informant has also observed nest hat- 
ching in nature. He informed that the mother 
supervises the whole operation of opening the 
nest and allowing the hatchlings to emerge 
from the egg this fits in perfectly with 
Pooley's (1974) observations and those of 
other recent authors (see Bustard, in press a 
and b) for other species and then eats them 
up, one after the other. It would appear that 
this informant has observed the female col- 
lecting the young to take them to the water as 
described by Pooley (1974). He further stated 
that only those hatchlings which come out 
from the side of the nest mound away from 
the parent crocodile survive, and he believes 
that this is one reason why so few young cro- 
codiles are seen. 

Observation of C. porosus with young 
in Andamans: 

On 13 July 1978, while searching for nests 
along one of the (unnamed) creeks on the 
West coast of North Andaman, one of us 
(B.C.C.) saw a 2.7 m crocodile, presumably 
a female, with its brood of approximately 25 
hatchlings. The head region of the creeks in 
this area show an alternation of small rapids 
and deep pools, the latter particularly on sharp 
bends. The group was located in such a deep 
pool below a rapid. These pools always have 
overhanging vegetation on the deep water side. 

The young, with the parent crocodile, were 
observed at about 4.30 p.m. on a very cloudy, 
drizzling day with poor visibility. The head of 



66 



PARENTAL CARE IN CROCODILE 



the mother crocodile and the hatchling group 
could be discerned but conditions did not per- 
mit photography. All the hatchlings were 
within a distance of 10 m. One of the guides 
who had gone ahead to the other bank in the 
meanwhile came into view, and being disturb- 
ed, the mother sub-merged first, followed im- 
mediately thereafter by the hatchlings. Most 
of the hatchlings were very close to the 
mother's head rather than to the tail. 
Active defence of the nest against man: 
Case History 1 

During the 1978 nesting season in North 
Andaman, a case of human attack by a nest- 
guarding female was recorded. On 22nd June 
1978 while searching for nests, in the Laxmi- 
pur nullah, a tributary of the Kaipang River 
on the East coast of North Andaman, a cro- 
codile was observed by one of us (B.C.C.) 
in the stream. A robbed crocodile nest was 
located very nearby. Two old ladies were fish- 
ing with rods on the bank of this stream. Be- 
fore leaving the place the old ladies were 
warned about the presence of a nest-guarding 
crocodile in the water nearby. 

One of the old ladies, aged about 45-50 
years, had been attacked by a nest-guarding 
female crocodile, possibly the same one, at the 
same spot during 1976, yet seemed not to heed 
the warning. The crocodile had bitten her on 
the buttocks and a portion of the flesh of this 
region was subsequently removed when she 
was hospitalised. At the time of attack she 
was standing in water of approximately three 
feet depth in the bed of the river, at low tide, 
fishing with a cloth scoop. 

Four days later, on 26 June 1978 returning 
to that area it was learned that the same lady 
had been attacked by the crocodile again that 
morning. On enquiry it was learned that dur- 
ing the low tide, the ladies were again using 
scoop nets in the stream and while doing so 



one of them was attacked by the crocodile. 
She was rescued by the other lady but one 
of her hands was subsequently amputated in 
hospital, the crocodile having grabbed her by 
the left wrist. 

The nearby nest being located on hard 
ground, did not have a wallow, and presum- 
ably the mother crocodile was using the ad- 
jacent portion of the stream for nest-guarding 
purposes. 
Case History 2 

During the 1978 nesting season a second 
case of human attack by a nest-guarding 
female was recorded in North Andaman, in 
a creek near Kishorinagar village on the West 
coast. A boy, aged about 12 years, was attack- 
ed by a crocodile while taking his bath, along 
with a group of boys. The attack was not 
severe, consisting only of a small injury at the 
shoulder region. 

Some days later the female was killed by 
the villagers by the nest which was also rob- 
bed. The female measured 2.6 m. The nest- 
site, checked later, had only one wallow but 
the permanent water in the stream was hardly 
5 m away. Clearly, as in the instance cited 
above, the female was watching the nest part 
of the time from the stream. 

Discussion 

In the cases of human attack recorded above 
by nest-guarding females, it is noteworthy that 
only minor damage was sustained. This is 
thought to reflect not the assistance of another 
old lady on two of the occasions or other boys 
on the third occasion, but the fact that these 
attacks were purely defensive — by the nest- 
guarding female against a person or persons 
coming too close to the nest. Food is abund- 
ant and few attacks on humans are recorded 
in the Andamans. It is likely that further in- 



67 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



vestigation of the latter would indicate that 
many/most of them were occasioned by nest- 
guarding females. These data are in agree- 
ment with the discussion which one of us 
(H.R.B.) held with A. C. Pooley in 1973 in 
which Pooley informed that most attacks on 
humans by C. niloticus investigated by him 
could be attributed to nest-guarding females. 

The present eye-witness accounts confirm 
the actual opening of the nests by the adult 
crocodile, implicitly inferred to take place by 
Webb et al. (1977) but not actually observed 
for this species but observed in other croco- 
diles, (Pooley 1974). These data also provide 
further evidence of the mother remaining with 
the hatchling brood, also described by Webb 
et al. 

The accounts of the tribal aborigines and 
that of the Oriyan crocodile hunter also sug- 
gest that in the wild the adult crocodile may 
take the recent hatchlings back into the gular 
throat pouch if danger threatens. 

It is not suggested that parental care is able 
to protect all the hatchlings effectively. In the 
murky water inhabited by C. porosus an aqua- 
tic predator can approach undetected and pre- 
dation takes only a fraction of a second. Fur- 
thermore, the large number of hatchlings 
makes any attempt at individual attention — as 
could be possible, were there one or at the 
most two hatchlings— impossible. At least 
some recent hatchlings occur scattered in 
nature (Bustard, unpubl. obs., S. Kar pers. 
comm.) and these have clearly left the hatchl- 
ing group as noted by Webb et al. (1977), 
who also present preliminary post-hatching 
movement data. 

Data available, however, shed no light on the 
percentage survival of young which remain 
with the parental group as compared to those 
which leave it. Quantitative data on this as- 
pect of parental care are required before any 



concrete assessment of the advantages of post- 
hatching parental care can be made. At the 
present time it can be merely assumed that 
factors which tend to keep the hatching group 
together, and closely associated with the head 
of the mother, have enhanced survival value. 

In management of this species it is standard 
practice in the Government of India Project, 
on the technical advice of the senior author, 
to collect all eggs of C. porosus, as soon as 
laid for safe hatchery incubation. All hatchl- 
ings are also captive reared to a length of 
1.20 m before being 'seeded out' into the wild 
habitat. There can be no question that this 
technique enhances survival many-fold under 
conditions where a substantial level of flooded 
nests occur — over which the female has no 
control (the situation in much of Northern 
Australia), or where human interference with 
the nest (egg-robbing) is widespread as in 
parts of India. For instance Webb et al. 
(1977) record an 80% nest loss through 
flooding alone, and Choudhury and Bustard 
(1979), a 93.4% nest loss through preda- 
tion (73.3% due to human agency) with only 
3.3% of nests in nature hatching in 1978. 

It would be difficult to imagine a natural 
situation where hatching survival would not 
be enhanced by collection of freshly-laid eggs, 
provided, of course, that proper methods of 
egg handling are used by trained operatives, 
and a predator-proof hatchery, offering the 
required micro -environmental parameters of 
temperature and humidity, available for in- 
cubation. Furthermore, hazards such as killing 
of the nest-guarding female, whose eggs are 
then extremely vulnerable and the enhanced 
predation risk when the female is absent from 
the nest (Bustard 1975) are further factors 
favouring egg collection for hatchling incuba- 
tion. 

Similarly, a restocking station fed with 



68 



PARENTAL CARE IN CROCODILE 



freshly hatched young should be able to in- 
crease the production of 1.20 m crocodiles to 
many times the number surviving at this size/ 
age in nature. Although predation is an extre- 

R E F E 

Bustard, H. R. (1969): A future for crocodiles. 
Oryx 10(4): 249-255. 

(1975): Gharial and Crocodile 

Conservation Management in Orissa. Interim Re- 
port. Crocodile Farming Project, India. UNDP/ 
FAO, FO:IND/71/033. Rome, 1975. 

(in press, a) : Parental Care in 

Crocodilians with special reference to Indian Cro- 
codilians — a review. In Indian Crocodiles: Conser- 
vation and Research. Occ. Pubis. No. 1. Cen. Croc. 
Br. Mgmt. Trg. Inst., Hyderabad, India. 

(in press, b) : Crocodile Population 

Ecology and Management. Zoo!. Surv. Ind. Symp. 
on Anim. Ecol. 

— — & Maharana, S. (in press) : The 

Behaviour of the Nest-guarding Saltwater Crocodile 
(Crocodylus porosus, Schneider) — a preliminary 
quantitative study. In Indian Crocodiles: Conserva- 
tion and Research. Occ. Pubis. No. 1. Cen. Croc. 
Br. Mgmt. Trg. Inst., Hyderabad, India. 

& Kar, S. K. (in press) : Defence 

of the nest against man by the saltwater crocodile 
(Crocodylus porosus Schneider) Brit. J. Herpetol. 

Choudhury, B. C. & Bustard, H. R. (1979) : 
Predation on natural nests of the Saltwater Croco- 
dile (Crocodylus porosus, Schneider) on North 



mely difficult thing to observe in nature there 
are many hatching predators recorded (see, 
Cott 1971) and many other potential preda- 
tors. 

EN CES 

Andaman Island with Notes on the crocodile popu- 
lation. /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 76(2): 311-323. 

Cott, H. B. (1971): Parental care in the Croco- 
dilia with special reference to Crocodylus niloticus. 
In Crocodiles. I. I.U.C.N. Pubis. N.S. Suppl. Pap. 
No. 32: 166-180. 

Deraniyagala, P. E. P. (1939): The Tetrapod 
Reptiles of Ceylon. 1. Testudinates and Crocodilians. 
Colombo Museum, Ceylon. 

Loveridge, A. (1946): Reptiles of the Pacific 
World. Macmillan, New York. 

Neill, W. T. (1971): The Last of the Ruling 
Reptiles. Alligators, Crocodiles and their Kin. Co- 
lumbia University Press, New York. 

Pooley, A. C. (1974): Parental Care in the Nile 
Crocodile — a preliminary report on behaviour of a 
captive female. The Lammergeyer 21 : 43-45. 

& Gans, Carl (1976): The Nile 

Crocodile. Scientific American 234(4): 114-124. 

Smith, M. A. (1931): The Fauna of British 
India. Reptilia and Amphibia. 1. Taylor and Fran- 
cis, London. 

Webb, G. J. W., Messel, H. & Magnusson, W. 
(1977) : The Nesting of Crocodylus porosus in 
Arnhem Land, Northern Australia. Copeia, 1977(2) : 
238-50. 



69 



EGGS AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF TOR 
MAHSEER FISH 1 



C. V. KULKARNI 2 

(With four text-figures) 

Tor tor (Ham.), normally occurring in the rivers of northern India has been intro- 
duced into the Walwhan lake near Lonavala (Dist. Pune, Maharashtra). It was bred 
artificially by stripping for the first time and its eggs and larval stages are described 
and compared with those of T. khudree (Sykes). 



Mahseers being the most important group 
of sport fishes of India and having been 
threatened with severe decline in their fishery, 
the National Commission on Agriculture 
(Fisheries Section) felt that the biological in- 
formation available to date was not sufficient 
and recommended (1976) "extensive survey 
and detailed ecological and biological investi- 
gations". Sporadic efforts to study larval de- 
velopment had commenced with Nazir Ahmed 
(1948) in the case of the Assamese Copper 
Mahseer, Barbus (Lissocheilus) hexagonolepis 
(McClelland) (now Acrossocheilus hexagono- 
lepis). David (1953) described the early fry of 
Tor mosal mahanadicus collected from Maha- 
nadi river and Desai (1972 and 1973) studied 
the biology and early post larval stages of 
Tor tor (Ham.) and T. putitora (Ham.) col- 
lected from Narmada river and Chaturvedi 
(1976) investigated the spawning biology of 
Tor Mahseer of the Udaipur lakes and streams. 
Kulkarni (1971) and Tripathi (1978) dealt 
with artificial fertilisation of eggs, embryonic 
development and larval stages of T. khudree 
(Sykes) and T. putitora (Ham.) respectively. 
However, fully matured eggs, their develop- 
ment and early hatchlings or larval stages of 
T. tor (with known parentage) have not so 

1 Accepted June 1979. 

2 B-4, Shardashram, Bhavani Shankar Road, 
Bombay-400 028. 



far been described by anybody. The present 
write-up is intended to fill this lacuna with 
the help of description of eggs and early deve- 
lopmental stages of T. tor grown in one of 
the Hydel lakes of the Tata Electric Com- 
panies at Lonavala, District Pune. 

T. tor (Ham.) has not, so far, been report- 
ed from any waters south of Tapi river 
(Tapti); but the fish being largely a herbi- 
vorous form (Karamchandani et al. 1967) 
and being good as a sport fish, its fingerlings 
were brought from River Narmada near Hos- 
hangabad (Madhya Pradesh) in November 
1973 and released into Walwhan lake at Lona- 
vala, where they thrived and attained a total 
length of 540 mm (Standard length 445 mm) 
and weight of 1.75 kg by July 1978. They were 
marked by comparatively slim body form, 
short head and distinctly orange-yellow caudal 
and other fins, as against the blue coloured 
caudal, slate coloured other fins and deeper 
body of T. khudree. Efforts were, thereafter, 
made to breed, T. tor by the artificial method 
of stripping, as was done regularly in the case 
of T. khudree at that lake. On August 23, 
1978 a ripe female of almost the same afore- 
said length was caught and stripped. It yield- 
ed a first batch of 6000 eggs, which were cross- 
fertilised with milt from a specimen of T. 
khudree. The second effort, after half an hour, 
yielded only 400 ripe eggs and these were fer- 
tilised with milt T. tor which was reared in a 



70 



DEVELOPMENT OF TOR MAHSEER 



pond in the adjoining farm. Both eggs thrived 
satisfactorily. Dissection of the female yielded 
another cluster of 10,800 unripe eggs. 

Collection of 17,200 eggs from a female 
of 540 mm only partially corroborates the 
estimate of fecundity made by Desai (op. cit) 
namely 7000 to 1,01,600 eggs from females of 
size range of 283 to 750 mm in three bursts 
of spawning. Chaturvedi (1976) estimated 
fecundity of 78, 340 ova for a fish of 546 mm 
total length. But in the present case, the first 
batch of 6400 ripe eggs was laid during strip- 
ping and the remaining ones which were un- 
ripe, were probably intended for the next 
spawning bursts as presumed by that author. 
Moreover, in this case possibility of extrusion 
and loss of some ripe and oozing eggs at the 
time of entanglement in the nets before the 
fish was handled, cannot be ruled out. Further, 
the size of the fish is outside the size range 
of 340-380 mm for first maturity; but whether 
it was second or third spawning, could not be 
ascertained. 

Eggs. The diameter of the eggs immediate- 
ly on stripping was 2.3 mm and they absorb- 
ed comparatively very little water like that 
of the eggs of T. khudree; neverthless on fer- 
tilisation and absorption of water, they reach- 
ed a diameter was 2.8 mm. The colour of the 
eggs was pale lemon-yellow, and resembled 
the light coloured egg variety of T. khudree 
(Kulkarni 1971). Possibility of brown or 
deeper coloured variety of eggs could not, 
however, be ascertained as eggs of only one 
female were available. The eggs were heavy, 
demersal and full of yolk and resembled the 
eggs of T. khudree in all respects except a 
small difference in diameter, those of the latter 
being slightly larger (3.2 mm); Desai (op. 
cit.) mentioned size of ovarian eggs of T. tor 
as varying from 1.0 to 2.22 mm and 'orange 
coloured'. The variation in size and colour 



may be due to the fact that they were 'ova- 
rian', i.e. yet to pass through the final stage of 
maturation necessary for proper fertilisation. 
The perivitel line space in the fertilised eggs 
is slightly narrower than in T. khudree and is 
much smaller than found in the case of Catla, 
Rohu or Mrigal. Other particulars of the em- 
bryonic development of the larva within the 
egg capsule are almost of the same nature as 
that of T. khudree (vide Kulkarni op. cit.) 
About two hours before hatching out, the 
tubular heart of the embryo was seen pulsat- 
ing rhythmically; the blood capsules were also 
seen in the vessels but they appeared almost 
colourless. Auditory sacs with otoliths and 
fully developed eyes were visible but the latter 
were without much pigment except minute 
melanic dots on the peripheral ring. Pectoral 
fin buds were also discernible. The first egg 
hatched after 76 hours but the remaining eggs 
started hatching out after 79 to 85 hours; a 
few lagging behind even up to next day. Leav- 
ing aside the extremes, the average hatching 
period can be said to be 82 hours in water 
temperature of about 24° C. 

Newly hatched larva. The earliest hatchl- 
ing or the newly hatched larva is 9 mm in 
total length, with a long prominent yolk sac, 
a protruding head and a thin inconspicuous 
tail. The eyes have a clear outline but the 
pigment is not very dark. Rudiments of mouth 
can be seen, though the jaws are not clear. 
The pulsating heart is still visible through the 
transparent overlapping tissues but the blood 
corpuscles are only faintly reddish. Some of 
the blood vessels can be traced even posterior 
to the yolk sac, right up to the caudal portion. 
The yolk sac being large and yellow in colour 
is quite distinctive and measures 5.7 mm in 
length. It is bilobed, the anterior one being 
more rounded than the posterior one which 
is rather narrow in width and elongated as 



71 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 




1.0 mm 

Fig. 1. First day hatching of 7". tor (Ham.) 



seen in Fig. 1; but both lobes are almost equal 
in length. The dorsal finfold starts slightly 
anterior to the midpoint of the total length, 
and continues over the caudal end and ter- 



quiescent and lying on its side at the bottom 
of the hatching tray. It exhibited jerky move- 
ments intermittently and vibrated its tail when 
slightly disturbed. 




1,0 mm 

Fig. 2. Two day old hatching of T. tor (Ham.) 



minates near the posterior end of the yolk sac 
at the expected position of the anal opening. 
The pectoral fin is small and seen fluttering 
but no finrays are discernible in it. 

The larva, though smaller than that of T. 
khudree appears to be more developed than 
the latter. The myotomes and some blood ves- 
sels are clearly seen. The larva, however, 
manifests the same behaviour of remaining 



Two day haichling: Total length attained 
10 mm (Fig. 2). Although the increase in 
length was nominal, the larva looked much 
fatter and stouter and continued to remain 
quiescent, lying on sides and moving vigorous- 
ly at intervals. The eyes have now become 
distinctly black with a golden ring when seen 
in reflected light. Large chromatophores are 
seen on the anterior portion of the otocyst, 



72 



DEVELOPMENT OF TOR MAHSEER 



yolk sac and at the base of the pectoral fin. 
A row of elongated pigment specks are lined 
between the dorsal portion of the body and 
the yolk sac. These probably mark the posi- 
tion of the future lateral line scales and are 
continued in the caudal region. Indented or 
broken outline of the upper internal margin 




fin lobe has no fin rays. About 25 body myo- 
tomes and 15 post-anal myotomes were clear- 
ly visible in the reflected light when tissues 
were alive. 

Three day old hatchling. After three days, 
i.e. on the fourth day, the larva (Fig. 3) at- 
tained a length of only 11.5 mm. The chro- 





Fig. 3. 



1.0 mm 

Three day old hatching of T. tor (Ham.) 



of the yolk sac which is visible provides a 
clear indication of the yolk being absorbed 
within the body. In the mouth area, the lower 
jaws are developed and are seen twitching at 
intervals. Gill covers are also seen moving 
slowly. Anal opening and the anal tube are 
perceptible. The dorsal fin fold shows a small 
upward growth indicating the position of the 
dorsal fin but no trace of fin rays either in 
this fin or the caudal lobe could be seen. A 
small vertical fin fold on the posterior part of 
the yolk sac also develops. Even the anal 



matophores at this stage increased all over 
the body and the head. They are smaller in 
size but larger in numbers. No finrays are yet 
discernible in any of the fin lobes. The yolk 
sac is yet quite prominent but it has changed 
its outer form by becoming a single continu- 
ous sac pointed posteriorly. The finlobe in the 
pelvic area, i.e. on the posterior part of the 
yolk sac is reduced in size. The larva which 
recting its position and trying to swim in nor- 
mal erect position of a fish but it has still 




1.0 mm 

Fig. 4. Ten day old fry of T. tor (Ham.) 



73 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



not reached free swimming stage. 

Ten day old hatchling. On Lhe eleventh 
day, the hatchling has emerged into a tiny 
fry of about 12.5 mm in total length (fig. 4). 
The yolk sac has been completely absorbed. 
Though the length has not increased appre- 
ciably during the last five days the develop- 
ment of the external structures has proceeded 
quite visibly. The body has thickened and the 
chromatophores have multiplied many fold. 
They are small on the head, gill cover and 
the dorsal side of the body all along the length, 
but large multiradiate chromatophores are seen 
on the anterior part of the body and below 
the lateral line. In the caudal region there is 
a large dark blotch at the base of the caudal 
fin. 

The dorsal fin is clearly demarcated out of 
the dorsal or the median fin fold, the latter 
having been completely absorbed up to the 
caudal lobe where a small vestige remains. In 
that fin, five rays are seen and the rest are in 
developing stages. The caudal fin is also de- 
marcated clearly, its terminal end which was 
rounded in the earlier stage has commenced 
becoming slightly bifid. Thin fin rays have 
appeared in the central portion but the growth 
in the outer fin rays (lower and upper lobes) 
appears to be affected. The anal fin is also 
marked out with its fin rays developing. A 
portion of the fin fold anterior to the anal 
opening is still persisting and in that region 
a pair of pelvic fins are making their appear- 
ance. The fry at this stage started feeding 
vigorously on small nauplii of Artemia and 
on small sifted Moina and started moving quite 
actively in the glass tank. However the growth 
during the last three days appeared to be re- 
tarded on account of probable attack of fungus 
and hence was irregular in some specimens. 

Desai (1973) described early stages of T. 
tor out of the collection of post-larvae he 



made from the open shallow margins of River 
Narmada. His smallest stage in the collection 
which he describes as post-larva of T. tor 
measures 8.74 mm whereas the youngest 
hatchling obtained by me by artificially fertilis- 
ing the eggs, i.e. where the parentage 
is known, is 9 mm. The small difference 
in the total length is negligible and normal 
but the growth of certain external structures 
at that length in the case of Desai's early 
stage, such as demarcation of dorsal fin, the 
tail becoming forked, yolk sac becoming taper- 
ing single lobed and appearance of rudiment- 
ary caudal fin rays are not understandable and 
are not found in the description given here of 
a 9 mm larva. Development of these structures 
indicate that his early stage may be a three 
day old larva, though such larva is 11.5 mm 
long according to the present observations. 
As regards myotomes, the number is common 
in both cases, namely about 40 in each. But 
his 10.7 mm fry is much more advanced than 
the 11.5 mm post-larva described here, these 
differences are hard to explain except the fact 
that in wild waters where natural stress and 
competition is high the size of young larvae 
is smaller than in protected waters. 

Fifteen day old fry. After 15 days, the fry 
was 13.5 mm in length; though it had not 
progressed noticeably in length, it continued 
to fatten and looked stouter than before. 
Even the caudal portion which was thin pre- 
viously had become thick and prominent with 
a caudal blotch on it. The chromatophores 
have become small and thinned out with the 
result that the fry looked translucent with the 
development of thin scales. It is olive-white 
in reflected light. The dorsal fin has eight fin 
rays, and seven on pelvic fin. The pectoral 
fin rays have also been developing but only 
12 could be counted. The air bladder is seen 
developing. The vertical fin fold is completely 



74 



DEVELOPMENT OF TOR MAHSEER 



absorbed except at a small portion anterior 
to the anal opening. 

This stage can be compared favourably with 
that of the 12.5 mm stage of Desai (op. cit.) 
except that caudal blotch is wider and more 
prominent in the present observation. 

ACK NOWLEDGEMENTS 

I am indebted to Tata Electric Companies 
for affording the necessary facilities for the 



conduct of the studies covered in this paper, 
at their Walwhan lake fish farm at Lona- 
vla. I am also grateful to Konkan Krishi 
Vidyapeeth for the laboratory facilities at the 
Taraporewala Marine Biological Research 
Station and especially to Dr. Dileep Jalihal 
for preparation of drawings and to Shri S. N. 
Ogale of Tata Electric Companies for general 
assistance. 



References 



Anonymous (1976): National Commission on 
Agriculture (Fisheries). 

Ahmed, Nazir (1948) : On the spawning habits 
and early development of the Copper mahscer, 
Barbus (Lissocheilus) hexagonolepis Mclld. Proc. 
Nat. Inst. Sci. India 14: 21-28. 

Chaturvedi, S. K. (1976): Spawning biology of 
Tor mahseer, Tor tor (Ham.), J. Bombay nat. Hist. 
Soc. 73(1): 336-344. 

David, A. (1953) : Notes on the bionomics and 
some early stages of the Mahanadi mahseer. Jour. 
Asia. Soc. Calcutta 19: 197-209. 

Desai, V. R. (1970): Studies on the fishery and 
biology of Tor tor (Ham.) from river Narmada. I. 
food and feeding habits; J. Inld. Fish. Soc. India 
2: 101-102. 



— (1973): , II Maturity, fecun- 
dity and larval development; Proc. Ind. Nat. Sci. 
Acad. 39: 228-248. 

(1972): Notes on the early larval 

stages of Tor putitora (Ham.) /. Zool. Soc. India. 
24 (1): 47-51. 

Karamchandani S. J., Desai, V. R. & Pisolkar, 
M. D. (1967): Biological investigation on the fish 
and fisheries of the Narmada river. Bull. Inld. Fish. 
Res. Inst. 19: 1-39. 

Kuikarni, C. V. (1971): Spawning habits, eggs 
and early development of the Deccan Mahseer, 
Tor khudree (Sykes). /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 
67: 510-521. 

Tripathi, Y. R. (1978): Artificial breeding of 
Tor putitora (Ham.). J. Inld. Fish. Soc. Ind. 9: 
161. 



75 



FAMILY CYPERACEAE IN KOLHAPUR AND 
ITS ENVIRONS 1 



A. R. Kulkarni, S. R. Yadav 2 and J. S. Pawar 3 



This note is a continuation of our earlier 
communications on the flora of Kolhapur and 
its environs (Kulkarni & Mudgal 1970; Kul- 
karni 1971, 1974; Kulkarni & Desai 1972, 
1974; Kulkarni & Kazi 1973; Thite & 
Kulkarni 1976 and Kulkarni & Thite 
1979) and deals with family Cyperaceae which 
is represented by eight genera and 52 species 
according to a conservative estimate. The 
genera have been arranged in the order fol- 
lowed by Cooke (1908) and species within 
each genus are arranged alphabetically. Dia- 
gnostic characters of the species have been 
given only in those cases where their existence 
within Maharashtra has been regarded as 
doubtful or where there is confusion in the 
literature about their circumscription. 

Kyllinga Rottb., Pycreus Beauv., and Jun- 
cellus Clarke are treated as subgenera of 
genus Cyperus Linn. The genus Cyperus com- 
prises 24 out of 52 species reported here. The 
genus Fimbristylis Vahl is represented by 14 
species and Rhynchospora Vahl, Scleria Berg, 
and Carex Linn, by one species each. 

Identification of all the species included in 
this account has been confirmed by referring 
to the herbarium of Western Circle, BSI, 
Poona and Blatter herbarium of St. Xavier's 
College, Bombay. Recent changes in the 
nomenclature of identified taxa have been 
followed. 

1 Accepted November 1979. 

2 Department of Biological Sciences, Ramnarain 
Ruia College, Bombay 400 019. 

3 Biology Department, Balasaheb Desai College, 
Patau, Maharashtra. 



A set of specimens, on which the present 
account is based, is deposited in the Depart- 
ment of Biological Sciences, Ramnarain Ruia 
College, Bombay. 

Genus Cyperus Linn. 

Sub-genus Kyllinga 

Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk. 
(Kyllinga brevi folia Rottb.) 
In clayey soil along temporary water cour- 
ses; University campus, Kolhapur; on the 
way to Wadanige near Kolhapur; Panhala; 
June-August. 

C. kyllinga End!. (K. monocephala Rottb.) 
Common in grasslands of Katyayani, Pan- 
hala, Malvan, Savantwadi, Amboli; June- 
November. 

C. metgii Hochst. (K. squamulaia Vahl) 
Along lake margin of Kagal near Kolhapur; 

August-October. 

C. triceps (Rottb.) Endl. (K. triceps 
Rottb.) 

Fairly common in grasslands of Kolhapur, 
Kagal, Panhala; June-August. 
Sub-genus Pycreus 

C. albomarginatus Mart, and Schrad. ex 

Nees 

(Pycreus albomarginatus Nees). Along 
temporary ponds adjacent to sugarcane fields 
on Kolhapur-Panhala road; August-October. 
C. flavescens Linn. (P. flavescens Linn.) 
Plants slender, with filiform stem, leaves 
and bract; leaves shorter than the stem; 
bract single, erect; spikelet solitary; nuts 
with prominent glistening white transverse 



76 



CYPERACEAE OF KOLHAPUR 



ridges. In meadows of Kolhapur; August- 
September. 

C. globosus AH. (P. globosus All.) 
Quite common in clayey mud along tem- 
porary water courses and lake margins. 
Kolhapur — Rankala, Kalamba lakes, Uni- 
versity campus; Kagal lake; on way to Wa- 
danige; Panhala, Malvan; July-November. 
C. malabaricus Clarke (P. malabaricus 
Clarke) 

Along streams, Radhanagari; August-Octo- 
ber. 

C. pumilus Linn. (P. rdtens Nees) 
Along marshes of Kagal lake; August- 
October. 

Sub-genus Juncellus 

C. alopecuroides Rottb. (Juncellus alope- 
curoides Clarke) 

Robust perennial herb. Common in the 
marshes of ponds and lakes in Kolhapur, 
Wadanige, Kagal; September- April. 
C. pygmaeus Rottb. (/. pygmaeus Clarke) 
Tufted annual with conspicuous globose 
heads. Rajaram, Rankala and Wadanige 
lakes of Kolhapur, Kagal lake; June-Octo- 
ber. 

Sub-genus Mariscus Vahl. 

C. cyperoides {Mariscus sieberianus Nees) 

Common in grass-lands of Panhala, Gagan- 

bavada; Vengurla; July-November. 

Sub-genus Cyperus 

Cyperus alternifolius Linn. 

Ornamental species cultivated in gardens of 

Kolhapur, Panhala; September-October. 

C. ARENARIUS RetZ. 

Grows in association with Ipomoea pes-cap- 
rae on the sandy coast of Vengurla. This 
sand binding sedge is also reported from 
Konkan by Blatter & McCann (1934) 
though Cooke (1908) has not reported it 
from Maharashtra. Stoloniferous; leaves with 
sheathing base and linear rather fleshy lami- 



na; stem round, green, fleshy and smooth; 
spikelets in globose heads subtended by 1-3 
bracts one of which is erect appearing as if 
continuous with stem; glumes distichous, 
concave, membranous; keel 3 nerved, nerves 
pink; stamens 3; styles 3, pink; nut trigon- 
ous, dark-brown, smooth; October-Novem- 
ber. 

C. ARISTATUS Rottb. 

Along the lake margins of Kolhapur, Ran- 
kala, Rajaram, Kalamba and Kagal; Bila- 
shi; June-August. 
C. compressus Linn. 
Seasonal, along lake margins, road sides and 
in rice fields of Kolhapur, Kagal, Panhala 
and Wadanige; June-October. This species 
shows distinct ecotypic variations. Popula- 
tions occupying marshy habitat have robust 
erect plants, with branched spicate inflore- 
scences. While those found along road sides 
have creeping habit with less branched in- 
florescence and smaller spikelets. Road side 
plants flower earlier than the marsh ones. 
C. pangorei Rottb. 

A robust perennial sedge very common in 
the marshes near ponds and lakes of Kolha- 
pur, Kagal; August-March. 
There appears to be a lot of confusion 
about circumscription of C. corymbosus. C. 
tegetum, C. tegetiformis and C. pangorei. 
While Cooke (1908) has considered all the 
three former species as distinct, Blatter & 
McCann (1934) have merged C. tegetum and 
C. tegetiformis with C. corymbosus and C. 
pangorei is considered as synonym of C. 
tegetum. Fischer (1928) regards C. corymbo- 
sus and C. pangorei as distinct but C. tegetum 
is considered as synonym of C. pangorei 
and C. tegetiformis as synonym of C. corym- 
bosus. Kukenthal (1909) also treats C. pan- 
gorei and C. corymbosus as distinct. Our spe- 
cimens resemble more closely with C. pangorei 



11 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



in having lower bracts more than 12.7 cm 
long and longer than the inflorescence and in 
some-what remotely arranged scales on the 
spikelet than with C. corymbosus which has 
bracts upto 1.62 cm long and shorter than the 
inflorescence and the scales arranged mostly 
in densely imbricating fashion. 

A systematic study of all the four taxa 
involved is needed to solve this problem. 

C. difformis Linn. 

A seasonal, common in marshy places in 
Kolhapur; August-October. 
C. distans Linn. 

Along nala, Gagan-Bavada; September- 
October. 

C. elusinoides Kunth. 
In marshes of Kagal lake near Kolhapur; 
September-November. 
C. iria Linn. var. paniciformis Clarke. 
A most common monsoon weed in rice fields 
and in other marshy situations; June-Octo- 
ber. 

C. pilosus Vahl. 

A perennial salt marsh sedge; rhizome sto- 
loniferous covered with scales; spikelets 
spicately arranged, rather distant on the 
hispidulous rachis, glumes faint brown, 3 
nerved, keel not prominent, lateral sides 
transparent. Malvan; October. 
C. rotundus Linn. 

Prominent in clayey soil along margins of 
bunds, Kolhapur, Panhala, Gaganbavada, 
Kagal; June-October. 

C. stoloniferous Retz. In marshes on way 
to Wadanige; June-October. 

Fimbristylis Vahl 

F. complanata Link. 

Common in marshes of Kolhapur, Kagal 
lake, on way to Wadanige; July-September. 
F. dichotoma Vahl. 

In association with F. complanata Vahl. but 



in more abundance; Kolhapur, Katyayani, 
Wadanige, Kagal lake; July-March. 
F. digitata Boek. 

In meadows at Radhanagari in monsoon; 
August-September. This species has also 
been collected recently in meadows on Rat- 
nagiri-Pawas road in June. 
F. diphylla Vahl. 

In marshes, often in association with F. 
dichotoma Vahl. Katyayani, on way to 
Wadanige,, Kagal lake, Radhanagari; July- 
March. 

F. ferruginea Vahl. 

In marshes of Kolhapur and in salt mar- 
shes of Malwan and Ratnagiri; September- 
February. 

F. junciformis Kunth. 

In meadows of Kolhapur; June-October. 

F. miliacea Vahl. 

In marshes of Kolhapur, on way to Wada- 
nige; July-September. 
F. monostachya Hassk. 
In meadows; Kolhapur, Panhala; August- 
October. 

F. polytrichoides R. Br. 
Along the margins of lakes of Kolhapur, 
and in salt marshes at Malvan; August- 
October. 

F. QUINQUANGULARIS Kunth. 

In marshes of Kolhapur; July-September. 

F. SPATHACEA Roth. 

In salt marshes of Malvan; along nala at 

Savantwadi; October-December. 

F. tenera Roem and Sch. 

Along lake margins, Rankala, Kagal-lake; 

August-December. 

F. TETRAGONA R. Br. 

In marshes and lake margins; Kolhapur, 
Kagal, Radhanagari; July-September. Cooke 
(1908) and Fischer (1928) have placed this 
species in dichostylis section of the genus. 
All the specimens observed by us in field 



78 



CYPERACEAE OF KOLHAPUR 



as well as pressed ones show three stigmas. 
The identification of our material has been 
checked with reference to the sheets of 
this species in BSI herbarium of western 
circle and Blatter herbarium of St. Xavier's 
College. 

F. woodrowii Clarke. 

Occasional, along margins of Kolhapur 
lakes; June-October. 

Eleocharis R. Br. 

E. atropurpurea Kunth. 

In marshes of lake margins of Kolhapur, 

Rajaram talao, Rankala talao; July-October. 

E. CAPITATA R. Br. 

Lake margin of Kagal and salt marshes 
of Malvan; September to January. 

E. PLANTAGINEA R. Br. 

Very dominant sedge in lakes of Kolhapur. 
Rankala, Kagal lake, also in salt marshes 
of Malvan; August-March. 

Scirpus Linn. 

S. articulatus Linn. 

In salt marshes of Malvan; October. 

S. KYLLINGIOIDES Boeck. 

In meadows of Kolhapur; June-August. 

This species is being reported for the first 
time from Maharashtra. Cooke (1908) has 
remarked that he could not see the specimens 
of this species from Bombay state. Blatter & 
McCann (1934, 1935) have recorded it from 
Canara. Fischer (1928) has not included it in 
flora of Madras. Shah (1973) has recently 
described it from Saurashtra. During our re- 
cent visit to Ratnagiri we collected it in 
meadows along Ratnagiri — Pawas road. A 
brief description of the species based on our 
specimens, follows 

Rhizomatous herbs; rhizome short, erect 
and thick; stems 4 to 9 cm., solitary or tufted, 
trigonous and terete. Leaves radicular, lamina 



with marginal spinules. Inflorescence terminal, 
of numerous small sessile conjusted white 
heads, subtended by 3 spreading leaf-like 
bracts. Spikelets with 8-12, spirally arranged, 
ovate-lanceolate keeled many nerved glumes. 
Hypogynous bristles 0. Stamen 1, ovary tri- 
gonous, stigmas 3. Nut yellow, obovoid, 
minutely punctate. 
S. littoralis Schrad. 

Along marshes of Kagal lake and in salt 
marshes of Malvan; August-March. 
S. mucronatus Linn. 

Along Punchaganga river bank; October- 
May. This species has been excluded from 
Bombay state by Cooke (1908). Shah 
(1973) has reported it from Gujarat. 
Stems robust, sharply trigonous; leaves re- 
duced to sheaths, heads lateral near the 
apex of the stem, spikelets sessile, ovate, 
glumes ovate, acute, keel not prominant; 
hypogynous bristles 5, barbed with recurv- 
ed outgrowths, slightly longer than the nut; 
ovary trigonous, style base not swollen, 
stigmas 3; nut trigonous, flat on one side 
and angled on the other, blackish, surface 
with faint lines. 
S. squarrosus Linn. 

In hygrophytic situations during monsoon 
in Kolhapur, Bilashi and Ratnagiri; August- 
October. 

S. supinus Linn. 

Common in the marshes of lakes of Kolha- 
pur, Kagal, in marshes of Sangli and Mal- 
van; July-February. 

Fuirena Rottb. 

F. glomerata Lam. 

In salt marshes of Malvan and Vengurla; 
September-November. 
F. wallichiana Kunth. 
In the marshes of Kagal lake; August- 
October. 



79 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Rhynchospora Vahl. 
R. wightiana Steud. 
In meadows, Malvan; October. 

Scleria Berg. 
S. stocksiana Boek. 

The moist areas around ponds and lakes of 
Kolhapur; near Dhamapur lake, Malvan; 
August-October. 

Carex Linn. 

C. MERCARENSIS Hochst. 



As an undergrowth in forests of Gagan- 
bavada, Katyayani; October-February. 

Acknowledgements 

We are thankful to the authorities of Shi- 
vaji University, Kolhapur, for financial aid 
and to Dr. P. V. Bole of St. Xavier's College 
for allowing us to consult the Blatter herbar- 
ium. We are also thankful to Dr. V. D. Var- 
tak, MACS, Poona for checking the identi- 
fication of many of our specimens. 



References 



Blatter, E. and McCann, C. (1934): Cypera- 
ceae — In the revision of the flora of Bombay 
Presidency. Part XXIII. /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 
37 (1): 16-35. 

, (1934): Cyperaceae — In the re- 
vision of the flora of Bombay Presidency. Part 
XXIV. ibid. 37 (2): 254-277. 

, (1934): Cyperaceae — In the re- 
vision of the flora of Bombay Presidency. Part XXV. 
ibid. 37 (3): 532-548. 

, (1935) : Cyperaceae — ■ In the re- 
vision of the flora of Bombay Presidency. Part 

XXVI. ibid. 37 (4): 764-779. 

, (1935): Cyperaceae — In the re- 
vision of the flora of Bombay Presidency. Part 

XXVII. ibid. 38 (1): 6-18. 

Cooke, T. (1908): The flora of the Presidency 
of Bombay. Vol. III. Reprinted by Bot. Surv. India, 
1958. 

Fischer, C. E. C. (1928): Flora of the Presi- 
dency of Madras. Vol. III. Reprinted by Bot. Surv. 
India, 1957. 

Kukenthal, G. (1909): Cyperaceae in Engler"s 
Das Pflanzenreich. 38: 1-824. 

Kulkarni, A. R. (1971): Notes on the distri- 



bution of Sesamum mulayanum Nair in Maharash- 
tra. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 68: 495-96. 

, (1974): Nicotiana glauca Grah. — 

a tree tobacco in Maharashtra, ibid. 71 (2) : 340- 
42. 

, and Desai, M. H. (1972): Family 

Eriocaulaceae in Kolhapur and its environs, ibid. 
69: 231-235. 

— , (1974): Eriocaulon tuberiferum 

Kulkarni ct Desai — A new species from Maha- 
rashtra, ibid. 71 (1): 81-84. 

and Kazi, M. B. (1972) : Contribu- 
tions to the hydrophytes of Kolhapur — I. Hydro- 
phytes of Kagal lake. /. Shivaji Univ. 5: (10) 73- 
85. 

and Mudgal, P. V. (1971): Family 

Commelinaceae in Kolhapur and its environs. /. 
Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 67: 616-618. 

and Thite, A. N. (1979): Addi- 
tions to the flora of Kolhapur district, ibid. 74 (Sup- 
plement) : 592-609. 

Shah, C. K. (1973) : The distribution of genus 
Scirpus Linn, in Gujarat. /. Biol. Sci. 16: 29-41. 

Thite, A. N. and Kulkarni, A. R. (1976) : Fun- 
gal flora of Panhala. /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 
73(3): 456-468. 



80 



A CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS IN THE COLLECTION OF 
THE BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY— 22 

Corvidae, Boinbycillidae 

HUMAYUN ABDULALI 

[Continued from Vol. 75(2): 384] 



This part covers 646 specimens of 71 species 
and subspecies up to No. 1063 in Indian hand- 
book. I am grateful to Miss Renee Borges and 
to Mr Shahid Ali for routine assistance for 
some time. 

EL Platysmurus leucopteras (Temniinck) 
(Sumatra) Whitewinged Jay 1:58 

1 o? Tavoy, S. Tenasserim. Wing 188, tail 180. 

EL Garrulus Eeucotis leucotis Hume (Kau- 
karyit, Tenasserim) Burmese Jay 1:61 
Measurements on p. 94. 

3:2 $ $ 1 2 

1 Hsipaw, 1 S.E. of Hsipaw, 1 Maymyo. 

Measurements on p. 94. 
EL Gamilus glandarius glandarius (Lin- 
naeus) (Sweden) Jay 

2:1 ? 1 o?. 1 Godolla, 1 Matrajured, Hungary, 

The female has paler blue on the wings and 
a white chin contra almost concolorous with 
the underparts in the other. 

Measurements on p. 94. 

EL Garrulus glandarius haringtoni Rippon 
(Mt. Victoria, South Chin Hills) Rippon's 
Jay. 1:65 

2 3 5:1 Camel's Hump, Tiddim, 1 Mt. Victo- 
ria, Pakokku, Chin Hills. 

Both can be separated from Indian birds 
by the pale buff, almost white, forehead and 
their larger wings. Smythies, 1953, birds of 

* One of them bears no locality but was collected 
by J. C. Anderson. 

[373] 



burma, p. 9, synonymises haringtoni with G. 
oatesi but this is doubtless a slip, for the latter 
is a subspecies of G. leucotis. 
Measurements on p. 94. 

1020 Garrulus glandarius bispecularis 

Vigors (Himalayan Mts. — Murree) West Hi- 
malayan Jay 1:63 
15 : 8 8 $ 5 ?S 2o? 

1 Dalhousie, Punjab; 2* Simla; 1 Grikund Ke- 
damath, 1 Bodiar, 2 Moureakher, Gharwal, 5 Da- 
kuri, Kumaon, 2 Mussoorie, 1 Nairn Tal, U.P. 

See notes under 1021. 

Measurements on p. 94. 

1021 Garrulus glandarius interstinctus 

Hartert (Darjeeling) East Himalayan Jay 1:64 
11:5 $ $ 5 5 5 1 o? 

1 Sipuri, 1 Godaveri, 1 Bouzini, all near Khat- 
mandu, Nepal; 1 Shampong, Central Bhutan, 3 
Gomchu, 1 Narphong, East Bhutan; 2 Lachung, 
North Sikkim, 1 Etalin 8000', Mishmi Hills. 

As has been noted by earlier writers, the 
two races are not easily separated. In series, 
the eastern birds are darker but the three from 
Nepal and one from Mishmi Hills are very 
reddish above. A <S collected at Shampong, 
6500 ft. Central Bhutan, has the darkest up- 
perparts and the forehead slightly paler. The 
birds from Bhutan and Sikkim are not yet 
registered. 

Three males collected in Garhwal (2 on the 
same day) with pale underparts appear to be 
birds of the year. Their measurements are not 
included but are within the range of the adults. 

81 



6 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Vaurie (1959, p. 143) when comparing this 
with sinensis states that the tips of the bristly 
feathers at the nostril are not black as in the 
latter. The specimens listed above show a vary- 
ing amount of black at the tips of feathers at 
the nostril, and which appears independent of 
locality. 

Measurements on p. 94. 

1022 Garrulus lanceolatus Vigors (Hima- 
layas — Simla-Almora District) Blackthroated 
Jay 1:60 

21 : 8 8 8 (1 juv.) 8 9 9 5 o? 

2 Chitral, 1 Gora Gali; 1 Murree, 1 Dalhousie, 
1 Dharmsala, 1 Dhami State, 3 Simla (1 collected 
by J. C. Anderson?); 2 Moghul Maidan, Kishtwar, 
Kashmir; 1 Lambathach, 1 Ghat, 1 Boliar, Garh- 
wal, 1 Bininag, 1 Peora, Almora, 2 Morwala. 1 
Dakuri, Kumaon, U.P.; 1 no locality. 

Juvenile d 291 has the feathers of the chin 
dishevelled, with short thick streaks, and a 
brownish head. 

The black barring on the central tail fea- 
thers varies in distinctness but cannot be as- 
sociated with sex or locality. 

The largest unsexed No. 296 from Dharm- 
sala, Punjab, (Wing 160, tail 165) has the 
shortest tarsus (28.7). In only one other ( d* 
290 from Peora, Almora) is the wing (157) 
shorter than the tail (159). 

Measurements on p. 95. 

EL Cyanocitta cristata subsp. 

1 8 Little Lake, Barrie, Ontario, Canada. 
Wing 135; bill 26.6; tarsus 33; tail 132. 

EL Cyanopica cyanus interposita Hartert 
(Tai pai Shan, Tsinling Range, Shensi, China) 
Azurewinged Magpie 

3 9 9 Peking, China. 

These are named trinomially on the basis 
of distribution in Vaurie (1959) and Peter's 
check-list (1962, 15:245) and the measure- 
ments in parenthesis are from La Touche a 

HANDBOOK OF THE BIRDS OF EASTERN CHINA 



2, p. 15. Wing 132, 136, 137 (135-141); bill 26, 
26, 28 (24-28.5); tarsus 29, 30.5 (32-36.5), tail 
172, 200, 206 (199-230). 

1023 Cissa chinensis chinensis (Boddaert) 
(Mergui) Green Magpie 1:45 

18 : 8 8 8 5 99 5 o? 

2 Ranibag, 1 Kumaon, U.P.; 1 Singhik, N. Sik- 
kim, 1 Singtam, Teesta Valley, 3 Longview T.E.., 
1 Darjeeling; 1 Laising, 1 Hungrum, 1 Roopchena, 
Cachar; 1 Jamirach, Dibrugarh, 2 Margherita, 1 
Rotung, Abor Hills; 1 Mishmi Hills; 1 Upper 
Burma. 

c? No. 214 from Longview Tea Estate ob- 
tained on 25 January 1911 has one whisker 
on the left 140 mm. long. 

15 specimens dated 1902-1952 are varying 
shades of blue both above and below. Three 
Nos. 203, 207 and 211 (1 1 <S juv. 1 o?) 
from Mishmi Hills, Hungrum and Roopchena, 
going back to 1904 show a wash of green, 
particularly on the underparts. All wings are 
yellowish olive. Stevens (JBNHS 29 p. 514) 
refers to blue examples seen in the wild in 
March, April and May. 

Whistler's mss. notes include a letter from 
CBT (Ticehurst) asking if the black subter- 
minal bars on the inner secondaries and ter- 
tials are less distinct in juveniles, or if it is a 
racial (Himalayan) character. Only three spe- 
cimens lack this barring and they are from 
Laising, N. Cachar 9 , Margherita cf and 
Upper Burma o?. The juvenile 9 No. 211 is 
well marked. 

Measurements on p. 95. 

1024 Cissa ornata (Wagler) (Ceylon) Cey- 
lon Blue Magpie 

1 8 Rookood, Ceylon. 
Measurements on p. 95. 

1025 Gssa flavirostris cucullata (Gould) 
(Kuloo Valley) Western Yellowbilled Blue 
Magpie 1:44 



82' 



[374] 



BIRDS IN BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY COLLECTION— 22 



10 : 3 $ $ (1. juv.) 3 2 2 (2 juv.) 4 o? (1 juv.) 
1 Doniwani Village, Lolab Valley, 2 Goond, Sind 
Valley, Kashmir; 1 Zokinath, 1 Chamoli, Garhwal, 
4 Dakuri, Kumaon; 1 Kakam, Nepal. 

In view of the small number of sexed adults, 
the measurements do not appear worth de- 
tailing. 

Sp. No. 201 collected in Goond, Sind Valley, 
Kashmir, on 8 August 1873 by F. Stoliczka is 
perhaps one of the oldest specimens in the 
Bombay collection. One unregistered cf from 
8000 ft, Chinakotti, West Bhutan, has its bill 
heavier than in the others and dark above. 

See under 1027 for notes on juvenile plum- 
age. 

1026 Ossa flavirostris flavirostris (Blyth) 
(Darjeeling) Eastern Yellowbilled Blue Magpie 

1:43 

5:4 $ $ (1 juv.) 1 5 juv. 

3 (1 juv.) Tongloo, 10000', 1 Phalut 11500', Dar- 
jeeling; 1 Shama Chembo, Rong Valley? 

All differ from Cf. cucullata in having the 
lower breast washed with grey ('lilac white*) 
which was presumably once yellow, and the 
upperparts are slightly darker than in 1025. 

Sp. No. 190 from Chembo, Rong Valley, 
was collected by Stuart Baker on 13 July 1913. 
The words "Chin Hills" have been added with 
a query by Salim Ali many years ago, but this 
does not appear to be correct, for Stuart Baker 
(1922, fauna, 1, p. 44) states that he had 
seen only one from Burma and which differed 
from the normal type (nominate flavirostris) 
in many ways. The latter specimen was col- 
lected by Wickham at about 7000 ft. north of 
Falam (JBNHS 33, p. 803) and was no doubt 
shaferi Sick (q.v.). 

Four specimens (2 cf cf 2 ? ? ) collected 
in Bhutan by Salim Ali (1966-68) not yet re- 
gistered show a much darker grey below. Cu- 
riously, in these four specimens, though the 
males have larger wings (190, 197 cf. 186, 187) 



the tails are longer in the females (410, 430 cf. 
335, 350). 

EL Cissa flavirostris shaferi Sick (Mt. 
Victoria, Chin Hills) 

1 $ Kennedy Peak, Chin Hills, Burma. 

Wing 172, bill 34, tail 345 (Sp. No. 189). 

Shaferi was described on 5 d cf and 9 2? 
and the single specimen confirms the small 
size, and probably represents a good subspecies 
with a very restricted range. 

1027 Cissa erythrorhyncha occipitalis 

(Blyth) (Nepal and to the N.W., as at Mus- 
soorie etc.) Himalayan Redbilled Blue Mag- 
pie 1:41 

22 : 4 $ $ 8 2 2 (3 juv.) 10 o? (1 juv.) 

1 Patiala State, 1 Dharmi State, 1 Kasumti 6000', 
Keonthal, 1 Kufri 8000', Punjab Hill States; 2 
Simla; 1 Dehra Dun, 1 Naini Tal, 1 Lohghat 1 
Gangolihath, Almora; 1 Manauli, 3. Kumaon; 1 
Godaveri, 1 Cholna Khel, 4 Loharipowa, Nepal; 2 
no data. 

Sorting out both the adults and the juve- 
niles of flavirostris and erythrorhyncha has 
taken an unexpectedly long time. The red and 
yellow bills so distinct in the two species in 
life, both become yellow and I have been 
unable to trace any description of juvenile 
flavirostris. The collection contains 8 juveniles 
with the entire top of the head (except for 
a fringe on the forehead) white, which also 
extends down the nape. Some were listed as 
flavirostris and others as erythrorhyncha. Two 
juveniles of the above description collected 
by J. P. Cook at Maymyo has it noted on the 
original label that the bills were light red in 
one and scarlet in the other. In the first plum- 
age the bill is black in both species but this 
noting would link the all-white head with 
erythrorhyncha. 

Two others a cf and a 2 from Dakuri, 
Kumaon, whence 2 adults were also collected, 
have their crowns sooty black, followed by 



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JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



a broad white patch tapering down on the 
black of the neck. They agree with Biswas's 
description of young erythrorhync'na (JBNHS 
60, p. 648), but the adults from the same 
place are smaller and can be included among 
the variations in flavirostris. The evidence 
available suggests that this is the juvenile 
plumage of flavirostris, with the white being 
later reduced to the collar-like band in the 
adult. Intermediate phases exist, depending to 
some extent upon the method of preparation 
of the skin. It is significant that the 3 yellow- 
billed birds illustrated in Gould's birds of 
asia and marked A. flavirostris cucullata by 
A. Rutgers in 1969, all have the forecrown 
black, followed by white extending to the nape. 

Psilortinus albicapillus described by Blyth 
at the same time as C. flavirostris, C. e. occi- 
pitalis and C. e. magnirostris (1846, JASB 
15, p. 27) was admittedly a juvenile and 
agrees with the juveniles of eryihrorhyncha 
above. 

As in the case of the previous species, the 
large proportion of unsexed birds and others 
in juvenile and intermediate plumage do not 
make it worthwhile listing the measurements. 
The bills are no smaller than in magnirostris. 

1028 Cissa erythrorhyncha magnirostris 

(Blyth) (Ya-Ma-Dong Mountains separating 
Arracan from Pegu) Burmese Redbilled Blue 
Magpie 1:42 

8:6 $ $ (1 juv.) 1 9 1 o? juv. 

1 Dimapur, 1 Kanglotomis, Manipur, Assam; 2 
Tidditn, Chin Hills, 2 Maymyo, 1 Thayctmyo, 
Burma; 1 Crawford Market. Bombay, origin? 

These birds are slightly darker above but 
barely separable from occipitalis (1027) and 
certainly do not agree with the original des- 
cription of magnirostris. The bill is not 4-5 
mm longer and there is no large bare patch 
near the eye. The two from Manipur and one 
from Thayetmyo differ from the Himalayan 



population in being darker and more suffused 
with purple-blue on the upperparts, but Hume 
(S.F 6, p. 385) quotes Lt. Ramsay as saying 
that with large series of both groups, he has 
seen a specimen of occipitalis with plumages 
in all respects as fine as the best of my Bur- 
mese skins". Ramsay also says that though 
some of the Burmese specimens have enor- 
mous bills, others have them as small or small- 
ler than Himalayan birds. He adds that the 
only constant point of difference between 
Burmese and Indian birds is in the colouring 
of the bill(?), feet and i rides as pointed out 
by Hume on Captain Fielden's authority (S.F 
3, p. 145), i.e. the legs are scarlet instead of 
reddish orange of occipitalis and the irides are 
of different shades of brown, but never red. 
Indian handbook states that irides of occipi- 
talis are brown or red-brown and those of 
magnirostris the same'. 

Hume (loc. cit.) concludes "... .it seems to 
me very doubtful whether the species (mag- 
nirostris) can be maintained. What is really 
wanted is a large and carefully sexed series 
from Pegu and the Arracan Hills". 

1029 Pica pica bactriana Bonaparte (Kan- 
dahar) Kashmir or Whiterumped Magpie 

1:38 

28 : 15 $ $ 8 9 9 5 o? (I juv.) 

1 Sulaimaniyah, Iraq; 1 Bagh-e-Jawar (4 m. S.W. 
of Shiraz), 1 Baghe Jaffrain, 1 Baghe Rezi, 10 
Shiraz, 1 Amirabad, Birjand, 1 Neh, Kain, Iran; 
1 Iggiz Yar, Chinese Turkestan; 1 Razani, North 
Baluchistan, 1 Razmak, South Baluchistan, 1 Kelat, 
1 Toba, Quetta, 1 Devankot, Baluchistan; 4 Chitral, 
N.W.F.P.; 2 Ugu 12000', Indus Valley, Ladakh. 

In some specimens, March to May, the rump 
is greyish, but this character does not appear 
to be restricted to any age(?) or area, hand- 
book of British birds (1938, 1:28) refers to 
the rump in nominate pica "white or brownish 
white to brown (in British specimens never 



84 



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BIRDS IN BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY COLLECTION— 22 



very white and often nearly black)". 
Measurements on p. 95. 

1030 Pica pica bottanensis Delessert (Bhu- 
tan) Eastern Blackrumped Magpie 1:39 

1 o? Wangadi Cholung, Bhumtang Valley, Bhutan. 

Together with six additional specimens col- 
lected by Salim Ali at Bhumtang in Bhutan 
in 1973, but not yet registered, they have a 
larger wing, a proportionately shorter tail and 
a black rump, which leave no doubt regarding 
the validity of this race. 

Measurements on p. 95. 

EL Pica pica sericea Gould (Amoy) Chi- 
nese Magpie 

5:4 $ S (1 juv.) 1 2 

1 North Shan States, 1 South Shan States. 1 Kyat- 
yin-Mogok Road, Ruby Mines District, Burma; 2 
Peking, China. 

These birds are not very distinct from bac- 
triana but the pair from Peking show more 
blue on the wings and in series there is less 
white visible above. In the juvenile the black 
is replaced by brown and there is very little 
white on the rump. 

The tarsus appears longer than in bactriana 
and the tail proportionately shorter. Stuart 
Baker quotes Gould as having affirmed the 
former. 

Measurements on p. 95. 

1031 Dendrocitta vagabimda pallida (Bly- 
th) (Galkund, Surat Dangs, Gujarat) Western 
Tree Pie. 

(a) 15: 8 $ $ (2 juv.) 4 2 5 (1 juv.) 3 o? 
(2 juv.) 

1 Navashar, Jullundur, 3 Ambala; 1 Bahawalpur; 
1 Delhi; 1 Bharatpur, Rajasthan; 1 Jacobabad, N. 
Sind, 1 Khori, 2 Luka, 3 Jah, Tatta, 1 Londi, Ka- 
rachi. 

No. 20347 $ from Luka, Tatta is dark rufous 
below. 

(b) 20: 4 $ $ (2 juv.) 16 2 2 (6 juv.) 

1 Hamavas Lake, Pali, Jodhpur; 1 Deesa, Palan- 
pur; 3 Vaghjipur, Mehsana; 1 Hingolgadh, Jasdan, 
1 Amreli, 1 Gir, 1 Patan (?), Kathiawar; 2 Victoria 



Park, Bhavnagar; 1 Cambay City; 1 Galkund, 1 
Mheskhatri, 1 Pimpri, Surat Dangs; 3 SuraimaJ, 
Thana, 1 Tanda, 1 Kuno. Gwalior. 

The type locality of pallida has had many 
vacillations. Blyth described it from a speci- 
men purchased at Calcutta (now the type 
locality of nominate vagabunda) but originally 
said to have come from the north-western 
Himalayas (the type locality of bristoli). This 
was restricted by Ticehurt to Simla (1922) 
and then to Galkund, Surat Dangs, by Paynter 
who, admitting the possibility of the original 
description referring to parvula from the south- 
west or vernayi from the south and south- 
eastern India, expressed his reluctance to 
change the name which had been applied for 
more than a hundred years. While I agree with 
his sentiments, T do not know if it is permis- 
sible to ignore the original description, though 
the type locality may be proved or presumed 
to be wrong. As supporting the original desig- 
nation of the north-western Himalayas, it may 
be worth mentioning that Psilorhynus albo- 
capillus now Urocissa erythrorhyncha occipi- 
talis was described by Blyth from the same 
collection and this does not occur anywhere 
except in the Himalayas. Of course, the col- 
lection could have included birds from diffe- 
rent places. 

As explained under bristoli, the specimens 
from the Punjab and Sind appear nearer to 
pallida both in size and colour and are includ- 
ed here, as was done by Paynter. Accepting, 
however, the type locality as restricted to the 
Surat Dangs, the northern birds can be sepa- 
rated from the southern topotypical group by 
their slightly darker upper and lower parts and 
the fact that the tail/wing ratio is invariably 
over 160. In this subspecies the first year birds, 
distinguished from the adults by the white 
tips to the black non-central tail feathers, show 
no other differences in colour from the adults. 



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JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Measurements on p. 96. 

1031a Dendrocitta vagabunda bristoli 

Paynter .(Jabri, c. 11 miles west of Murree, 
alt. 900 metres, Hazara District, West Pakis- 
tan) North Western Tree Pie. 

2 3 3:1 2220' Rawalpindi; 1 2500' KaJka, Am- 
bala District, Punjab. 

Both specimens are outstandingly large and 
dark and agree with Paynter's original descrip- 
tion of bristoli (1961, JBNHS 58:381) in 
which he referred to birds from the plains near 
Ambala and several other places in the Pun- 
jab and Sind, as pallida. Indian handbook 
(5, 216) indicates bristoli as extending over the 
whole of the Punjab and Sind and though 
clines are referred to in the text, birds from 
the latter places appear much more like pal- 
lida from Gujarat and I am listing them sepa- 
rately under that race. 

In both the specimens, the tails (315,300) 
are shorter than in the cotypes (334, 342, 363) 
but this may be due to different methods of 
measurement, which may also affect the wing/ 
tail ratios. 

Measurements on p. 96. 

1032 Dendrocitta vagabunda vagabunda 
(Latham) (India, restricted to Calcutta) 
Northeastern Tree Pie. 1:48 

43 : 25 3 3 (12 juv.) 13 2 2 (8 juv.) 5 o? (1 
juv.) 

1 Kudus, Thana; 1 Borivli, 1 Powai, Salsette, 
Bombay; 1 Khandala; 1 Akibidu, West Goa; 1 
Saugor, 2 Chikalda; 1 Ambakona, 1 Jabalpore, 1 
Tamia, Chindwara; 2 Wamanpalli, Chanda; 2 Sup- 
kar, 1 Sonwani, Balaghat; 1 Bhopalpatnam, 1 Kon- 
ta, 1 Darbha, 1 Antagarh, 1 Chota Dongar, Bastar; 
1 Bhavanipratapur, Ranker; 2 Badrama, Bamra, 1 
Keonjhar, 1 Tikerpara, Angul, 1 Raipathar. Phul- 
bani, Orissa; 1 Sankrametta, Vizagapatam District; 
1 Partapur, 1 Nepal; 2 Meerut, 1 Bareilly, 1 Pilibhit 
Torai, U.P.; 1 Madhubani, 1 Baghowni, 1 Saran, 
Bihar; 1 Nanhati, 24-Parganas, Bengal; 2 Dibru- 
garh, Assam, 3 Upper Burma. 

There is considerable diversity in colour and 



size between individuals which it is not pos- 
sible to isolate by sex, age or season. The lack 
of series from any one place prevents any 
understanding of the sequence of plumages 
and/ or seasonal changes, if any, and it is quite 
possible that one or more undescribed race 
may be found within the conglomeration 
above. 

Two young from Wamanpalli, Chanda (No. 
21186) and Akibidu, West Goa (No. 23333) 
have very pale underparts, as in adult vernayi, 
and which is accepted as the first plumage in 
all races, but the black tail feathers are not 
tipped white. Another collected at Chanda at 
the same time (May) is slightly darker, but 
paler than most other vagabunda, and may be 
closer to vernayi. 

In series the birds with white tips to the tail 
feathers (included in juveniles) are slightiy 
paler than the adults but individuals are as 
dark just as some of the adults are as pale. 
Among the adults, the five with the darkest 
underparts are slightly but consistently larger 
than the others. 

The three unsexed skins from Upper Burma 
show a lot of rufous above and below but can 
be left in this group both in colour and mea- 
surements. 

Measurements on p. 96. 

1033 Dendrocitta vagabunda pamila Whi- 
stler & Kinnear (Malabar) Kerala Tree Pie. 

1:48 (Part) 

8:433 322 lo? 

1 Karkala, S. Kanara; 1 Kalladikol, Palghat Gap; 
1 Tope, 1 Kodi Motor Road, Palni Hills; 1 The- 
kaddy, 1 Thattakad, Periyar; 1 Aramboli, 1 James- 
town, Kanyakumari. 

These are slightly smaller than vernayi and 
with darker underparts (paler than in vaga- 
bunda) which show some variation in the small 
series. The unsexed bird from Karkala, South 
Kanara, from the accepted range of this sub- 



86 



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BIRDS IN BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY COLLECTION— 22 



species, is exceptionally dark rufous below and 
has dark upperparts grading into the black of 
the head. It is marked juvenile and has white 
tips to the black rectrices and a pale rump. 
No. 4515, a male from Thekaddy, Periyar lake 
has underparts as pale as in vernayi, but a 
small 135 mm wing and is presumably in its 
first plumage. 
Measurements on p. 96. 

1034 Dendrocitta vagabunda vernayi Whi- 
stler & Kinnear (Nallamalai Range, 2000', S. 
Kurnool) Southeastern Tree Pie 1:48 (Part) 

12: 5 $ $ 6 2 2 1 o? 

1 Chitteri Range, Salem, 1 Edubathi, Billigiriran- 
gans; 1 Shevaroy Hills; 2 Palkonda Hills; 1 Nalla- 
malai Hills; 1 Dharwar-Haliyal Road, Mysore. 1 
Utnoor, 1 Mananur, 1 Kaulas, 1 Farahabad, S.E. 
Hyderabad; 1 Pootah, North Arcot. 

The northern birds grade into vagabunda. 
The juvenile, in the first plumage, as in the 
other races, has pale underparts like the adult 
of this form. There is a wide range of varia- 
tion in the measurements of the above speci- 
mens and this is no doubt due to convergence 
with vagabunda on the north and parvula on 
the west. 

Measurements on p. 96. 

EL Dendrocitta vagabunda sclateri Baker 
(Mt. Victoria, Chin Hills, Burma) 

Chin Hills Tree Pie 

5:4 2 2 1 o? 

2 Maymyo; 1 Mibauk Village, 1 Khayank Chaung, 
Thayetmyo District; 1 Legangyi, Henzada, Burma. 

These birds have very little rufous on the 

* The original label(s) are missing and the en- 
tries in both the old (and new) register and the 
present labels show the locality as "Berimani, South 
Konkan", and I cannot find any place of this name 
in the postal directory. While it may be a village 
without a post office, the bird was collected by 
T. R. Bell who served in Kanara and the district 
is certainly an error in transcription and should be 
Kanara and not Konkan. 



upperparts, the black of the head is not very 
distinct from the mixed colour of the back 
and all have pale rumps. 
Measurements on p. 96. 

1035 Dendrocitta frontalis frontalis Hors- 
iield (Assam) Blackbrowed Tree Pie 1:54 

4:233222 

2 Margherita, 1 Dibrugarh, Assam; 1 Lonkin 
{Chindwin Expedition) Upper Burma. 

Wing $ $ 130, 132 2 2 124, 128 (ih. ex Baker 
$ 9 120-126) bill 26.3 27, 27.9(2) (c. 25); tar- 
sus 24, 25, 27, 27.5 (c. 30); tail $ 206, 220, 2 204, 
205 (245-255). 

The male from Margherita (No. 273) has 
the nape and upper back almost white, which 
portion in the other male (No. 276) is also 
whiter than the grey in the two females, as 
well as in two additional females from N.E.- 
F.A. (Arunachal Pradesh) not yet registered. 
It is perhaps a sexual difference. 

1036 Dendrocitta leucogaster Gould (Mala- 
bar Coast) Whitebellied Tree Pie 1:51 

10: 8 $ $ 2 2 2 

1 Castle Rock, N. Kanara; 1* Berimani, S. Ka- 
nara; 1 Wynaad; 1 Parambikolam, Cochin; 3 Thatta- 
kad. 1 Promacora, 1 Ponmudi. 1 Thekadi, Travan- 
core. 

No. 4520 a male with enlarged gonads (9 x 
5 mm) collected at Thattakad differs from all 
the others in having black edges to the white 
upper tail-coverts. 

Stuart Baker's Fauna referred to the tarsus 
as "about 30 mm" which is revised in ih 
5:225 to "32-34". My measurements agree 
with the former. 

1037 Dendrocitta formosae occidental 
Ticehurst (Simla) West Himalayan Tree Pie. 

1:52 (Part) 

11 : 8 $ $ (2 juv.) 3 2 2 (1 juv.) 

7 Simla & Simla Hills; 1 Tara Devi, Keonthal; 
1 Phata. Gupta Kashi, Gadhwal; 1 Pithorgarh, 1 
Gomai, Almora. 

Table of measurements in Note on Validity 
of D. f. sarkari, p. 143 infra. 



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JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



1038 Dendrocitta formosae himalavensis 
Blyth (Sikkim) East Himalayan Tree Pie 1:52 

24: 10 3 3 12 ? 9 2 o? 

1 Hathiban, 1 Bans Bihari, 1 Godavari, Nepal; 
1 Majhkali, Ranikhet, 1 Kurseong, 1 Sevoke, Dar- 
jeeling; 1 Rinchingpong, W. Sikkim; 2 Dibrugarh, 
1 Margherita; 2 Denning, Lohit Valley; 1 Kang- 
pokpi, Manipur; 2 Humgrum, 2 Haflong, N. Cachar, 
1 Bagho Bahar, 2 Roopchena, Cachar; 1 N. Krang, 
Upper Burma; 2 south-east of, 1 Maymyo, Burma. 

The three from Burma have much whiter 
underparts than the others and, together with 
many from Assam and eastwards, show more 
brown than dusky black on their chins. 

Peter's check-list 15, p. 248 (1962) errs 
in referring to D. f. assimilis Hume from the 
Andamans. 

Table of measurements in Note on Validity 
of D. f. sarkari, p. 143 infra. 

1039 Dendrocitta formosae sarkari Kinn- 
near & Whistler (Anantgiri, Vizagapatam). 

9:433599 

2 Anantgiri, Vizagapatam, 1 Jeypore Agency; 5 
Berbera, Puri, 1 Mahendragiri, Orissa. 

For Note on Validity of this race. (See 
p. 142.) 

1040 Dendrocitta bayleyi Tytler (Anda- 
mans) Andaman Tree Pie 1:55 

7:333499 

4 Wrightmyo, 2 Chirria Tapoo, 1 S. Andamans. 

Of 2 females collected at Wrightmyo on 13 
February, one has darker underparts and the 
colours of the head and tail more clearly de- 
fined. This had bright yellow irides contra 
greenish yellow in the other, and the former 
would appear to be a character of maturity. 

EL Crypsirina temea (Daudin) (Africa, in 
error for Java) Black Racket-tailed Magpie 
2: 1 3 1 9 

1:56 

1 Kyib'm, Henzada, 1 Ataran, Amherst, Burma. 
Wing 3 9 117, 119; bill 25.3, 21.8. The 3 has 
a noticeably larger bill. 



EL Crypsirina cucullata Jerdon (Thayet- 
myo, Burma) Hooded Racket-tailed Magpie 

1:57 

6: 2 3 (1 juv.) 4 9 9 (2 juv.) 

1 Mungin, Magwe; 1 Pyabwe, 700', Yamethin; 

1 Tarakmaw, 1 Kandin, 1 Prome, 1 Rangoon, 
Burma. 

3 9 Wing 102-109; bill 18.3-19.5; tarsus 23.5-25; 
tail 3 162, 165; 9 173-175. 

The 3 adults have the bill all black, their 
plumage clear grey, while the younger birds 
have a yellow patch at the gape and the plum- 
age washed with pinkish. 

1041 Podoces humilis Hume (Kitchik Yi- 
lak-Sinkiang, near Sanju, Yarkand) Hume's 
Ground Chough 1:71 

2:1319 

1 Chusha, Tibet; 1 Zunthidpuk, 16000', W. Tibet. 

EL Podoces ploskei Zarudny (Alkor, East- 
ern Iran). 

2:1319 

2 7000', Gulugan Plain 60°£x31°N'. East 
Iran. 3 9 Wing 123, 115; bill 37.5, 32.5; tarsus 
44, 37; tail 88, 85. 

EL Podoces hendersoni Hume (Sinkiang, 
on the way to Yarkand). 

3:29 1 o? juv. 

2 Opal, 4400', 1 Kashgar, Chinese Turkestan. 

The juvenile is one of the 3 young found 
in a nest on the ground on 1 May 1931 (C. 
H. Sherriff). The mother has a longer (46 cf. 
42.5 mm) and more massive bill than in the 
unsexed adult which was registered as bid- 
dulphi. 

EL Podoces biddulphi Hume (Maralbashi, 
Sinkiang). 

3: 13 1 9 1 o? 

2 Keriya, 4300', Karakoram Expedition; 1 Chinese 
Turkestan. 

1042 Nucitraga caryocatactes multipunc- 
tata Gould (N. W. Himalayas, restricted to 



88 



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BIRDS IN BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY COLLECTION— 22 



Kashmir, north of the Pir Panjal Range). 
Larger-spotted Nutcracker 1:67 

5 : 3 $ $ 2 9 9 

1 Chitral, 7000', N.W.F.P.; 1 Yusmarg, 1 Gul- 
marg, 1 10000' Ketri, Badrawan, 1 Kashmir. 

Measurements on p. 97. 

1043 Nucifraga caryocatactes heniaspila 
Vigors (Himalayan Mountains, restricted Si- 
mla- Almora) Himalayan Nutcracker 1:66 

(part) 

12: 6 $ $ 5 $2 1 o? (fledgling) 

2 Nagar, Kulu, Punjab; 4 Koti State, 1 Simla, 1 
Bogi, Himalayas ?(). 1 Garhwal, 1 near Tonglu, 
Darjeeling Division; 2 11000', Thunsi, Nepal. 

Measurements on p. 97. 

1044 Nucifraga caryocatacfes macella Tha- 
yer & Bangs (Hsien-Shan-Hsien, 7000', Hupeh, 
China) Yunnan Nutcracker 1:66 (part) 

3 8 $ (1 juv.) 

1 Lachen, N. Sikkim; 1 Etatin, 7000', 1 Yigang 
Valley, 7500'. Mishmi Hills, Burma. 

Though these cannot be separated from 
1043 from the west by the size of, or the num- 
ber of spots, or any other colour character, the 
bills are distinctly thicker. 

Measurements on p. 97. 

EL Nucifraga caryocatacfes rothschildi 
Hartert (s. of the Issyk Kul, Russian Turkes- 
tan) Tian 

1 o? Bostan Tarek, Chinese Turkestan. 
The white spots are fewer and larger than 
in both hemispila and macella above. 

1045 Pyrrhocorax graculus digitatus Hem- 
prich & Ehrenberg (Syria) Himalayan Yellow- 
billed or Alpine Chough 1:70 

ll:45<569?lo*? juv. 

6 Chitral, N.W.F.P.; 1 Dangail, Kishtwar, Kash- 
mir; 1 Sissoo, 10000', Lahul; 2 Matari, Niti, Garh- 
wal, 1* collected by S. L. Whymper, probably Garh- 
wal or Kumaon, U.P. 

2 No. 348 from Chitral has its legs and 
feet black. 



Measurements on p. 97. 

EL Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax docilis (Gme- 
lin) (Gilan, N. Iran). 

4:253299 

1 5. of Doneh Pass, Luristan; 3 Kidri, 4000' , near 
Kain, Iran. 

The three from Kidri (1st year birds?) are 
marked pontifex which is now accepted as a 
synonym of docilis (Vaurie). They differ from 
all the others in having the wings and tails 
brownish, contrasting sharply with the black 
of the head, back and rump. 

Measurements on p. 97. 

1046 Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax centraHs 

Stresemann (Djarkent, Russian Turkestan) 
West Himalayan Redbiiled Chough 1:68 

part) 

1 o? Quetta Museum. 

The 289 mm wing has narrow primaries, a 
slightly greenish tinge and the sixth primary 
13 mm shorter than the 5th. These characters 
recur in other forms further east and the spe- 
cimen is left here on geographical (?) grounds. 

Measurements on p. 97. 

1047 Pjrrhocorax pyrrhocorax himaJaya- 

nus (Gould) (Himalaya Mountains, restricted 
to Kumaon) East Himalayan Redbiiled 
Chough 1:68 (part) 

6:2 33 2 99 2 o?(l juv.) 

1 Rohtang Pass, 10000', 1 Kyclang, Lahul; 2 
Badrinath, Garhwal, 1 Dakuri. Kumaon; 1 no loca- 
lity (juv.). 

The material available all appears to be 
from within the accepted range of himalaya- 
nus. Some show pointed wing quills and there 
appear to be no specific characters which 
would separate them from centralis. Including 
the 3 specimens from Bhutan (not yet regis- 
tered), the largest wing is 310 mm, while 
Meinertzhagen, when dealing with this race 
(Ibis 1927, p. 372) measures 7 males from 



[381] 



8') 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Sikkim and Ladak, 315 to 340 av. 328. 

No. 339 a juvenile from the Jones Collec- 
tion is marked Pyrrhocorax graculus. 

In Indian handbook (5, p. 242) the bill is 
said to be "widely variablle 50-100 mm". The 
last figure if correct must refer to an aberra- 
tion. 

Measurements on p. 97. 

EL Lycocorax pyrrhopterus pyrrhopterus 

(Bonaparte) (Gilolo, Northern Moluccas) 

1 Halmahera, Northern Moluccas. 

EL Corvus dauuricus Pallas (circa Baika- 
lem) 

2:1^19 Peking, China (Nos, 130 & 131) 
EL Corvus torquatus Lesson (China) 

3:233 1 9 

3 Temple of Heaven, Peking. 

1048 Corvus splendens zugmayeri Laub- 
mann (Las Belas, Baluchistan) Sind House 
Crow 1:34 

33 : 19 $ $ 11 5 9 3 o? 

3 Rawalpindi, N.W.F.P.; 1 Dharmi State. 5000', 
N.W. Himalayas, 1 Gunderbal, near Srinagar, Kash- 
mir*, 1 Jullunder. 1 Multan, 1 Mubarikpur. 3 Am- 
bala; 1 Dadil, 2 Sehwan, Larkana; 2 Bhung, Baha- 
walpur, 3 Mewashah, 1 Korangin, 1 Dhakeri, 1 
Dakejee, Karachi, Sind; 2 Bikanir, 2 Pirotan, Gulf 
of Kutch, 2 Mandvi, 1 Tapkeshwari, Bhuj; 1 Dwar- 
ka, Okhamandal, 2 Hingolgad, Jasden, Kathiawar. 
1 Radhanpur, North Gujarat. 

Ticehurst (1922, Ibis, p. 536) said "The 
Sind race differs from the typical one in hav- 
ing a much paler collar and underparts (as 
Hume noted), pale smoke grey in fresh 
feather, creamy grey or dirty white in worn 
dress". Young birds are darker than the adults. 

As in nominate splendens (q.v.) there is 
some variation in the shade of grey on the 
neck. Of the three from Rawalpindi (all Feb- 

* Whistler (JB 29:160) referred to an isolated 
colony in the Kashmir Valley and Ticehurst (JB 31 : 
692) states that its occurrence at Muscat in Arabia 
must be due to introduction. 



ruary) the two males are pale, while the 
female could be matched with many from 
Peninsular India. Similarly, the four from Am- 
bala district are a little darker and interme- 
diate between nominate splendens and zugma- 
yeri. All 12 (8 d c* 4 5 9 ) collected between 
26 April and 13 October have worn feathers 
round the neck, which show collars of sandy 
or dirty white in varying shades, quite diffe- 
rent from that attained by nominate splendens. 
Accepting this as a racial character, the speci- 
mens from Pirotan in the Gulf of Kutch, Kutch 
and Saurashtra, all agree with zugmayeri, 
though Salim Ali has specifically held that 
this race does not occur south of the Rann, 
and identified the Kutch birds (also one from 
Larkana, Sind) as of the nominate form. 
Birds from Larkana and Bhung, Bahawalpur, 
have the palest collars. Of the two females 
from Mandvi, Kutch, one agrees with zugma- 
yeri and the other with nominate splendens. 

The four from Jullunder (1), Multan (1) 
and Bikanir (2), are albinoids in varying 
phases of grey and brown, and are included 
here on geographical grounds. The two from 
Bikanir were obtained in 1913 and 1940. 

Measurements on p. 98. 

1049 Corvus splendens splendens Vieillot 
(Bengal) Indian Hovse Crow 1:33 

35: 16 $$ (2 juv.) 12 9 9 (2 juv.) 7 o? (1 
head only, 1 pure, 1 partial albino, 1 isabelline). 

1 Bharatpur, 1 Meerut; 1 Jalar, Jodhpur; 1 Gir, 
Amreli; 5 Bandra, 1 Andheri, 9 Bombay; 2 Kihim, 
Kolaba; 2 Nagpur; 1 Ulavi, 1 Kambally Kopa, 
Sagar, Mysore; 1 Edanad, Chengamner, 1 James- 
town, Kanyakumari; 1 Vyampapti, Trichinopoly, 1 
Karumbapatti, Salem; 1 Bhopalapatnam, Bastar; 1 
Bhagowni, 1 Darbhanga, Bihar; 1 Calcutta; 2 no 
locality. 

Reference has already been made to the ap- 
preciable variations in colour in zugmayeri 
and it is no less in this subspecies, o* No. 90 
from Vyampapti, Trichinopoly, (9 July) has 



90 



[382] 



BIRDS IN BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY COLLECTION— 22 



a grey neck as pale as others listed as zugma- 
yeri, but the nature of the worn grey feathers 
in the latter is distinctive and I would prefer 
to leave the birds from the Gulf of Kutch and 
the northern and western coasts of Kathiawar 
with them. A single d 1 (No. 19789 dated 15 
March) from the Gir, in southern Kathiawar, 
appears to be nominate splendens. Some addi- 
tional specimens of this common species from 
different parts of Kathiawar, Gujarat, Rajas- 
than, Delhi, etc., are necessary to permit more 
certain decisions regarding the determination 
of the limits of the two subspecies. 
Measurements on p. 98. 

1050 Corvus splendens protegatus Madaras 
z (Mt. Lavinia, W.P., Ceylon) Ceylon House 
Crow 1:35 

3:1322$ 

1 Colombo, 2 Ceylon. 

Birds from Kerala are said to be of this 
subspecies but I would prefer to leave the 
material available among the variations in 
nominate splendens which does become a little 
darker in the southwest. 

Ceylon birds the colour of the hindneck 
grades almost imperceptibly into that of the 
back, but the line of demarcation is distinct in 
Indian birds. 

Measurements on p. 98. 

1051 Corvus splendens maledivicus Reiche- 
now (Maldives). 

nil. 

EL Corvus splendens insolens Hume (Ten- 
asserim) Burmese House Crow 1:34 
8:4 $ $ (1 juv.) 4 2 9 (1 juv.) 

2 Maymyo; 6 Prome, Lower Burma. 

The adults show no trace of a pale collar. 
The three adult females, all taken on 8 March 
1929, are duller than the males. Both juve- 
niles, though fully feathered, are browner than 
the adults. 



1052 Corvus frugilegus fmgilegus Linna- 
eus (Sweden) Rook 1:14 

14: 5 $ $ (2 imm.*) 4 9 2 (2 imm.) o? 5 (3 
imm.) * with nasal bristles 

2 Sheikh Saad, 2 Shatt-al-Adhain. River Tigris, 
1 Samarra, 1 Baghdad, 2 Mesopotamia; 2 Meshed, 
3000', 1 Amirabad, near Birjand, Iran; 2 Rawal- 
pindi; N.W.F.P.; 1 Jhelum, Punjab. 

Though Hartert's tschusii is no longer ac- 
cepted, the last three from Pakistan have noti- 
ceably narrower and longer ( 63.5 cf. 53.5- 
62 av. 57.7; ? 9 60, 61 cf. 54, 57.1 in 2 imm.) 
bills, the main characters on which this was 
separated (type locality Gilgit). 

EL Corvus frugilegus pastinator Gould 
(Chusan, China). 

1 $ Temple of Heaven, Peking. 

Wing 329; bill 60.7; tarsus 49.5; tail 190. 

1053 Corvus monedula mcnedula Lin- 
naeus (Sweden) Jackdaw 1:36 

8 : 6 $ $ (1 juv.) 1 2 juv. 1 o? juv. 

1 Baghdad, Mesopotamia; 2 Chitral, 2 Peshawar, 
N.W.F.P.; 1 Srinagar, 1 Kashmir Valley, 1 Kash- 
mere. 

Fischer's soemmeringi from Moscow, though 
accepted in Peter's Check-list (1962), is not 
recognised in Indian handbook. 

The bird from Baghdad has the smallest 
wing and bill. 

Measurements on p. 97. 

1054 Corvus macrorhynchos infermedius 
Adams (Kashmir, Dagshai, and Simla, res- 
tricted to Kashmir) Himalayan Jungle Crow. 

1:28 

26: 18 $ $ 6 2 2 2 o? 

1 Khalid Drosh, 2 Chitral, N.W.F.P.; 1 Marge, 
above Kongan, Sind Valley, 1 Wulur Lake, 2 Lidar 
Valley 9500', 1 Gilgit, Kashmir; 1 Keonthal, 1 
Koti, 8 Simla; 6 Mussoorie, 1 Darjeeling 5500', 
U.P.; 1 no data (A. E. Jones Collection No. 14). 

Except for 3 d cf Nos. 38 Gilgit, 39 and 
44 Lidar Valley, and 1 2 No. 15642 Simla, 
all the others have white bases to the feathers 
of the nape. No. 44 from Lidar Valley has 



[383] 



91 



JOURNAL. BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY. Vol. 77 



brown underparts. The bill illustrated in 
Indian handbook (5, p. 252) is larger than 
in any specimen available. 
Measurements on p. 98. 

1055 Corvus rnacrorhynchos levaillanti 
Lesson (Bengal) Eastern Jungle Crow. 1:2 
8:4 8 $ 2 9 9 2 o? 

1 Bourini, 1 Godavery, Nepal; 1 *Gangtok. Sik- 
kim; 1 *Tezu, Lohit Valley, Assam; 1 Tiddim, Chin 
Hills, 1 s.-e. Maymyo, 1 *Kyithe, Prome; 1 *Legon- 
gyi, Henzada, Burma. 

No topotypes are available and these birds 
separated on geographical groups are not dis- 
tinctly separable from intermedins. The deeply 
bowed-bill is visible only in four (2 9 9 2 o?) 
marked with an asterisk, but 6 males (no 
female) of intermedins from Mussoorie, Simla 
and Gilgit share this character. 

All the birds from Chitral, Kashmir and 
Simla, have their tail-wing ratio over 60 (upto 
67), while those from Mussoorie and east- 
wards average under 60%. The relatively 
longer tail appears to be a consistent feature 
of the western birds separating them from all 
the other races referred to here. Except in 
Nos. 37 Gangtok and 55 Tiddim, Chin Hills, 
the nape feathers are grey. 

Measurements on p. 93. 

1055a Corves rnacrorhynchos andaman- 
ensis Tytler = Beavan (Port Blair, Andamans) 
Andaman Jungle Crow. 

7:433299 1 o? 

1 Middle Button I., 2 Wrightmyo, 4 Port Blair, 
South Andamans. 

The nape feathers, as in levaillantii. are both 
grey or white and the measurements of the 
wing and tail can be included with them; but 
the bills are much heavier (the largest J 1 65.5 
not deeply bowed) which, together with the 
plaintive and less harsh call (see JBNHS 61, 
p. 555), appear to be sufficient to retain the 
island race. 



Measurements on p. 98. 

1056 Corvus rnacrorhynchos tibetosinensis 

Kleinschmidt & Wiegold (South-east Tibet in 
the Sifan Region) Tibetan Jungle Crow. 

2:1 $ 1 o? 

1 Sadiya, Upper Assam; 1 no data. 

The Sadiya bird has an enormous bill, and 
is marked tibetosinensis by Salim Ali, who 
(JBNHS 48, p. 36/7) refers to this race other 
specimens taken in the area including 9 4513 
taken at Tezu, Lohit Valley. This specimen has 
a small 297 mm wing and I have left it under 
levaillantii. 

The second bird with no data was listed 
with Corvus corone orient alis but the bristles 
over the nostrils are not coarse and stiff as in 
that species. 

Much of the literature relating to earlier 
work on this species is not available in Bom- 
bay, and the whole group needs re-examina- 
tion. 

Measurements on p. 98. 

1057 Corvus rnacrorhynchos cuhninatus 

Sykes (Dukkun = Poona) Indian Jungle Crow. 

34: 11 $ $ 17 9 9 6 o? 

2 Karnal, 3 Ambala, Punjab; 1 Gir, 1 Ajwa, 
Baroda; 1 Thana, 1 Malad, 1 Bandra, 3 Mahim, 2 
Bombay; 1 Kihim, Alibag, Kolaba; 2 Khandala, 1 
Khangaon, Dhond, Poona; 1 Santgal, North Ka- 
nara; 2 Hikkeri, 1 Khambikoppa, Sagar, 1 Hona- 
metti 5000', Mysore; 2 Patton, Trivandrum, Kerala; 
2 Chitteri Range, Salem, Tamil Nadu; 1 Raipur tal, 
Nellore, A.P.; 1 Gondia. 2 Darbha, Bastar, M.P.; 
1 Kanpur, U.P.; 1 ? 

These are the darkest black. Female No. 32 
from Honametti 5000', Mysore, has the largest 
wing (315), bill (62) and tail (185), while the 
tail-wing ratio remains under 60 (58.7%). 

Measurements on p. 98. 

EL Corvus rnacrorhynchos colonorum 

Swinhoe (northeastern Formosa). 
1 9 Peking, China. 



92 



[384] 



BIRDS IN BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY COLLECTION— 22 



This is very dull coloured, but was collected 
in 1900. 

1058 Corvus corone orientalis Eversmann 
(Naryu R., Turkestan) Eastern Carrion Crow. 

1:24 

4: 3 J« 1 2 

1 Kashgar, China; 2 Ugu Nulla 14000', 1 Moul- 
bekh, Ladakh. 

The last bird collected on 3 August 1976 
has the 3 outer primaries and most of the 
secondaries brown, the others black. The fea- 
thers of the head and body are mostly brown, 
with occasional black ones showing through. 
The tail is incomplete and in heavy moult. 
Salim Ali and S. A. Hussain who obtained it 
noted others completely black in the same 
area. 

Measurements on p. 99. 

1058a Corvus corone sharpii Oates (Mar- 
dan, Punjab) Eastern Hooded Crow. 1:32 
10 : 7 $ $ 2 2 2 1 o? 

1 Amara, 1 Baghdad, Mesopotamia; 1 Teheran, 
3 Shiraz, 1 Birjand, 3 Meshed, Iran. 

No. 76, Teheran, is a juvenile female with 
a yellow bill, contra black in all the others. 
Measurements on p. 99. 

EL Corvus corone capeHinus Sclater (Fao, 
Southern Iraq) 

8 : 1 $ 3 $ $ 4 o? 

1 Lake Akkakurf, near Baghdad, 1 Mohamma- 
rah, 1 Amara, 2 Basra, 2 Mesopotamia; 1 Persian 
Gulf. 

Measurements on p. 99. 

EL Corvus corone cornix Linnaeus Hood- 
ed Crow 

1 2 Mohses, Hungary. 

The bill is appreciably shorter than in the 
other races. 
Measurements on p. 99. 

1059 Corvus corax subcorax Sever tzov 
(N.W. & S.E. Turkestan) Punjab Raven 



15 : 5 $ $ 7 $ 9 3 o? 

1 Sheik Saad, Iraq; 2 Amirabad, 2 Birjand, E. 
Persia; 1 Chaman, 1 Quetta, Baluchistan; 1 Razani, 
Waziristan; 1 Rawalpindi, N.W.F.P.; 1 Chaurkana, 
Gujranwala, 1 Yahore, Punjab; 1 Bahawalpur; 1 
Jacobabad, Upper Sind; 1 Pichial Lake, Jodhpur; 
1 Ping Bet, Little Rann, Kutch. 

Some with short wings (396-412) including 
individuals with a brown wash on the head 
and other parts of the plumage were marked 
ruficollis, but if the wing measurements are 
considered along with those of the tail and the 
height of the bill, and the fact that young 
subcorax are brown, they appear to agree more 
closely with the latter rather than ruficollis. 

While the wing and tail measurements of 
subcorax and tibetanus do not overlap, some 
of the former have very massive bills. 

Measurements on p. 99. 

1060 Corvus corax tibetanus Hodgson 
(Tibet) Tibet Raven 1:23 

3:25519 

1 Tso Morari Lake, 2 Ladakh. 

While this is larger and with long neck 
hackles, the latter does not appear to be an 
infallible character for separating it from 
subcorax, some of which have them long. The 
last bird (1977) from Tso Morari is jet black, 
and is outstandingly different from all the 
others, which have probably faded. 

Measurements on p. 99. 

1061 Corvus corax ruficollis Lesson (Cape 
Verde Is.) Brown-necked Raven 1:23 

10: 1 $ 1 $ 2 2 o? 

4 Amirabad, 2 Birjand, E. Persia; 1 Persian Balu- 
chistan, 1 Chabar, Persian Gulf; 1 Nasirabad, 24 
miles west of Turbat, Mekran; 1 Panjgur, Baluchi- 
stan. 

Both ruficollis and subcorax have been taken 
at the same places in eastern Persia, and a 
reference to the specimens shows that a brown 
tinge on the upperparts and /or breast need not 
necessarily identify ruficollis. The wing range 



[385] 



93 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



in the material identified is appreciably lower 
than in sabcorax, and the depth of the bill and 
the length of the tail are also exclusive. 

The short neck hackles, the brown of the 
head and the measurements all appear to sepa- 
rate this from subcorax {supra). 

Vaurie (1954) held that ruficollis was not a 
subspecies of Corvus corax but a separate spe- 
cies. The evidence available certainly supports 
this view. 

Measurements on p. 99. 

1062 Bomby cilia garrulus garrulus (Lin- 
naeus) (Sweden) Waxwing 3:23 

3 2 9 Temple of Heaven, Paking, China. 

The bills are longer and the tails shorter than 
in both Witherby's handbook and Stuart 
Baker's fauna. If Poljokov's centralasiae 
(1915, Zansan District and Smeinogorsk, 
Southwestern Altai) is separable, the present 
specimens would distributionally be of this 
race. 

Measurements on p. 99. 

1063 Hypocolius ampelinus Bonaparte 
(NE. Africa) Grey Hypocolius 1:357 

17 : 6 $ $ 5 9 9 6 o? 

4 Sera, Tigris, 4 Shatt-al-Adhain, 1 Zad, 3 Bagh- 
dad, 1 Garradah, 1 Bushire, Mesopotamia, 2 Kuar 
Bett, Kutch; 1 Kihim, Kolaba district, Bombay. 

The males show the following variations 

Measu 



among themselves which it is not possible to 
associate with age, season or any other factor: 

(a) Two from Garradah (?) and Bushire 
(14 April) have pale, almost cream-coloured 
heads, while the two from India, 14 Novem- 
ber, Kihim, and 23 rd March, Kuar Bett, 
Kutch, have the head grey, darker than the 
back, as in the remainder. 

(b) Two have black bills, while the others 
are largely yellow (originally horny) with 
black tips. 

(c) The white patch at the tip of the wing 
is pure white only in two, the others being 
sullied by a varying amount of brown. 

The females are a pale brown all over with 
darkening tips to the tail. None of them show 
their primaries with "black terminal ends and 
white tips" as per Indian handbook 5, p. 269. 

Meinertzhagen (Ibis, 1947, p. 666) refers 
to "juvenile females being like the adult 
females, but slightly more isabelline, and the 
juvenile male being similar but with greyish 
white tips to the wing feathers". Some of the 
unsexed birds mentioned above may be young 
males, but of the three with pale tips to the 
primaries, one is a reliably sexed 9 from 
Kutch. 

Measurements on p. 99. 

REMENTS 



$ 9 



1020-1021 



EL. 

Wing 
170, 179, 1 
(165-177 

et al. 



Garrulus leucotis leucotis Hume 

Bill Tarsus 
30.6, 32, 33 32.8, 37.2, 

c. 26 c. 45 



Garrulus glandarius subspp. 



nominate $ 9 
(Br. Hand. $ 9 
haringtoni $ $ (2) 

bispecularis $ $ (8) 



180, 184 
174-195 

177, 177, 
(170-178 
161-172 av. 166.5 
($9 160-178 
(10 $ $ Central Nepal measured by B 
interstinctus $ $ (5) 157-171 av. 166 

bispecularis 9 9 (5) 170, 172, 173 

interstinctus 9 9 (5) 162-172 av. 167 

(ih $ 9 160-170 

94 



29, 30.5 
from skull 28-39 
31, 31.7 



31.5, 35.2 
39-44 
40, 43 



Tail 
128, 129, 131 
c. 130) 



140, 141 
140-152) 
138 (2) 
— ) 

144-150 av. 147.8 
c. 180) 



27.8-29.6 av. 28.8 35-39.5 av. 37.4 

c. 26 c. 32 
iswas and quoted in ind. hand. 5:20, Wing 142-153) 

28.5-30 av. 29 34.7-42 av. 38 1 30-153 av. 146 

27.5, 28, 29.5 34, 35, 38 144, 152, 158 

28.2-30.8 av. 29.7 36.3-38.6 av. 37.3 141-149 av. 144 

from skull 29-32 38-43 142-156) 

[386] 



BIRDS IN BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY COLLECTION— 22 



H 5 

2 



^S 1 



! 



MI* 



I 



sgs 1 



s 

S? ST 



Si 



5 § 



IP 



8 J 
¥ 



_ s " 

t 4 

5a 



III 



28 



s 



I 

8 
s 

3" 

s 

si 



1 



k 1 Ji 



1 ■ 1 



[387] 



95 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 




96 



[388] 



BIRDS IN BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY COLLECTION— 22 



1042-1044 Nucifraga caryocatactes subspp. 



1042 
1043 



1043 



$ $ 

rnultipunctata (3) 
hemispila (6) 
1044 macella (2) 

2 2 

1042 rnultipunctata (2) 
hemispila (4) 
1 rothschildi 



$ 3(4) 

(IH 

2 9(6) 

(IH 



Wing 

202, 207, 211 
209-220 (213) 
212, 215 

206, 207 
207-209 
193 



Bill 

36, 45.3, 47.5 
44.5-46.6 (45.9) 
43.8, 45 

47, 49.7 
45-48 
47 



Tarsus 

34, 36.5, 38 
37.5-40.5 (39) 
37, 40 

35.3, 37.6 
35.5-39.2 
34 



1045 Pyrrhocorax graeulus digitatus 



263, 281, 283, 
274-298 
254-280 
262-273 



33.2-35 

from skull 34-38 

31.5-34 

from skull 32-36 



36-45 
42-48 
35-38 
41-46 



Tail 

148, 150, 152 
132-150 (137.6) 
143, 135 

152 

131-149 (138) 
132 



Etchecopar in les oiseaux du moyen orient, p.532, states that this race is 
with the wings 280-289 mm. contra 255-279. 



162, 171, 175, 182 
174-193) 
155-171 
165-178) 

larger than the nominate 



1046, 1047 et al. Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax subspp. 





Wing 


Bill 


Tarsus 


Tail 


$ $ 










docilis (2) 


289, 298 


51.8, 54.5 


45.5, 49 


145, 147 


1047 himalayanus (4) 

2 2 
docilis (2) 


298-310 av. 307 


49.5-65 av. 56.3 


46-57 


150-160 av. 154 


273, 282 


50, 50.5 


45, 47.5 


133, 135 


1046 centralis (ih $ 2 


290-336 
mostly over 310 


from skull 50-56 


50-58 


-) 


1047 himalayanus (3) 


296, 301 (2) 


50.7, 52, 52.3 


46,50, 51 


152, 153. 163 


(IH $ 9 


291-332 


50-103 widely variable 


55-65 


-) 




1053 Corvus monedula monedula 






$$ (6) 


233-253 av. 24.1 


32-37.5 av. 34.5 


37.5-45 


132-146 av. 138 


(IH $ 2 


230-250 


32-34 


c. 44 


c. 135) 



[389] 
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97 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



1048-1050 et al. Corvus splendens subspp. 

Wing Bill Tarsus Tail 

$ 8 

1048 zugmayeri (19) 252-289 av. 272 44-52 av. 49 41-49 av. 44 150-175 av. 164 

(m$ 9 255-290 ex CBT) 

1049 splendens (14) 246-278 av. 266 47.5-52.5 av. 5.2 38.5-46 av. 42.8 145-173 av. 160 

(ih 266-284 from skull 51-56 45-51 162-175) 

1050 protegatus 250 45.5 44 145 

(ih 255-284 from skull 49-55 45-48 147-169) 

EL insolens (3) 245-255 49.1-51 42-42.5 140, 141, 150 

9 9 

1048 zugmayeri (11) 240-278 av. 261 44-51 av. 46.5 39.5-45 av. 42 150-175 av. 158.8 

(IH$ 9 255-290 ex CBT) 

1049 splendens (10) 256-279 av. 265 45-52 av. 48.2 39-46 av. 42.4 154-164 av. 157.3 

(ih 252-282 from skull 45-50 44-48 154-175) 

1050 protegatus (2) 241, 252 42.1, 46.5 38.6, 45.5 138, 150 

(ih 219-264 from skull 42-50 45-48 128-155) 

EL insolens (3) 239, 244, 248 48.2-50 41-43 134, 142, 144 

In zugmayeri, young birds are darker than adults, and in the material available the males measure 
larger than the females. 



1054-1057 et al Corvus macrorhynchos subspp. 



$ $ 

1054 intermedins (18) 

1055 levailantii (4) 
1055a andamanensis (4) 

1056 tibetosinensis 



(1 



1057 culminatus{{\\) 



9 9 

1054 intermeditis(6) 



1055 levaillantii (2) 
1055a andamanensis (2) 



1056 tibetosinensis 

1057 culminatus{\6) 



EL colonorum 



Wing 



293*, 304-362 av. 331 
(ih 311-378 

286-330 av. 309 
(ih 308-335 

303-326 av. 311.7 
(304-345 av. 325 
343, 347 

S 1 o?) 
(ih 325-380 

276-311 av. 294.6 
(ih 273-319 

296-319 av. 311 
(ih 292-343 

297, 321 
(IH 280-329 

287, 310 
(290-321 
(ih 320-341 

268-315 av. 290 
(IH 260-301 

300 



Tail 



56.5-63.5 av. 58.5 166*. 181-225 av. 200.3 

from skull 54-73 144-242) 

(* albinoid with horn-coloured bill) 

57.5- 61.5 av. 60.5 165-193 av. 182 
from skull 61-69 1 81-197) 

58.6- 65.5 av. 61.8 172-195 av. 182 5 
bills never under 58, usually over 60, upto 70) 



Tail /Wing 

ratio 
(average) 
61.3 



58.8 



69, 67 

from skull 69-73 
59-61.6 av. 60.8 
from skull 55-67 

51.5-57.8 av. 55.6 
from skull 54-65 

59, 60.5 
from skull 55-65 

60.5, 64.2 
bills as in $ $) 
from skull 60.67 
56-62 av. 57.3 
from skull 52-63 

59 



206, 198 60, 57 

201-260) 
155-181 av. 166 56.3 
156-189) 

173-210 av. 194.5 62.5 
174-224) 

186, — 58 
165-192) 
168, 177 58.5, 57 

186-240) 
153-185 av. 168 58 
147-183) 

172 57.3 



98 



[390] 



BIRDS IN BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY COLLECTION— 22 



1058 et al. Corvus corone subspp. 



1058 orientalis 

1058a sharpii 

EL capellinus 

EL comix 



8 8 (3) 
2 (1) 
(ex Vaurie $ 2 

8 $ (7) 
2 

(<5 2 

8 

2 2 
2 



(3) 



Wing 
359, 352, 305 juv. 1 
331 
345-366 
302-320 av. 312 
300 
320-340 
337 

302, 318, 323 
312 



Bill 

57.5, 54, 49.2 
50 

from skull 59-69 
50-53.7 av. 51 
48.5 

47-54 

61 

55, 56, 57.3 
43.4 



195* 



Tail 
212, 207. 
197 
200-218) 
168-190 av. 1 
175 
c. 200) 
199 

194, 195, — 
170 



1059-61 Corvus corax subspp. 



8 8 

1059 subcorax (5) 



1060 tibetanus (2) 

1061 ruficollis 



2 2 

1059 subcorax (7) 



1060 tibetanus 

1061 ruficollis 



Wing 


Bill x height at centre of nostril 


Tail 


398-443 av. 423 


62.5-68.5 av. 65.3 x 23.5-25.2 av. 24.1 


220-240 av. 226.5 


(ih 420-448 


from skull 66-78 


229-242) 


447-459 


70.5-75 x 24.5-26.8 


253-270) 


(ih 461, 477 


from skull 78-87 


266, 288) 


382 


62x20 


206 


Meinertzhagen $ 2 370-413 from skull 62-70 


-) 


405-438 av. 419 


61-68.5 av. 64.6x 23-26 av. 24.4 


221-227 av. 223 


(ih 399-430 


from skull 69, 74 


220. 223) 


485 


73 x 27.9 


266 


(ih 448-465 


from skul! 73-78 


257-260) 


348-370 av. 362 


57-65 av. 60.5 x 19.3-22.2 av. 20.9 


186-200 av. 193 


(ih $9 370-413 


from skull 62-70 


-) 



1062 Bombycilla garculus garrulus 

Wing Bill Tail 

3 2 2 115, 116 (2) 13 (2), 13.5 57, 58.5 (2) 

(112-120 10-11.5 59-67) 

1063 Hypocolius ampelinus 

Wing Bill Tail 

11 8 8 (5 by pi.) 100-105 av. 101.5 14-16.5 av. 15.5 103-116 av. 109.5 

(100-110 15-16 about 115) 

6 2 2 * 97-102 av. 99.6 14.7-16 av. 15.3 97-106 av. 100.5 

* Juvenile males may be included. 

(to be continued) 



[391] 



99 



CLUTCH SIZE, INCUBATION AND HATCHING SUCCESS 
OF GHARIAL IGAVIALIS GANGETICUS (GMELIN)] 
EGGS FROM NARAYANI RIVER. NEPAL, 1976-1Q78 1 



H. R. Bustard 2 



In troduction 

Gharial eggs were collected from 1976, in 
Narayani river, Nepal, for captive incubation 
as part of a conservation programme on the 
endangered gharial. In 1976 the eggs were 
collected by myself, in 1977 by myself in asso- 
ciation with HMG Nepal's Special Officer 
(Gharial), and in 1978 by HMG Nepal gha- 
rial staff only. 

The only published data for clutch size of 
the gharial is that of Malcolm Smith (1931) 
who stated, 

"Their eggs, 40 or more in number, are de- 
posited in sandbanks" 
and Parshad (1914), who removed 56 eggs 
from the oviducts of a 9 foot 7 inch female 
which he shot at Ferozpore. 

The data presented below as well as provid- 
ing hitherto unknown information on aspects 
of the nesting biology of the gharial allow 
comparison of clutch size, incubation and 
hatching success between years. 

Materials and methods 

Nesting took place on high riverine sand- 
banks which were protected by project staff, 
hence the date of egg laying was known pre- 

1 Accepted January 1980. 

2 Central Crocodile Breeding and Management 
Training Institute, Rajendranagar Road, 19-4-319, 
Lake Dale, Hyderabad-500 264 (A.P.). 



cisely (Bustard, in prepn. a). In 1976 eggs 
were transported to Orissa for incubation. In 
1977, in part because of the poor incubation 
results achieved in 1976, and also as part of 
a Nepalese training programme, all nests were 
incubated in Nepal. This was carried out by 
reburying the eggs as whole nests as collected 
in a mid-river sandbank at Korea Mohan 
which was enclosed by a predator-proof wood 
and wire-mesh enclosure with access through 
a hatch in the roof. 

Due to unseasonable weather in 1977 — p re- 
monsoon showers started at the time of egg- 
laying in early April and continued until the 
onset of the monsoon — this sandbank flooded 
well before hatching. Anticipating this the 
nests were all removed several weeks prior to 
hatching and completed their incubation in 
sand in metal trunks in a specially-heated room 
at Tiger Tops Jungle Lodge, Royal Chitwan 
National Park. As far as possible this room 
was maintained between 30-32°C but tempera- 
tures sometimes fell below this range. In 1978 
eggs were incubated in the same island hat- 
chery but again had to be moved due to early 
floods, this time to the Park headquarters at 
Kasara, where the hatchery room was main- 
tained between 30-35°C with aid of heaters. 

Results 

The data recorded during the three years 
are given in Tables 1-4. The various topics 



100 



GHAR1AL FROM NARAYAN1 RIVER 



are taken up separately below: 
Clutch Size: 

Clutch size in 1976 varied from 18 to 40 
eggs (mean 28.6, Table 1). In 1977 the range 
was 16-61 (mean 36.9) eggs (Table 2) and 
in 1978 18-45 (mean 31) eggs (Tables 3 and 
4). 

The differences in mean clutch size between 
1976 and 1977 should be noted (28.6 and 36.9 
eggs) respectively — a mean increase/clutch of 
8.3 eggs in 1977 as compared to 1976. In 1978 
mean clutch size at 31 eggs was intermediate 
between the two previous years. 

Nesting Season: 

The nesting season is usually very discrete, 
at least in any one area. It proceeded up river 
towards the hill country (Bustard, in prepn. 
b). In 1976 all the nests collected on the Nara- 
yani river between Royal Chitwan National 
Park and the Indian border were laid between 
29 March and 8 April (Table 1). However, 
one nest on the Narayani upstream of the 
National Park was not laid until 19 April and 
two nests on the small stretch of the Kali-Gan- 
daki were laid nine days apart (12 and 21 
April). 

The data for 1977 show very discrete nest- 
ing by nesting area (Table 2). In 1978 nesting 
is again all very discrete, all occurring within 
six days (2-7 April) for eight nests for which 
date of laying is known (Table 3). 
Fertility: 

In many nests (see Tables 1 and 2) a siz- 
able proportion of the eggs would appear to 
be infertile at least according to the criteria 
for fertility given above. 

The mean percentage fertility in 1976 was 
50.4 (data provided by Mr. L. A. K. Singh). 
In 1977 I recorded a mean percentage fertility 
of 82.5 which would appear more normal. 
Comparable data were apparently not record- 



ed in 1978. 

Percentage Hatch: 

The percentage hatch also varied greatly 
(Table 1-4) from a low of 24.2% (1976) to 
a high of 75.1% (1977). The overall figure 
for 1978 was 52.5% but this is increased to 
65.3%- if the results of the three nests left 
for natural incubation are not included. 

Incubation Period: 

The mean for the incubation period for the 
three years (excluding those three nests left 
in nature in 1978) were 84, 94 and 83 
days for the years 1976, 1977 and 1978 res- 
pectively (Tables 1-3). The considerable varia- 
tions within any one year should be noted, 
the incubation spread being 16, 15 and 8 
days in each of the three years respectively. 

Discussion 
Inter-year variations in clutch size: 

Major interest centres around the large 
mean differences in clutch size between years. 
It is known that in many species of reptiles, 
larger (older) females lay more eggs (Bustard 
1972), although this is not necessarily the case, 
as some species would appear to be exceptions 
(Bustard, ibid.). However, at least in those 
species laying larger egg clutches inter-year 
differences in clutch size or total egg produc- 
tion, may be more important than any effect 
of larger clutches from larger females, as 
shown by Bustard (ibid.) on the basis of very 
extensive data for the green sea turtle (C. 
mydas), a species in which clutch size is posi- 
tively correlated with female size. 

Bustard postulated that these inter-year 
differences in egg production by C. mydas, 
may reflect differing feeding opportunities in 
the inter-nesting years spent at sea. In the case 
of the gharial, data were recorded on a small 
number of breeding females which presumably 
bred annually. The 1976 data (on nine nests) 



101 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



shows a mean clutch size of 25.5 eggs where- 
as the 1977 data (on 16 nests) shows a mean 
clutch size of 36.9 eggs — a mean increase/ 
clutch of 11.4 eggs. No obvious explanation 
is available to explain these differences. In 
1978 the data on 10 nests gave an intermediate 
figure of 31.0 eggs. These differences cannot 
be explained on the basis of sampling biases 
as an attempt was made to collect every nest 
each year. 

An examination of the distribution of clutch 
size variations in the various years indicates 
that in all three years there were no clutches 
of under 10 eggs (the smallest clutches in the 
three years were 16, 16 and 18 eggs respec- 
tively). The largest clutch sizes were 39, 61 
and 45 eggs respectively. However, the mean 
of 36.9 eggs in 1977 reflects a marked shift 
towards larger clutch sizes in all nests. Twelve 
(of 16) nests fell in the 31-40 clutch size 
group in 1977 and three occurred in larger 
groups as opposed to three (of 9) in this group 
in 1976 which represented the largest clutch 
size grouping in 1976. 

Discrete nesting season: 

The discrete nesting season of this popula- 
tion of the gharial has been commented upon 
elsewhere for the 1977 nesting season (Bus- 
tard, in prepn. b). The data presented here 
indicates that a very discrete nesting season 
characterised all three years. 

Fertility : 

A percentage of apparently infertile eggs 
are a feature of most reptiles which deposit 
large clutches of eggs. However, the percentage 
fertility figure for 1976 (of 50.4%) should be 
treated with caution as it appears abnormally 
low. It seems likely that some early embryo- 
nic deaths may have remained undetected at 
subsequent examination. The 82.5% figure for 
1977 is considered more normal. Examination 



of the intra-nest data (Table 2) indicates that 
fertility varies from a high of 100% (two 
nests) to a low of 22.8% but with the excep- 
tion of this single nest and one of 59% the 
lowest per cent fertility recorded was 73%. 

Percentage Hatch: 

The percentage hatch figures are clearly 
closely related to the level of fertility. Exami- 
nation of the detailed data for 1977 shows 
that most fertile eggs result in hatchlings. The 
differences between fertility and percentage 
hatch figures are accounted for by embryonic 
deaths — which except for exceptional circum- 
stances such as flooding — are usually relatively 
few. 

Hatching results were extremely poor in 
1976. Reasons for this are not known. The 
distance over which the eggs were transported, 
1400 km. was not a key factor, gharial eggs 
often being transported over very long dist- 
ances in the Project either freshly laid or two- 
thirds incubated and subsequently achieve very 
high levels of successful hatch (Bustard in 
prepn. a.; and S. Choudhury, unpubl.). The 
1977 hatching figures (75%), on the other 
hand are surprisingly good, as nest tempera- 
tures were extremely low (near 28.3C) due to 
the persistant wet weather throughout the in- 
cubation period (Bustard, in prepn. b). Fur- 
thermore, these eggs were dug up twice during 
incubation, once when freshly laid, and again 
towards the end of the incubation period, to 
complete their incubation in a heated room 
where, in the absence of electricity, tempera- 
tures were frequently less than ideal. The 1978 
hatch (65%) was likewise achieved by HMG 
Nepal staff despite having to move the eggs 
twice at similar times to 1977. 

Natural nest failures: 

The reason for the very poor incubation 
success of at least two of three nest left in 



102 



GHARIAL FROM NARAYANI RIVER 



Table 1 



Date 


OF EGG 


LAYING, NESTING SITE, 


CLUTCH SIZE, 


HATCHING 


SUCCESS AND 


INCUBATION PERIOD 


(days) in 








1976. 










Nest 


Date of 


Location 


Clutch 


Number 


Percentage 


Number Percentage Iucubation 


No. 


Laying 




Size 


Fertile 


Fertile 


Hatched 


Hatched 


Period 


1. 


29/3 


Narayani River 


27 


19 


70.4 


4 


14.8 


85 


2+3* 


3/4 


Narayani River 


41 


33 


80.5 


13 


31.7 


85-6 


4. 


5/4 


Narayani River 


18 


17 


94.4 


3 


16.7 


83 


5. 


8/4 


Narayani River 


39 


20 


51.3 


17 


43.6 


76 


6. 


8/4 


Kali-Gandaki 


32 


29 


90.6 


23 


71.9 


92 


7. 


12/4 


Kali-Gandaki 


24 


0 


0 


0 


0 




8. 


19/4 


Narayani River 


33 


22 


66.7 


5 


15.2 


84-5 


9. 


21/4 


Kali-Gandaki 


16 


0 


0 


0 


0 




Mean 






25.5 




50.4 




24.2 


84 



* These nests were collected by local people and the eggs mixed prior to their reaching project staff. 



Table 2 

Date of egg laying, nesting site, clutch size, hatching success and incubation period (days) in 

1977. 



Nest Date of Clutch Number Percentage Number Percentage Incubation 

No. Laying Size Fertile Fertile Hatched Hatched Period 



1. 


4/4 


39 


23 


59.0 


22 


56.4 


95 


2. 


4/4 


16 


12 


75.0 


8 


50.0 


94-6 


3. 


1/4 


47* 


36 


78.2 


25 


54.3 


98-102 


4. 


6/4 


38* 


27 


73.0 


25 


67.5 


93-95 


5 


2/4 


33* 


32 


100.0 


32 


100.0 


99 


6 


1/4 


32 


32 


100.0 


28 


90.6 


95 


7. 


3/4 


61 


53 


90.6 


50 


82.9 


95-7 


8. 


31/3 


31 


29 


93.5 


29 


93.5 


99-101 


9. 


31/3 


50*** 


36 


76.6 


36 


76.6 


101-2 


10. 


3/4 


34 


32 


94.1 


28 


82.3 


96 


11. 


8/4 


37* 


33 


91.7 


33 


89.1 


91-2 


12. 


14/4 


35 


8 


22.8 


8 


22.8 


89 


13. 


14/4 


37* 


33 


91.7 


33 


91.6 


88-89 


14. 


8/4 


31 


27 


87.1 


22 


70.9 


90-91 


15. 


9/4 


37** 


35 


100.0 


34 


97.1 


87-8 


16. 


10/4 


33* 


28 


87.5 


25 


75.7 


89-90 


Mean 




36.9 




82.5 


+ 


75.1 


94 



Note: Due to damage at the lime of laying the number incubated may vary slightly from the number 
laid. Clutches marked (*) indicate that 1 egg less, (**) 2 eggs less and (***) 3 eggs less that 
the clutch size was incubated. 



103 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Table 3 



Date of egg leying, 


NESTING SITE, CLUTCH SIZE, 


HATCHING SUCCESS AND 


INCUBATION PERIOD 


(days) in 






1978. All places named refer to 


Narayani River. 




Nest 


Date of 


Location 


Clutch 


Number 


Percentage 


Incubation 


No 


Laying 




Size 


Hatched 


Hatched 


Period 


1. 


3/4 


Tamaspur 


45 


40 


88.8 


84 


2. 


3/4 


Badarjhola 


44 


18 


n? 


85-7 


3. 


4/4 


Badarjhola 


42 


40 


95.2 


83-4 


4. 


5/4 


Tamaspur 


25 


17 


73.9 


83 


5. 


6/4 


Tamaspur 


18 


2 


11.1 


89 


6. 


6/4 


Tamaspur 


29 


25 


86.2 


81 


7. 


7/4 


Tamaspur 


24 


5 


20.8 


83 


Mean 






32.4 




65.3 


83 








Table 4 








Date of 


EGG LAYING 


, NESTING SITE, CLUTCH SIZE, HATCHING 


SUCCESS AND 


INCUBATION PERIOD 


(DAYS) FOR 






THREE NESTS LEFT FOR 


NATURAL INCUBATION IN 


1978 





Nest 
No 



Date of 
Laying 



Location 



Clutch 
Size 



Number 
Hatched 



Percentage 
Hatched 



Incubation 
Period 



Not recorded 
Not recorded 
2-4-1978 



Badarjhola 
Badarjhola 
Deoghat 



56.5 
0 

6.0 
31. 



Not known 
Not known 
105 



* Eggs markedly smaller than normal. 

nature in 1978 is not known. 

The clutch of markedly smaller eggs may 
well have been defective. The HMG Nepal 
report (Maskey and Ram Pritt 1978) does 
not provide information on this point. It 
v/ould seem, however, that early onset of the 
monsoon resulted in water logging of the nests, 
resulting in total loss of two nests and loss of 
most of the eggs in the third nest the only 
eggs hatching being the uppermost which were 
not flooded. A similar situation has been ob- 
served in the Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus 
porosus) by Webb et al. (1977) and by Kar 
and Bustard (in prepn.). In the absence of 



concrete data this is purely hypothesis, how- 
ever, Bustard (in prepn. b), on the basis of his 
data, stated that in 1977 most natural nests 
in Narayani would have failed to hatch be- 
cause of water logging following early onset 
of the monsoon. It appears that this was again 
the situation in 1978. 

Incubation period : 

The means for 1976 and 1978 vary by only 
one day (83 and 84 days respectively). The 
ten-eleven day longer incubation period in 
1977 is explicable on the basis of the very 
low temperatures existing in the natural sand- 



104 



GHARIAL FROM NARAYAN1 RIVER 



banks in that year, commented on by Bustard 
(in prepn., b), as a result of pre-monsoon 
showers commencing in early April at the time 
of egg laying, and persisting until the onset 
of the monsoon proper in June. Since egg in- 
cubation is temperature-related, the persistant 
rains, which cool down the nesting sandbanks, 
result in a lengthened incubation period. 

Acknowledgements 

I am indebted to; HMG Nepal National 
Parks and Wildlife Conservation Office, in 
particular the respective Chiefs, Mr. P. B. S. 
Pradhan and Mr. B. B. Shah, for authorities 
to carry out this work; Mr. H. Mishra, Gov- 



ernment Biologist; Mr. Ram Pritt Yadav, 
Special Officer (Gharial) who worked with me 
in 1977; Tiger Tops Pvt. Limited in particular 
Mr. Jim Edwards, Mr. John Edwards and Dr. 
C. McDougal for many kindnesses, assistances 
and provision of an incubation room in 1977; 
Mr. L. A. K. Singh for information on hatch- 
ing success of 1976 eggs; Mr. Ashish Chan- 
dola for assistance in the operation of the 
heated hatchery at Tiger Tops in 1977; and 
Mr. P. C. Pani, Range Officer, Gharial Pro- 
ject, Orissa, who accompanied me to Nepal 
during both the 1976 and 1977 egg collections 
and greatly facilitated the logistical side of the 
operation. 



References 



Bustard, H. R. (1972): Sea Turtles: Conserva- 
tion and Natural History. Collins, London and 
Sydney. 

(in prepn., a) : Conservation of the 

Gharial Gavialis gangeticus (Gmelin) (Reptilia; 
Crocodilia) in Nepal. 

(In prepn., b) : Nesting Ecology of 

the Gharial Gavialis gangeticus (Gmelin) in 
Narayani River, Nepal. 

Choudhary, S. (1980): Ecological Studies on the 
Gharial Gavialis gangeticus (Gmelin). Ph.D. 
thesis. University of Lucknow. 

Kar, S. & Bustard, H. R. (in prepn.) : Nesting 



ecology of the Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus 
porosus Schneider). 

Maskey, T. M. & Yadav, R. P. (1978): Report 
on Gharial Breeding. Unpubl. Rep. to HMG Nepal. 
National Parks and Wild Life Conservation Ofiice. 

Smith, Malcolm (1931): The Fauna of British 
India. Reptilia and Amphibia. 1 Loricata, Testudmes. 
Taylor & Francis. London. 

Webb, G. J. Messel, H. and Magnusson, W. 
(1977): The nesting of Crocodylus porosus in Arn- 
hem Land, Northern Territory, Australia. 
Copcia 1977 (2): 238-249. 

Parshad, B. (1914): The Gharial (Gavialis gan- 
geticus). J. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 23: 369-370. 



105 



NEW DESCRIPTIONS 



PSEUDOSCORPIONS FROM SOUTH INDIA— FOUR NEW SPECIES 
OF THE FAMILY CHERNETIDAE MANGE AND CHELIFERIDAE 
HAGEN (PSEUDOSCORPIONIDA, MONOSPHYRONIDA) 1 



S. SlVARAMAN 2 

{With four text-figures) 

Lamprochemes indicus sp. nov. of the family Chernetidae Mange and Withius suis 
sp. nov., Metawithius (Microwithius) chamundicnsis and M. (M.) bulli sp. nov. 
are described from South India and compared with related species. A Key to the 
new species is also given. 



Introduction 

The members of the super family Chelife- 
roidea, Chamberlin are widely distributed in 
Continental India. A number of species were 
described from India and Ceylon by Beier 
(1973, 1974) and Murthy and Ananthakrish- 
nan (1977). In the present paper, new species 
of the genera Lamprochemes Tomosvary, 
Withius Kew and Metawithius Chamberlin are 
described. Lamprochemes indicus sp. nov. and 
Withius suis sp. nov. were collected from soil 
litter by using modified Berlese funnel (Siva- 
raman 1979) and Metawithius species were 
collected from bark of trees. The type mate- 
rial is deposited in the Museum of the De- 
partment of Zoology, Loyola College, Mad- 
ras. 

Key to the new species of Families Chernetidae 

AND CHELIFERIDAE : 

1 . Accessory teeth absent : both palpal fingers with 
equally developed venom tooth and venedens; 

1 Accepted February 1980. 

" Department of Zoology, Loyola College, Mad- 
ras 600 034, India. 



flagellum with 4-5 setae; Sternites of male most- 
ly with special Setigerous area; (Family Cheli- 
feridae Hagen and subfamily Withinae Cham- 
berlin) 2 

Accessory teeth present atleast in smaller num- 
bers; only the movable finger of the palp with 
venom tooth and venedens; very rarely with 
rudimentary venedens on the fixed finger, if so, 
the accessory teeth very clear. (Family Cherne- 
tidae, Mange) .. .Lamprochemes indicus sp. nov. 

2. Carapace with sides subparallel, as wide at the 
region of the anterior furrow as at the posterior 
border; males with patches of microsetae on 
Sternites V to IX or X (both inclusive) with 
true eyes ■. Withius suis sp. nov. 

Carapace broader at the anterior furrow region 
or slightly anterior there to; sides converging 
abruptly infront and gradually to the rear; 
males with patches of microsetae on Sternites 
VII to TX. (both inclusive) only with eye-spots. 
(Genus Metawithius Chamberlin and subgenus 
Microwithius Redikozev) 3 

3. Serrula exterior with 17 blades; palpal and 
pedal podomeres slender Meta- 
withius (Microwithius) chamundicnsis sp. nov. 
Serrula exterior with 15 blades; palpal and pedal 

podomeres stouter 

Metawithius (Microwithius) bulli sp. nov. 



106 



NEW DESCRIPTIONS 



Lamprochernes indicus sp. nov. (Fig. 1) 
Carapace and palps dark yellowish brown 
and the remaining parts light yellowish brown; 
carapace smooth, with rounded granules on 
the lateral margins; with anterior prominent 
groove, nearly median and posterior groove 
obscure and nearly median between anterior 
groove and posterior margin of carapace; eyes 
or eye-spots absent; anterior end with 8, pos- 
terior margin with 10 setae; carapace distinct- 
ly longer than broad, 1.25 times as long as 
wide. 

Tergites fairly sclerotised; all tergites and 
sternites except I, II and III divided more or 
less clearly by a nearly linear suture; tergites 
1 and II markedly narrowed; tergal chaetotaxy 
of an imperfect biseriate type, with about 6 



discal and 16 marginal setae, posteriorly with 
6 discal and 20 marginal setae; sternal chae- 
totaxy similar, with 6 discal and 18 to 20 mar- 
ginal setae; tergites with prominent lateral 
maculae or spots occupying nearly the full 
outer half of each scute; but less prominent 
on sternites; X tergite with 2 and XI tergite 
with 6 pseudotactile setae and X and XI 
sternites with two pseudotactile setae each; 
pleural membrane reticulostriate. Vestitural 
setae long, slender and acuminate. 

Palm of the chelicera with reticulate mark- 
ings, with 5 setae sb and b short; flagelium 
with 3 blades; fixed finger with 3 terminal 
serrations followed by 3 triangular teeth; api- 
cal tooth of the movable finger well developed, 
subapical tooth blunt; lamina interior with 4 




0 3mm 

Fig. 1. Lamprochernes indicus sp. nov. A— Chela lateral view; B — Palp entire ($). 



107 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



dentate sub-apical lobes; serrula exterior with 
17 ligulate blades; galea of the male stout and 
short and of female, prominent with 3 ter- 
minal and 2 subterminal curved branches; 
galea seta long and acuminate; shorter than 
galea and equal to the length of galea in the 
male. Chelicerae, 2.5 times as long as deep, 
1.5 times as long as the movable finger. 

Palps longer than the body, segments fair- 
ly robust; finely granulated on the flexor mar- 
gins of femur, tibia and near the base of chelal 
fingers. Trochanter coarsely granulated, with 
a prominent cone-like protruberance; 1.75 to 
1.8 times as long as wide; femur robust, gently 
concave anteriorly and strongly convex post- 
eriorly; pedicellate; slightly shorter than tibia 
1.34 time as long as trochanter and 1.75 to 
1.85 times as long as wide; tibia slightly but 
distinctly shorter than carapace; with a curv- 
ed pedicel, 1.85 to 1.95 times as long as wide; 
chela robust; pedicellate, 2.45 to 2.55 times 
(with pedicel), 2.28 to 2.35 times (without 
pedicel) as long as wide; hand more or less 
conical in dorsal view, slightly longer than 
tibia; 1.41 to 1.45 times (with pedicel), 1.22 
to 1.28 times (without pedicel) as long as 
wide; fingers gently curved and only slightly 
longer than the breadth of hand and shorter 
than the length of hand; chela, 1.84 times as 
long as tibia; fixed finger with 29 and movable 
finger with 32 marginal teeth; movable finger 
with four accessory teeth opposite to the 10th 
to 21st marginal teeth at regular intervals; the 
exterior accessory teeth absent; fixed finger 
with two subapical accessory teeth interiorly 
nearer to the 4th and 5th marginal teeth; sb 
and b separated by three areolar diameters; 
st in between t and sb; nodus ramosus oppo- 
site to 18th marginal tooth and cauded to t; 
et nearly terminal, opposite to 7th marginal 
teeth; it distad of median and much distal 
of est; est and ist about opposite to each 



other; the distance between the finger tip and 
it more than the distance between isb and ist; 
isb, ib, esb and eb proximal of basal marginal 
teeth; a submedian pseudotactile seta occurr- 
ing on each finger; two dense sensory — spots 
interiorly between ist and isb; four such spots 
proximed of isb and esb; three more sensory 
spots distal of esb exteriorly; movable finger 
devoid of such spots. 

Legs stout, smooth with vestitural setae; 
basi femur shorter than telofemur and mov- 
ably articulated. 

Leg. I: femur (both segments), 2.89 times; 
tibia, 3.82 times and tarsus, 3.8 times as long 
as deep. Vestitural setae of tibia and tarsus 
long and acuminate. Leg IV: femur (both 
segments), 3.5 times; tibia, 3.88 times; tarsus, 
4.18 times as long as deep. Leg III with one 
pseudotactile seta at the middle region of the 
tarsus and Leg IV with pseudotactile setae 
one at the distal half of tibia and another at 
the 1 /3rd of the proximal half of tarsus. 

Male genitalia of characteristic lamprocher- 
netine type, female genitalia simple with tuft 
of 18 setae in the anteriomedial region and 
posteriorly guarded with a row of 10 setae. 
Holotype: female (Measurements in mm.): 

Total body length, 2.380; abdominal 
breadth, 0.780; carapace, 0.612 by 0.489; che- 
licera, 0.334 by 0.133; movable finger, 0.289 
long. 

Palps: trochanter, 0.311 by 0.178; femur, 
0.417 by 0.234; tibia, 0.478 by 0.256; chela, 
0.878 (without pedicel, 0.812) by 0.356; hand, 
0.500 (without pedicel, 0.434) by 0.356; fing- 
ers, 0.378 Jong. 

Leg I: miofemur, 0.289 by 0.100; tibia, 
0.234 by 0.061; tarsus, 0.211 by 0.056. Leg 
IV: miofemur, 0.467 by 0.133: tibia, 0.345 
by 0.089; tarsus, 0.256 by 0.061. 

Collected from soil litter, Bangalore, Kar- 
nataka, 10-7-1977. 



108 



NEW DESCRIPTIONS 



Allotype: male (Measurements in mm): 

Total body length, 2.18; maximum width, 
0.712. Collected from soil litter, Bangalore, 
Karnataka, 10.7.1977. 

Paratype: 2 females and one male collected 
from the same locality, 10-7-1977. 

This new species is very closely related to 
L. oblongus (Say) in having st of the movable 
palpal finger in the middle in between sb and / 
and the palpal fingers shorter than that of 
hand without pedicel. It could be separated 
from the same by the stouter nature of palpal 
femur and slender nature of chela (L. indicus 
— femur, 1.75 to 1.85 times and chela with 
pedicel, 2.45 to 2.55 times as long as wide; 
L. oblongus — femur, 2.0 times and chela, 2.3 
times as long as wide) and the elongated 
nature of the body. L. indicus sp. nov. can be 
separated from L. savignyi (Simon), record- 



ed from India by Beier, by the position of 
st in between t and sb and stouter nature of 
palpal femur and tibia. 

Withius suis sp. nov. (Fig. 2) 
Carapace well sclerotised, anterior 1/3 re- 
gion reddish and posterior 2/3 region brown- 
ish in males; moderately sclerotised in females; 
carapacal furrows distinct; anterior furrow 
slightly anterior to the first pair of legs and 
the posterior in a level with second pair of 
legs; anterior region deeply convex and the 
posterior region much flattened; sides sub- 
parallel with the maximum width in the pos- 
terior region; postero-lateral regions membran- 
ous; anterior pair of eyes well developed; sur- 
face of the carapace with a large number of 
well distributed plumose setae; anterior end 
with 6 and posterior end with 12 such setae; 
carapace, 1.31 times as long as wide. 




0-imm 

Fig. 2. Withius suis sp. nov. A— Pedipalp entire ( $ ) ; B— Chela lateral view. 



109 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Tergites brownish; well sclerotised; tergites 
completely divided excepting XII; tergites I 
to III uniseriate and the rest biseriate; tergal 
chaetotaxy of male; 12—12—12—6/10—6/10 
—6/12 — 6/10 — 6/12 — 6/10 —6/8 — 8— 
2m., female with lesser number of setae with 
the chaetotaxy: 8—10—12—2/10—2/8—4/10 
—4/10— 4/10— 10— 2m. Sternites less sclero- 
tised than the tergites; sternites IV to X com- 
pletely divided; sternal chaetotaxy of female 
from the IV sternite: 2/12—2/10—4/12—4/ 
12— 4/10— 4/10-4/8— 10— 2m. (The num- 
bers in the upper row indicate the discal 
series and those in the lower row indicate the 
marginal series). Sternal chaetotaxy of male 
characteristic; sternite IV to IX with bristle 
patches in the median region of the scute, 
each patch with 25 to 30 setae; more setae 
are seen in the posterior sternites. Sternite X 
with 14 setae, XI with 8 setae and XII with 
2 setae; X and XI tergites and sternites with 
four pseudotactile setae each. 

Palm of the chelicera nongranulated but 
with net like markings; with 5 setae; Is, es 
and is long; sb and b short and acuminate; 
fixed finger with 3 terminal serrations follow- 
ed by 4 triangular teeth; lamina interior well 
developed with an elongated apical dentate 
process; apical tooth of the movable finger 
curved and blunt and subapical tooth flattened 
and blunt; galea of male short, stout with 
three terminal vestigeal bud-like projections, 
galea of female stout with two terminal and 
one subterminal branches; galeal seta equal 
to the length of galea; serrula exterior with 
14 blades; flagellum with 4 blades, distal one 
serrated; chelicerae, 1.73 times as long as 
deep and 1.36 times as long as movable 
finger. 

Palps reddish brown, dorsal tubercle of tro- 
chanter, flexor and extensor margins of femur 
and tibia well and coarsely granulated; most 



of the vestitural setae of the trochanter, femur 
and tibia plumose; trochanter with a short 
pedicel and dorsal tubercle; 1.83 times as long 
as wide; femur with a short pedicel; extensor 
margin strongly convex and the flexor margin 
more or less straight; 3.24 times as long as 
wide; tibia with a long pedicel, which 1| 
times as long as wide; clavate; 2.79 times as 
long as wide; chela slender with a short pedi- 
cel, 3.78 times (with pedicel), 3.0 times (with- 
out pedicel) as long as wide; hand shorter 
than femur and tibia and much longer than 
fingers; 2.17 times (with pedicel), 1.83 times 
(without pedicel) as long as wide, fingers, 
0.74 times as long as the hand (with pedicel) 
and 0.43 times as long as the chela (with 
pedicel); fingers equal in length; ist of the 
fixed finger proximal in position, est closer 
to et than to esb; almost in the middle region 
of the finger; ib and eb in a same level; it 
below the level of est and proximal in posi- 
tion. Venom glands and venom ducts well 
developed in both the fingers; movable finger 
with 32 teeth of which the proximal teeth are 
flattened and fixed finger with 30 retroconical 
teeth. 

Legs yellowish in female and brownish in 
male; weakly granulated; vestitural setae 
mostly acuminate and in some regions clavate. 
Leg I: basifemur shorter than telofemur; basi- 
femur, 0.83 times; telofemur, 2.0 times; tibia, 
4.0 times and tarsus, 5.0 times as long as 
deep. Leg IV: miofemur robust and stout; 
longer than tibia; tibia more swollen along 
the flexor margin; miofemur, 3.03 times; 
tibia, 5.0 times and tarsus, 5.8 times as long 
as deep; without pseudotactile setae; however 
2 elongated setae are seen near the tip of the 
tarsus, claws normal, arolium simple and un- 
divided; shorter than claws. 

Male genitalia complicated with 6 setae on 
either side of the operculum; female genitalia 



110 



NEW DESCRIPTIONS 



with one median and two lateral cribriform 
plates; coxal area sexually differentiated; IV 
coxa of female broader with a cluster of acu- 
minate bristles (12) in the posterior area; 
coxal area of male simple. 
Holotype: male (Measurements in mm): 

Total body length, 2.246; maximum width, 
0.834; carapace, 0.70 by 0.534; chelicerae, 
0.211 by 0.122; fingers, 0.156 long. 

Palps: trochanter, 0.367 by 0.20; femur, 
0.612 by 0.187; tibia, 0.589 by 0.211; chela 
0.967 (without pedicel, 0.767) by 0.256; hand, 
0.556 (without pedicel, 0.467) by 0.256; fin- 
gers, 0.411 long. 

Leg I: basifemur, 0.111 by 0.133; telofe- 
mur, 0.267 by 0.133; tibia, 0.289 by 0.072; 
tarsus, 0.278 by 0.056. Leg IV: miofemur, 
0.523 by 0.172; tibia, 0.445 by 0.089; tarsus, 
0.322 by 0.056. 

Collected from debris of piggery, Madras, 
31-3-1976. 

Allotype: female (Measurements in mm): 

Total body length, 2.091; maximum width, 
0.712. 

Collected from debris of piggery, Madras, 
31-3-1976. 

This species is very closely related to With- 
ius indicus Murthy & Ananthakrishnan in 
having similar number of setae on tergites 
and sternites. It can be differentiated by the 
slender nature of palpal podomeres; the seti- 
gerous area of the sternites of males having 
lesser number of sensory spines and much 
slender nature of IV pair of walking leg. 

It can be separated from W. subruber 
(Simon) (closely related to W. indicus), by 
the galea being sexually differentiated and the 
longer nature of the body. 

Metawithius (Microwithius) chamundiensis 

sp. nov. (Fig. 3) 

Carapace brownish, densely and coarsely 



granulated; very distinctly constricted from 
the middle region towards the distal. Anterior 
transverse furrow well developed and deep, 
granulated within; posterior furrow distinct 
but shallow. Anterior furrow strongly arched 
forwards at the sides. Eye spots two, large 
and distinct and non corneate. Vestitura! 
setae mostly plumose. Anterior end of the 
carapace straight with 6 small clavate setae; 
cucullus well developed; posterior end with 10 
plumose setae. Carapace, 1.34 times as long 
as wide. 

Tergites transversely well granulated, and 
undivided; tergal setae short and strongly plu- 
mose. Chaetotaxy of male 10—10—10—8(4) 
— 10(4)/2 — 10(4) 12 — 10(4) 12 — 10(4)/ 
2— 8(4) 12— 6(2) 12— 10— 0. Tergite XI with 2 
elongated tactile setae. Sternites ill sclerotised, 
sternal setae simple and acute. Sternal chaeto- 
taxy of male from the IV sternite shows cha- 
racteristic difference 10 — 10 — 12 — 10/ 
(24) — 10(2)/(25) — 10(2)/(26) — 10(2) 
—10— 2m. The sternites VII to IX of the 
male with, roundish areas near the median line, 
each with 24 — 26 closely approximated, rather 
long and conical sensory spines. Sternite XI 
with 4 slightly elongated pseudotactile setae; 
in female the setal patches on the sternites 
absent. 

Palm of the chelicera very finely granulated 
and rasplike. All the 5 setae well developed; 
Is and is long and acuminate, es, sb and b 
of equal and of moderate length and acumi- 
nate. Flagellum with 4 blades, the second 
branch from the distal is the longest, acumi- 
nate and not serrated. Fixed finger with 3 
terminal serrations followed by 3 triangular 
teeth. Lamina interior well developed with 6 
serrations followed by 2 rounded dentate 
lobes. Basally the lamina is very broad, more 
or less closing the gap between the two fin- 
gers. Movable finger with apical tooth well 



111 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 




Fig. 3. Metawithius (Microwithius) chamundiensis sp. nov. A — Chela lateral view; 
B— Pedipalp entire ($). 



developed and subapical tooth is lobe like. 
Serrula exterior with 17 blades; in male galea 
seta equal to the length of the galea; stout 
and terminally blunt; in female galea slender 
and terminally branched with 3 rami. Cheli- 
cera, 2.11 times, as long as deep. 

Palps yellowish brown, coarsely well granu- 
lated excepting the pedicels and chela. Palpal 
segments slender; vestitural setae of the podo- 
meres excepting the chela clavate. 

Trochanter with a long pedicel, dorsal 
tubercle well developed; 1.4 times as long as 
wide. Femur with a short pedicel, more or 
less swollen along the extensor margin, with 



the maximum width in the basal region, 2.77 
times as long as wide; tibia with a long pedi- 
cel, 1.3 times as long as wide; medially swol- 
len in the flexor margin and distally swollen 
in the extensor margin, 2.75 times as long as 
wide; chela smooth, rounded, posteriorly 
swollen on the flexor margin, 3.55 times (with 
pedicel), 3.32 times (without pedicel) as long 
as wide. Hand, 2.1 times (with pedicel), 1.86 
times (without pedicel) as long as wide; hand 
with pedicel more or less equal to the length 
of tibia and slightly longer than that of femur; 
hand distinctly longer than fingers. Fingers sub- 
equal in size, 0.40 times as long as the chela 



112 



NEW DESCRIPTIONS 



and 0.70 times as long as the hand. Venom 
teeth and glands equally developed in both 
the fingers. Movable finger with 30 and fixed 
finger with 29 retroconical teeth. Proximal 
'1/5 of both the fingers devoid of teeth. The 
tactile setae sb and b of the movable finger 
basal in position and separated by two areolar 
diameters st midway between sb and t; t 
in the distal half of the finger; it proximal 
in position in a level with ist; est in ihe distal 
region of the finger. 

Legs robust, golden yellowish in colour, 
finely granulated; vestitural setae clavate and 
acuminate. Leg I: basifemur shorter than 
telofemur, 0.90 times as long as deep; telo- 
femur, 1,9 times; tibia, 3.07 times; tarsus, 4.44 
times as long as deep. Leg IV: miofemur, 
2.71 times; tibia ,4.42 times; tarsus, 4.6 times 
as long as deep. Tarsus with a pseudotactilc 
seta situated slightly distal of the middle re- 
gion; 0.52 times as long as the tarsus. Claws 
normal, arolium entire and equal in length to 
that of claws. 

Male genitalia well developed, genital sacs 
well elongated. Anterior operculum with 2 
setae on either side. 

Holotype: male (Measurements in mm.): 

Total body length, 1.946; maximum width, 
0.767: carapace, 0.611 by 0.455; chelicera, 
0.211 by 0.100. 

Palps: trochanter, 0.20 by 0.145; femur, 
0.478 by 0.172; tibia, 0.489 by 0.178; chela, 
0.867 (with pedicel), 0.812 (without pedicel) 
by 0.245; hand, 0.512 (with pedicel), 0.456 
(without pedicel) by 0.245; fingers, 0.355 
long. 

Leg I: basifemur, 0.111 by 0.122; telofe- 
mur, 0.233 by 0.122; tibia, 0.233 by 0.122; tar- 
sus, 0.222 by 0.056. 

Leg IV: miofemur, 0.422 by 0.155; tibia, 
0.344 by 0077; tarsus, 0.255 by 0.055. 

Collected from barks, Chamundi Hills, 



Mysore, Karnataka State, 25-5-1977. 

This species is related to Metawithius (M.) 
indicus Murthy & Ananthakrishnan in having 
the patches of setae on the sternites VII to 
IX. It can be easily separated from M. (M.) 
indicus by the slender nature of the chela 
and the slender nature of the podomeres of 
the IV pair of walking legs and by the un- 
divided nature of the tergites and simple un- 
branched nature of the galea of the male. 

Metawithius (Microwithius) bulli sp. nov. 
(Fig. 4) 

Carapace with two distinct anterior furrows; 
wider at the region of the anterior furrow; 
brownish, densely and coarsely granulated; 
very distinctly contsricted from the middle 
region towards the distal. Anterior furrow 
well developed and strongly arched forwards 
at the sides; posterior furrow distinct but 
shallow. Eye spots two, large and non cor- 
neate. Vestitural setae mostly plumose. An- 
terior end of the carapace straight with 6 
small clavate setae; cucullus well developed; 
posterior end with 12 plumose setae. Cara- 
pace, 1.1 to 1.2 times as long as wide. 

Tergites transversely well granulated and 
undivided; tergal setae short and strongly 
plumose. Chaetotaxy of male 10 — 12 — 10 — 
12(2) — 10(4)/2 — 10(4)/2 — 10(4) /2 — 
8(4)/2 — 8(4)/2 — 8(4)/2 — 12 — 2 m. 
Tergite XI with 2 elongated tactile setae. Ster- 
nites ill-sclerotised, sternal setae simple and 
acute; sternal chaetotaxy of male from IV 
sternite shows characteristic difference 10 — 10 
—12 — 15/(25) — 14(2)/(25)— 10(2)/(25) 
— 10(2) — 12 — 2m. Sternites VII to IX of 
the male with roundish areas near the median 
line, each with 25 closely approximated, long 
and sensory spines. Sternite XI with 4 slightly 
elongated pseudotactile setae; in female the 
setal patches on the sternites are absent. 

113 



8 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 




Fig. 4. Metawithius (Microwithius) bulli sp. nov. A — Chela lateral view; B — Pedipalp 
entire ( $ ) . 



Palm of the chelicera very finely granulated 
and rasplike. All the five setae well develop- 
ed; except b all the other four setae (Is, is, 
es and sb) are long and acuminate. Flagellum 
with 4 blades and not serrated. Fixed finger 
with 3 terminal serrations followed by 3 trian- 
gular teeth. Lamina interior well developed 
with 6 serrations followed by 2 rounded lobes. 
Movable finger with the apical tooth well 
developed and subapical tooth lobe like; 
serrula exterior with 15 blades. In male galeal 
seta short, stout and blunt terminally; in 
female galea slender and terminally branched 
with 3 rami; chelicera, 1.9 times as long as 
deep. 

Palps yellowish brown, densely granulated 



excepting the pedicels and chela. Palpal seg- 
ments stout; vestitural setae of the podomeres 
excepting the chela clavate. Trochanter with 
a long pedicel, dorsal and lateral tubercles 
well developed; 1.67 to 1.72 times as long as 
wide. Femur with a short pedicel, more swol- 
len along the extensor margin with the maxi- 
mum width in the basal region, 2.56 to 2.7 
times as long as wide; tibia with a long pedi- 
cel; medially swollen in the flexor margin and 
distally swollen in the extensor margin, 2.3 
to 2.6 times as long as wide; chela smooth, 
posteriorly swollen on the flexor margin, 2.9 
to 3.3 times (with pedicel), 2.7 to 3.1 times 
(without pedicel) as long as wide. Hand, 1.8 
to 2.0 times (with pedicel) 1.5 to 1.7 times 



114 



NEW DESCRIPTIONS 



(without pedicel) as long as wide; hand with 
pedicel more or less equal to the length of 
tibia and femur; hand distinctly longer than 
fingers. Fingers subequal in size, 0.42 times 
as long as the chela and 0.63 times as long as 
the hand. Venom teeth and glands equally 
developed in both fingers. Movable finger 
with 33 and fixed finger with 27 retroconical 
teeth. Proximal 1/5 of both the fingers de- 
void of teeth. The tactile setae sb and b of 
the movable finger basal in position and sepa- 
rated by one areolar diameter; st midway 
between sb and t; t in the exact middle region 
of the finger; it in the middle of the finger 
more or less in a level with ist; est in the dis- 
tal region of the finger. 

Legs robust, golden yellowish in colour, 
finely granulated; vestitural setae clavate and 
acuminate. Leg I: basifemur shorter than 
telofemur, 0.83 times as long as deep; telofe- 
mur, 2.08 times; tibia, 3.28 times; tarsus, 4.0 
times as long as deep. Leg IV: miofemur, 
2.56 times; tibia, 3.77 times, tarsus, 4.16 times 
as long as deep. Tarsus with a pseudotactile 
seta situated in the middle region; 0.6 times 
as long as the tarsus. Claws normal, arolium 
entire and slightly shorter than the claws. 

Male genitalia well developed, genital sacs 
well elongated. Anterior operculum with 3 
setae on either side. 

Holotype: male (Measurements in mm.): 
Total body length, 2.035; maximum width, 

0.778; carapace, 0.656 by 0.578; chelicera, 

0.211 by 0.111. 

Palps: trochanter, 0.289 by 0.177; femur, 

0.556 by 0.219; tibia ,0.567 by 0.211; chela, 

0.867 (with pedicel), 0.812 (without pedicel) 



by 0.30; hand, 0.578 (with pedicel), 0.523 
(without pedicel) by 0.30; fingers, 0.367 long. 

Leg I: basifemur, 0.111 by 0.133; telo- 
femur, 0.278 by 0.133; tibia, 0.256 by 0.078; 
tarsus, 0.222 by 0.056. Leg IV: miofemur, 
0.456 by 0.178; tibia, 0.378 by 0.10; tarsus. 
0.278 by 0.067. 

Collected from barks, Bangalore, Karna- 
taka State, 25-5-1977. 
Allotype: female (Measurements in mm.): 

Total body length, 2.072; maximum width, 
0.789. 

Collected from bark, Bangalore, Karna- 
taka State, 25-5-1977. 

Paratype: 5 males and 1 tritonymph collected 
at the same locality, 25.5.1977. 

This species is closely related to Metawith- 
ius (M.) chamundiensis in having patches of 
setae on sternites VII to IX and by the un- 
divided nature of the tergites. It can be dis- 
tinguished from M. (M.) chamundiensis by 
the stouter nature of the palpal and pedal 
podomeres and lesser number of blades in 
serrula exterior, 15 blades against 17 or 18 
in M. (M.) chamundiensis sp. nov. and M. 
(M.) indicus Murthy & Ananthakrishnan res- 
spectively. 

Acknowledgements 

I am indebted to Rev. Fr. J. Kuriakose, 
S.J., Principal for the kind provision of re- 
search facilities and encouragement. I am 
thankful to Dr. V. A. Murthy for identifica- 
tion and criticisms. Thanks are due to my 
colleagues for their timely help. This work 
was supported by a UGC Teachers' minor 
project grant. 



115 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



References 



Beier, M. (1932) : Pseudoscoipionidea, II Sub 
ord. Cheliferinea, Das Tierreich, 58: 1-294. 

— (1951): Die pseudoscorpione Indo- 

chinas. Mem. Mus. Nat. Scr. A. 1, 2: 47-123. 

(1963) : Die Pseudoscorpionidean 

— fauna Israels and einigen Angrenzender Gebiete. 
Israel J. Zool. 12: 184-212. 

(1973): Pseudoscorpionidea von 



Ceylon. Ent. Scand. Suppl. 4: 39-55. 

MURTHY, V. A. AND ANANTHAKRISHNAN, T. N. 

(1977): Indian Chelonethi. Oriental ins. Monogr. 
4: 1-210. 

Sivaraman, S. (1979): Studies on some Indian 
Pseudoscorpions. Ph.D. thesis submitted to Madras 
University. 



A NEW GENUS OF RUBIACEAE FROM GREAT NICOBAR 
ISLAND, INDIA 1 

N. P. Balakrishnan 2 
{With a text- figure) 

A new monotypic genus, Jainia Balakr. of Rubiacae from Great Nicobar Island in 
Bay of Bengal is described with illustrations. It differs from the nearest allied genus 
Coptophyllum Korth. mainly in being completely glabrous, in trimerous corolla with 
three stamens and erect stigmatic lobes. 



The recent intensive botanical explorations 
in Andaman and Nicobar Islands by the newly 
established Regional Station of Botanical Sur- 
vey of India at Port Blair yielded many new 
species and new records for Indian Flora, 
particularly from the little-explored Great 
Nicobar Island. This southernmost island 
in Andaman— Nicobar group is situated at 
about 200 km northwest of Sumatra between 
6° 40'-7° 20' N and 93° 30'-94° 00' E. This 
island is largely hilly with the highest peak, 
the Mt. Thuiller rising to about 700 m above 
m.s.l. The island experiences very heavy rain- 
fall, ranging from 250-350 cm per year spread 
over all the months of the year, with the least 
fall occurring in February-March and the ma- 
ximum during June-December. It is almost 
completely covered with rich, dense, tropical 

1 Accepted March 1980. 

2 Botanical Survey of India, Andaman — Nicobar 
Circle, Port Blair-744 102, India. 



evergreen forests except a few areas along the 
southeast and southwest coasts where settle- 
ments have sprung up recently. The flora of 
the island is largely Malesian with more than 
65% of the species showing distribution ex- 
tending to Malaysia and Indonesia. About 
10% of the species are endemic. 

During a recent trip to the Great Nicobar 
island, a species of Rubiaceae with white 
flowers in terminal heads was seen growing 
along shaded streamsides, in dense, evergreen 
forests. On examination it is found to be a 
new genus allied to Coptophyllum Korth. and 
is described and illustrated below. 

Jainia gen. nov. 
Pertinet ad Hedyotideas e familia Rubia- 
cearum et proxime accedit Coptophyllo Korth., 
a qua tamen differt plantis glabris; bracteis 
involucralibus 4 vel 5; calycibus pentameris, 
glabris; corollis trimeris; staminibus 3, insertis 
ad bases corollarum; stigmatibus erectis. 



116 



NEW DESCRIPTIONS 



Plantae herbaceae vel suffrutescentes, glab- 
rae, simplices vel raro semel ramosae, saepe 
decumbentes et radicantes ad nodos inferas. 
Folia opposita, decussata, petiolata, glabra, 
integra, herbacea, penninervia; stipulae inter- 
petiolares, lanceolatae, integrae, glabrae, per- 
sistentes. Inflorescentiae terminales, panicula- 
tae, capituliformes, globosae, glabrae; involu- 
cella 4 vel 5, ovata, glabra, alba; flores her- 
maphroditi, parvi, sessili, bracteolati, dispositi 
in cymis 1-3 floriferis, bracteatis, Calyces pen- 
tameri; tubi non eminentes trans ovaria; lobi 
5, ovato-lanceolati, albi, glabri, persistentes. 
Corollae albae, trimerae, tubulares tubis supra 
media constrictis, externe glabrae et interne 
dense villosae ad fauces; lobi 3, valvati, erecti, 
externe glabri, interne dense villosi. Stamina 
3, inclusa infra fauces, imo corollae tubo in- 
serta; filamenta filiformia, glabra; antherae 
oblongae, obtusae, introrsae, basifixae, longi- 
tudinales dehiscentes. Disci annulari, 4-lobi, 
glabri. Ovaria bilocularia, placentis mediis 
septis affixis peltatis, ovulis numeris; styli 
erecti, glabri; stigmata crassa, ovoidea, erecta, 
inaequaliter bilobata, inclusa infra fauces. 
Fructus capsulares globosi, subovoidei, caly- 
cibus coronatis irregulariter dehiscentes ad 
bases, partibus apicalibus cadentibus atque 
operculis; semina numerosa, subglobosa, an- 
gulata, scrobiculata, rubrobrunnea. 

Species typica sequens. 

Jainia nicobariea sp. nov. 

Suffrutex, 40-60 cm altus, glaber; caulis 
teretiusculus, 5-8 mm crassus, lignosis, glaber, 
e basi breviter repente ascendens, raro post 
anthesim decumbens et radicans, simplex vel 
parce ramosus. Folia oblanceolata, basi leviter 
oblique cuneata, apice acuta, 14-25 cm longa, 
3-5 cm lata, supra glabra et atrovirentia, infra 
pallide viridia et sparse puberula; nervi late- 
rales 16-20 binati, recavi et anastomosentia ad 



marginem, infra prominentes; costa infra por- 
cata; petioli 1-2 cm longi, glabri; stipulae 
lineari-lanceolatae, latae ad bases, longi-acu- 
minatae, 1.3-1.6 cm longae, 2-3 mm latae ad 
bases, glabrae, persistentes. Injlorescentia 
globosa, capitata, 2.0-2.5 cm diam.; pedun- 
culus 1-3 cm longus, glaber; bracteae involu- 
crales 4-5, ovatae, triangulares, acutae, 7-8 
mm longae, 4-6 mm latae, glabrae, crassae, 
carnosae, albae; bracteae cymarum albae, 
ovato-lanceolatae, 5-8 mm longae, 2-4 mm 
latae; bracteae florales lineari-lanceolatae vel 
oblongi-lanceolatae, 3-5 mm longae, 1-3 mm 
latae, albae, extra puberulae. Calycis lobi 
ovato-lanceolati, acuti vel subacuti, erecti, 
subaequales, 1-2 mm longi, ± 1 mm lati, 
minute puberuli ad apicem, carnosi, albi, per- 
sistentes, accrescentes usque ad 4 mm longos 
in fructibus. Corolla alba, tubulares, 3-4 mm 
longa, extra glabra, intra dense longe villosa 
ad faucem; lobi 3, valvati, ovati, ± 1 mm 
longi, carnosi, erecti, incrassati ad margines 
intra villosis. Stamina 3, inclusa, raro acce- 
dentia usque ad faucem corollam; filamenta 
filiformia, ± 0.75 mm longa; antherae oblon- 
gae, ± 0.75 mm longae, apice obtusae, basi 
breviter emarginatae. Ovarium calyce perfecte 
connatum, album; stylus ± 0.5 mm longus; 
stigmatis lobi ± 0.5 mm longi, oblongi, ovoi- 
dei, dense papillosi. Capsula oblonga, ovoi- 
dea, 7-8 mm longa, 5-6 mm lata, tenuipariete; 
semina numerosa, ± 0.4 mm longa, scrobi- 
culata, alveolata, rubro-brunnea. 

typus: Insula Nicobar Magna, Balakrish- 
nan 5837 A (holotypus in CAL); ibid. 5837 
B-C (isotypi in PBL). 

Jainia gen. nov. 

Belongs to Hedyotideae of family Rubiaceae 
and is related to the genus Coptophyllum 
Korth. but differs in plants being glabrous; 
bracts of involucre 4 or 5; calyx pentamerous, 



117 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 




Fig. 1. Jainia nicobarica sp. nov.; a. habit; b. flower with bract; c. & d. involucral 
bracts, side and inside views; e. corolla, split open showing stamens; f. ovary with 
disc, style and stigma; g. t.s. of ovary; h. fruit; i. seed. 



NEW DESCRIPTIONS 



glabrous; corolla trimerous; stamens 3, insert- 
ed at base of corolla-tube; stigma erect. 

Herbs or undershrubs, glabrous, unbranched 
or rarely once branched, often decumbent or 
rooting at nodes below. Leaves opposite, de- 
cussate, petiolate, glabrous, entire, herbace- 
ous, penninerved; stipules interpetiolar, lan- 
ceolate, entire, glabrous, persistent. Inflores- 
cence terminal, pedunculate, capituliform, 
globose, glabrous; involucral bracts 4 or 5, 
ovate, white, glabrous; flowers bisexual, small, 
sessile, bracteolate, arranged in cymes of 1-3 
flowers, bracteate. Calyx pentamerous; tube 
not projecting beyond ovary; lobes 5, ovate- 
lanceolate, white, glabrous, persistent. Corolla 
white, trimerous, tubular with tube constricted 
above the middle, glabrous outside, densely 
villous at throat inside; lobes 3, valvate, erect, 
densely villous inside. Stamens 3, included be- 
low throat, inserted at bottom of corolla-tube 
introrse, basifixed, longitudinally dehiscing. 
Disc annular, 4-lobed, glabrous. Ovary bilo- 
cular with peltate axile placentae fixed to 
middle of septa; ovules many; style erect, gla- 
brous; stigma thick, ovoid, erect, unequally 
2-lobed, included below the throat. Fruit cap- 
sular, globose, subovoid, crowned with calyx, 
irregularly dehiscing at base with the apical 
part falling off as a lid; seeds many, subglo- 
bose, angular, scrobiculate, red-brown. 

Type species follows: 

Jainia nicobarica sp. nov. 

Undershrub, 40-60 cm high, glabrous; stem 
somewhat terete, 5-8 mm thick, woody, glabr- 
ous, shortly ascending from base, sometimes 
decumbent and rooting at base after flowering, 
simple or rarely branched. Leaves oblanceo- 
late, slightly obliquely cuneate at base, acute 
at apex, 14-25 cm long, 3-5 cm wide, glabrous 
and dark green above, pale green and sparse- 
ly puberulous beneath; lateral nerves 16-20 



pairs, arched and anastomosing at margins, 
prominent beneath; midrib ridged beneath; 
petioles 1-2 cm long, glabrous; stipules linear- 
lanceolate, broad at base, long-acuminate, 1.3- 
1.6 cm long, 2-3 mm broad at base, glabrous, 
persistent. Inflorescence globose, captitate, 
2.0-2.5 cm diam.; peduncle 1-3 cm long, gla- 
brous; bracts of involucre 4-5, ovate, triangu- 
lar, acute, 7-8 mm long, 4-6 mm wide, glabr- 
ous, thick, fleshy, white; bracts of cymes 
white, ovate-lanceolate, 5-8 mm long, 2-4 mm 
wide; floral bracts linear-lanceolate, or oblong- 
lanceolate, 3-5 mm long, 1-3 mm wide, white, 
puberulous outside. Calyx lobes ovate-lanceo- 
late, acute or subacute, erect, subequal, 1-2 
mm long, ± ] mm wide, minutely puberulous 
at apex, fleshy, white, persistent, enlarged up 
to 4 mm long in fruits. Corolla white, tubular, 
3-4 mm long, glabrous outside, densely villous 
inside at throat; lobes 3, valvate, ovate, ± 1 
mm long, fleshy, erect, thickened at margins, 
villous inside. Stamens 3, included, rarely 
reaching up to throat of corolla; filaments fili- 
form, ± 0.75 mm long; anthers oblong, ± 
0.75 mm long, obtuse at apex, shortly emargi- 
nate at base. Ovary united completely with 
calyx, white; style ± 0.5 mm long; stigmatic 
lobes ± 0.5 mm long, oblong, ovoid, densely 
papillose. Capsules oblong, ovoid, 7-8 mm 
long, 5-6 mm wide, thin-walled; seeds numer- 
ous, ± 0.4 mm long, scrobiculate, reticulate- 
alveolate, red-brown. 

india. Great Nicobar Island: Near 15 Km 
on East-West Road, dense evergreen primary 
forests, shaded moist places near streams, 
± 75 m above m.s.l., 16 June 1977, in flower 
and fruit, Balakrishnan 5837 (holotype 5837 
A in CAL and isotypes 5837 B-C in PBL). 

Jainia differs from all other Rubiaceae 
mainly in the presence pentamerous calyx, 
and trimerous corolla with three stamens, a 
combination unknown or extremely rare in 



119 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Coptophyllum Korth., nom. cons. Jainia gen. nov. 



1. Plants with stiff hairs on all young parts, espe- 
cially leaf margin, stipules, bracts and calyx- 
lobes. 

2. Involucral bracts 4, 5 or 8, never mixed in 
same species. 

3. Corolla 4-5 lobed. 

4. Corolla-lobes stellately spreading. 

5. Corolla hairy outside on midrib. 

6. Stamens 4 or 5. 

7. Anthers apiculate. 

8. Filaments attached to the middle or below the 
middle of corolla-tube. 

9. Stigmatic lobes rectangularly spreading. 

10. Stigmatic lobes protruding out of corolla-tube. 



the family. However undoubtedly this new 
genus is closely related to Coptophyllum 
agreeing with it in general habit, terminal 
capitate inflorescence with involucral bracts 
and sessile flowers, many-ovuled ovary, and 
in the dehiscence of fruits. Reference to lite- 
rature on this genus including the revision by 
Bremekamp (in J. Arn. Arb. 28: 189. 1947) 
under the synonymous generic name Poma- 
zota Ridl. and study of specimens in Cal- 
cutta and Leiden herbaria show several dis- 
tinctive features which distinguish this new 
genus from Coptophyllum as tabulated in 



1 . Plants glabrous throughout, except corolla- 
tube inside. 

2. Involucral bracts 4 or 5, mixed in same species. 

3. Corolla 3-lobed. 

4 . Corolla-lobes erect. 

5. Corolla glabrous outside. 

6. Stamens 3. 

7. Anthers obtuse. 

8. Filaments attached to the base of corolla- 
tube. 

9. Stigmatic lobes erect or suberect. 

10. Stigmatic lobes included, reaching up to the 
mouth of corolla-tube. 



Table 1. 

The genus is named in honour of Dr. S. K. 
Jain, Director, Botanical Survey of India, for 
his valuable contributions to the taxonomy of 
Indian flora during the last 30 years. 

ACK N OWLEDGE M E N TS 

I gratefully acknowledge the help rendered 
by the Director and his colleagues at Rijksher- 
barium, Leiden in comparing the new genus 
with specimens of Coptophyllum and allied 
genera and for their valuable opinion. 



120 



NEW DESCRIPTIONS 



A NEW SPECIES OF LINDENBERGIA (SCROPHULARIACEAE) 
FROM EASTERN INDIA 1 

J. K. SlKDAR AND G. G. MAITI 2 

(With four text-figures) 



Lindenbergia titensis sp. nov. (Figs. 1-4) 
Lindenbergia titensis Sikdar et Maiti arete 
affinis L. macrostaehyae Benth. sed bracteis 
ovatis, calyce longioribus, lobis calycis ovatis, 
corollae labio postico obovato, ovaris basique 
styli dense piloso, facile distinguenda. L. phi- 
lippensi (Cham.) Benth. persimilis, a qua 
differt bracteis elliptico-ovatis, lobis calycis 
ovatis acutis, ovaris dense piloso. 

Herba perennis, deorsum lignosa. Cauiis 
50-60 cm longus, perramosus, rami adscenden- 
tes, graciles, terctes, pubescentes, saepissime 
ad apicem. Folia 2.5-8x1-2.5 cm, opposita, 
vel suprema alterna, elliptico-lanceolata, acuta, 
dentata, dentibus acuminatis, basi acute cune- 
ata, supra glabrescentia, infra pilosa vel gla- 
brescentia, nervis prominentibus, petiolis 
linearibus, 0.5-2.5 cm longis. Racemus 3-8.5 
cm longus, terminalis axillarisque, penitus 
parum pubescens. Flores multi, alterni et sub- 
oppositi, sessiles vel brevissime pedicellati, 
flavidi, aggregati in racemo compacto tantum 
ad apicem (2-3 cm), aliter laxe dispositi. 
Bracteae 5-9x3-5 mm, foliaceae, elliptico- 
ovatae, acutae, denticulatae, calyce longiores, 
utrinque pilosae. Calyx parum dimorphus, 
3.5-4 mm longus, 2-3 mm diametro, 5-lobatus, 
ca 2/3 connatus, 1/3 liberus, utrinque 
pilosus, quoque lobus 2x2 mm, ovatus, 
acutus. Corolla bilabiata, tubo 6-7 mm 
longo, 2-2.5 mm diametro, cylindrico, extus 
pubescenti, labrum posticum 2.5-3 x 2.5 mm, 

1 Accepted March 1980. 

2 Central National Herbarium, Botanical Survey 
of India, Howrah-711 103. 



obovatum, retusum, cum 2 lobis parum angu- 
latis, labium anticum 5.5-6 x 3 mm, apice 3 
lobatum, lobis rotundatis, patentibus, obtusis, 
intus ad medium minute pilosis. Stamina 4, 
didynama, libera, inclusa, filamentis 4-4.4 
mm longis, 2 mm supra basim corollae inser- 
ts, glabris, filiformibus, thecis subglobosis, 
0.3 mm diam., connectivis 0.3 mm longis. 
Ovarium 2.5x2-2.5 mm, subglobosum, dense 
pilosum, stylo 3 mm longo, Iineari, solum ad 
basin piloso. Capsula matura non visa. 

Holotypes lectus a J. K. Sikdar ad locum 
Titi in area sylva Madarihat, regione Jalpai- 
guri, Benghala occidentale, die 5-3-1976, et 
positus in herbario indico nationali (CAL), 
sub numero 4519A. Isotypi 4519 B-C positi 
in eodem herbario. 

Lindenbergia litesisis sp. nov. 

It is closely allied to L. macrostachya 
Benth., but is easily recognisable by ovate 
leafy bracts, bracts longer than calyx, ovate 
calyx lobes, obovate posterior lip of corolla 
and finally ovary and style base densely hairy. 
It is also very similar to L. philippensis 
(Cham.) Benth. from which it differs in hav- 
ing elliptic-ovate bract, ovate, acute calyx 
lobes and densely pilose ovary. 

Perennial herbs, woody below. Stem 50-60 
cm long, slender to stout, many branched; 
branches ascending, slender, terete, pubescent, 
more often at the apex. Leaves 2.5-8x1-2.5 
cm, opposite or the uppermost alternate, elli- 
ptic-lanceolate, acute, dentate, teeth acumi- 
nate, base acute-cuneate, upper surface gla- 
brescent, lower surface pilose or glabrescent 



121 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 




NEW DESCRIPTIONS 



or pubescent, nerves distinct on the undersur- 
face; petiole 0.5-2.5 cm long, linear. Racemes 
3-8.5 cm long, terminal and axillary, slightly 
pubescent throughout. Flowers many, alter- 
nate and subopposite, sessile or very shortly 
pedicillate, yellowish, aggregate into a com- 
pact raceme only at the terminal (2-3 cm) 
position, otherwise loosely arranged. Bracts 
5-9 x 3-5 mm, uppermost leaves gradually pass- 
ing upwards to bracts, foliaceous, elliptic- 
ovate, acute, denticulate, longer than calyx, 
pilose on both surfaces. Calyx slightly dimor- 
phic, 3.5-4 mm long, 2-3 mm diam., 5-lobed, 
about 2/3 part united and 1/3 free, pilose 
on both surface; each lobe 2x2 mm, ovate, 
acute. Corolla bilabiate, tube 6-7 mm long, 2- 
2.5 mm diam., cylindrical, pubescent at the 
outer suface, posterior lip 2.5-3 x 2.5 mm, 
obovate with 2 slightly angular lobes, retuse; 
anterior lip 5.5-6 x 3 mm, apex 3-lobed, lobes 
rotundate, spreading, obtuse, minutely hairy 
at the middle inside. Stamens 4, didynamous, 
free, included; filaments 4-4.5 mm long, in- 



serted 2 mm above the corolla-base, filiform, 
glabrous; thecae subglobose, 0.3 mm diam., 
connective 0.3 mm long. Ovary 2.5 x 2-2.5 
mm, subglobose densely pilose; style 3 mm 
long, linear, pilose at base only. Mature cap- 
sule not seen. 

Holotype, /. K. Sikdax 4519A (CAL) and 
the isotypes /. K. Sikdar 4519B-C (CAL) 
were collected from Titi, Madarihat Forest 
Range, Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal on 
5-3-1976. 

The specific epithet is derived after the 
name of the locality "Titi" from where it was 
collected. 

ACK NOWLEDGEMENTS 

We are grateful to Dr. M. P. Nayar, Deputy 
Director, Central National Herbarium for 
facilities, to Prof. R. S. Rao of Andhra Uni- 
versity for encouragement and to Dr. N. C. 
Majumdar, Central National Herbarium, 
Howrah, for Latin translation and helpful 
suggestions. 



123 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



1. NOTES ON THE MATING BEHAVIOUR OF TAD A RID A 
AEGYPTIACA (GEOFFROY) 



Introduction 

This paper presents an observation on mat- 
ing made in the course of a study of the re- 
productive cycle of this species in East-Nimar. 
Copulation was witnessed many times at the 
roost and a few instances occurred in cages 
also. 

Since little has been published on this aspect 
of Indian Molossid bats, this study was under- 
taken to collect data on mating period of Ta- 
darida aegyptiaca in East-Nimar of India. 

Observations 

The species is locally scarce in East-Nimar. 
Three colonies were observed, one in a build- 
ing and the other two in two dilapidated forts. 
The portion of the building where these bats 
roost, is being used as a class room. The forts 
are ancient monuments in Asirgarh and Bur- 
hanpur looked after by the State Archeolo- 
gical department. Over five thousand bats 
roosted in the three colonies from June till the 
second week of April the following year. They 
reside in crevices vertical about 8 feet in length 
and three inches in width. The number of bats 
at the three roosts decreases during the hot 
weather but several hundreds occur during the 
other seasons. 

During the years 1975 to 1977 the roosts 
were vacated from the second week of April 
upto the month of May. On their return the 
females were examined and were not found 
pregnant. Ovulation occurs between the second 



and third week of June. The strength of the 
colony increases as new arrivals appear daily. 
The bats are noisy and their squeaking and 
chattering at the roost is audible at a consi- 
derable distance. 

The bats roost in a typical pattern in which 
they appear as if they have been arranged in 
orderly straight lines of ten to forty bats. In 
the total population of bats, hundreds were no- 
ticed copulating but observation was limited 
to 50% of the total population of bats at 
Burhanpur and Asirgarh. This investigation 
lasted five to ten hours a day but not at night. 

In the estimated population during 1976 and 
1977, the sex ratio was approximately 40% 
males and 60% females. Mating was noticed 
during day light when males and females were 
quite active. The majority of males collected 
at this time had scars on or around the muzzle 
region. Apparently these injuries resulted from 
aggressive interactions with other males and 
possibly females also. 

The male mounted on the female in the 
position of coitus posteriori. The male usually 
grasped fur of the female's head with his teeth. 
However, in a few instances the neck was 
grasped by the male. The male's thumb was 
always inside the dactylopatagium brevis of 
the female. The male pushed his hindquarters 
backwards and forwards making an angle of 
20° on female's body in the plane of coitus. 
The tail of the female including its femoral 
membrane was curled upwards and the male 
protruded penis beneath her femoral mem- 
brane. After copulating with one female, the 



124 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



male often holds another female. Immediate 
dissection and histological studies by fixation 
and microscopic examination after copulation 
revealed that female's uterus and vaginal canal 
were filled with sperms. 

The male does not pay any attention to the 
rival bats during copulation. Males were ob- 
served fighting with each other, squeaking and 
showing their teeth to opponents. The female 
was passive. 

Department of Zoology, 
University of Saugar, 
Saugar (M.P.), 
India, 

May 4, 1979. 



Acknowledgements 



I am grateful to Prof. D. R. Sharma for 
suggestions. My thanks are due to the Head, 
Department of Zoology, S. N. College, Khand- 
wa for providing facilities for this investiga- 
tion. The financial assistance offered by the 
University Grants Commission, New Delhi is 
gratefully acknowledged. 

S. K. K ASH YAP 



2. FIELD OBSERVATIONS ON THE HANUMAN LANGUR 



Some 20 hours of observations (mostly be- 
fore noon) were made on langurs {Presbytis 
entellus) of the Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary 
(Tamilnadu) during February and March 12, 
1978. The Sanctury is situated at an altitude 
of 885 m on the way of Mysore-Ooty road 
and is 95 km from the Mysore. The forest is 
moist-deciduous with 'Teak', Tectona grandis 
as the dominent species. 



There were five groups of the langur in an 
area of about 2 km 2 . Two groups were multi- 
male-bisexual and three groups were unimale- 
bisexual type. There was no all-male group. 
The composition of the groups as given in 
Table- 1 reveals that adult sex ratio was male 
1:6 females; adult female to infants (new 
born) ratio was female 1 : 0.47 infants. The 
age-classification of the individuals followed is 





Group 


COMPOSITION 


OF THE 


HANUMAN LANG 


UR 




Group 


Total 


Adult 
males 


Adult 
females 


Subadults 

and 
Juveniles 


Infant-2 


lnfant-1 


1 . Mudum-B 


18 


1 


10 


2 


0 


5 


2 . Mudum-E 


17 


1 


9 


3 


2 


2 


3. Mudum-H 


21 


1 


8 


4 


4 


3 


4. Mudum-S 


22 


3 


9 


2 


2 


6 


5. Mudum-L 


28 


2 


12 


4 


3 


7 


Total 


106 


8 


48 


15 


11 


23 


Mean 


21 


1.6 


9.6 


3 


2.2 


4.6 


Range 


17-28 


1-3 


8-12 


2-4 


0-4 


2-7 



125 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



according to Jay (1965). 

The mean group size is similar to size re- 
corded by Jay (1965), 18-25 in forests of 
northern and central India; Vogel (1977), 
23.5 in Bhimtal, while it was larger (34 for 
bisexual groups and 18.5 for all male groups) 
in open areas of Western Rajasthan (Mohnot 
et ah, in press). There was no apparent in- 
teraction among the adult males of the multi- 
male bisexual groups and also between the 
two neighbouring groups. 

Langurs are purely phytophagus and eat 
leaves, flowers, buds, fruits, seeds and resin 
of some 30 plant species (to be identified). 
Some of the common food plants were Anoge- 
issus latifolia, Butea monospertna, Salmalia 
malabarica, Dalbergia sissoo, Schleichera tri- 
juga, Mangijera indica, Terminalia chebula 
etc. 

The bonnet monkey, Macaca radiata co- 
exists freely with the langurs and almost use 
the same plants for feeding and roosting. The 
langur avoids the bonnet macaques but hit out, 

Zoology Department, 
University of Jodhpur, 
Jodhpur-342001. 



whenever they are disturbed by the macaques. 

The langurs are afraid of Pie dogs and give 
alarm barks and climb trees, whenever they see 
dogs approaching them. On 6th March (9.05 
a.m.) a pack of 6 pie dogs chased a langur 
group which was crossing the road. The leader 
of the langur group threatened the dogs but 
was bitten on his right ear. 

Langurs were seen in an association with 
Chital {Axis axis) in the Bandipur Tiger Re- 
serve, adjacent to Mudumalai. Both species 
were noted together or Chitals fed under the 
same tree on which langurs were feeding. 
Occasionally langurs were seen sitting on the 
ground near browsing chital. On 5th March 
(6.40 — 6.52 p.m.) we saw langurs and chitals 
giving repeated alarm calls together, probably 
there was a common predator (?). 

Acknowledgement 

We are indebted to Prof. Madhav Gadgil, 
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore for 
providing working facilities. 

S. C. MAKWANA 



Faculty of Life Sciences, S. MAJUMDAR 

North Bengal University, 
Darjeeling-734 430, 
August 31, 1978. 



References 



Jay, P. O. (1965): The common langur of North 
India. In Primate Behaviour: field studies of mon- 
keys and apes. ed. I. DeVore. pp. 197-247. Holt, 
Rinehart and Winston, New York. 

Mohnot, S. M., Gadgil, M. and Makwana, S. C. 
Population dynamics of the langur, Presbytis entellus 



at Jodhpur. (in press). 

Vogel, C. (1977): Ecology and sociobiology of 
Presbytis entellus. In Use of non-human primates 
in biomedical research eds. M. R. N. Prasad and 
T. C. Anand Kumar. Indian nat. Sci. Acad., New 
Delhi, India. 



126 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



3. A NOTE ON THE BREEDING OF THE LEOPARD-CAT (FEUS 
BENGALENSIS) IN CAPTIVITY 



The female of a pair of Leopard-Cats 
(Felis bengalensis) has given birth to four lit- 
ters at Nandankanan Biological Park, Orissa. 
The litter size was one to two with an average 
of 1.75 kittens per litter. There were four fe- 
males and three males. The four births were 
recorded as follows: February, 1; March, 1; 
May, 1; and July, 1. At birth the seven Idttens 
weighed 93 to 120 g with an average of 
113.14 g and measured 22 to 25 cm with an 
average of 24.14 cm tip to tip including tail 
lengths of 6.5 to 7 cm (average 6.86 cm). The 



inter-parturition intervals recorded thrice 
(Dates of births: 26.ii.1977, 19.V.1977, 21.iii. 
1978 and 4.vii.l978) were 81 days, 305 days 
and 104 days respectively mostly depending 
on the period of survival of the young. The 
mother leopard-cat weighed 2.805 kg and the 
male weighed 3.605 kg on 8.iii.l977. The 
mother used to carry the kittens like other 
cats. The eyes of the new-born kittens were 
closed at birth and the details of opening of 
eyes of five kittens under observation are given 
in the Table 1. 



Table 1 



SI. 
No. 


Sex 


Date of 


Dates of 


Age in the days when 




birth 


of eves 


kittens opened 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


1. 


Female 


19.V.1977 


31.V.1977 
(Left eye) 

and 
l.vi.1977 
(Right eye) 


13th (Left eye) 
and 

14th (Right eye) 


2. 


Female 


19.V.1977 


26. V.1977 
(Right eye) 

and 

27. V.1977 
(Left eye) 


8th (Right eye) 
and 

9th (Left eye) 


3. 


Female 


21.iii.1978 


31.iii.1978 
(Left eye) 

and 
l.iv.1978 
(Right eye) 


11th (Left eye) 
and 

12th (Right eye) 


4. 


Female 


4.vii.l978 


11. vii.1978 
(Left eye) 

and 

12. vii.1978 
(Right eye) 


8th (Left eye) 
and 

9th (Right eye) 


5. 


Male 


4.vii.l978 


14.vii.1978 
(Right eye) 
and 


11th (Right eye) 
and 

12th (Left eye) 



15.vii.1978 
(Left eye) 



127 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Date Age in weeks Weight in kg. 

I 2 3 



19.V.1977 


Birth weight 


0.120 


26.V.1977 


1 


0.182 


2.vi.l977 


2 


0.232 


9.vi.l977 


3 


0.294 


16.vi.1977 


4 


0.385 


23.vi.1977 


5 


0.430 


30.vi.1977 


6 


0.570 


7.vii.l977 


7 


0.695 


14.vii.1977 


8 


0.845 


21.vii.1977 


9 


0.945 


28.vii.1977 


10 


1.073 


4.viii.l977 


11 


1.156 



Veterinary Assistant Surgeon, 
Nandankanan Biological Park, 
P. O. Barang, Dist. Cuttack. 



The canines of two kittens under observa- 
tion appeared at the age of four weeks. Week- 
ly growth records of one female kitten born 
here on 19.5.1977 was maintained upto the age 
of 11 weeks and the details of the same are 
given in the Table 2. 

Prater (1971) states that the young of this 
species have been obtained in March and May 
and 3 to 4 kittens may be born in a litter. In 
India, this species mates in May and has 3 to 
4 young per litter after a gestation period of 
56 days (Asdell 1964). 

L. N. ACHARJ YO 



Wild Life Conservation Officer, CH. G. MISHRA 

95-Sahid Nagar, 
Bhubaneswar-751 007, 
December 16, 1978. 

References 

Asdell, S. A. (1964): Patterns of Mammalian Prater. S. H. (1971): The Book of Indian Ani- 
Reproduction. Second Edition, Cornell University raals. Third (Revised) Edition, Bombay Natural 
Press, Ithaca, New York, pp. 490. History Society, Bombay, pp. 73-74. 



4. DO LEOPARDS USE THEIR WHISKERS AS WIND DETECTOR? 



I had an apportunity to witness a peculiar 
behaviour of a big male Leopard in the hilly 
tract of Udaipur. 

My father and we three brothers were sit- 
ting on a hillock and admiring four sambar 
{Cervus unicolor) does and two grown up 
fawns grazing peacefully in a clearing on the 
face of a hill about 200 yards from us. Bet- 
ween us and the sambar, there was a belt of 
scrub jungle and beyond there was dense 
jungle. They were on a higher ground from 
us. We were engrossed in watching when sud- 



denly my elder brother caught sight of a leo- 
pard in a depression, between us and the 
hinds about 80 yards from us, stalking them. 
A good breeze started from our direction to- 
wards the hinds. When the leopard was about 
70 yards from them and almost level with us 
the does became uneasy. He crouched there 
for about five minutes occasionally raising and 
slightly turning his head sideways, his whiskers 
taut and relaxed alternately, which I could 
see clearly with the help of binoculars. Then 
the leopard turned and retreated for about 30 



128 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



yards towards our right side and disappeared, 
reappearing again over the bank of a dry 
nullah and started stalking over a comparative- 
ly barren ground. Soon he was detected by a 
hind, she advanced two or three steps towards 
the leopard followed by two other hinds, gave 
a loud bell and all of them dashed into the 
dense jungle. The leopard rose from his posi- 

41 Panchwatt, 
Udaipur-313 001 (India), 
June 25, 1979. 



tion took two steps, raised his tail, gave a 
woogh call and went off. 

From this incidence I inferred that these 
big cats know the importance of wind and 
use their whiskers as a tool to detect wind 
direction. 

I would therefore be grateful if some na- 
turalist throws more light on the matter. 

RAZA H. TEHSIN 



5. NILGIRI TAHR (HEMITRAGUS HYLOCRIUS) IN CAPTIVITY 
(With a photograph) 




Nilgiri Tahr at Trivandrum Zoo. 



129 



9 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



One adult male was transferred to Trivan- 
drum Zoo, from Trichur Zoo on 9.9.1964. A 
female was added on 29.9.1965 and another 
on 13.12.1967. Four offsprings were born on 
the following dates, 4.2.68, 5.11.68, 1.5.69 and 
11.12.69. The first one died on 1.4.69 and the 
last on 30.1.72. The second was exported and 
the third was supplied to the Mysore Zoo. 

The original male died on 21.3.72 and the 
female on 10.8.69. The other female was also 
exported. 

During this period only the original male 
developed the saddle mark. As 1 was observing 
the animal every day, it is difficult for me to 
state with precision when it started develop- 
ing the saddle. The saddle becomes noticeable 

Superintendent, 
Zoos & Gardens, 
Trivandrum-1, 
September 14, 1979. 



very gradually. It may be from 5 to 8 years. 

The food given to adults per day is as fol- 
lows: Bengalgram 100 gms, Cattle feed 500 
gms, Horsegram 200 gms, Plantains 500 gms, 
Fodder 2.5 kg., and Napier Grass 5 kgs. 

In the Zoo the tahr enjoy concentrates more 
than green fodder. They like the fodder to be 
tied above ground level so that they can 
browse. 

I have not seen them drinking during my 
visits to their run. They seldom drink. 

On 22.1.76 one pair of tahr aged 1 month 
was caught at Eravikulam and these are 
doing well. I have seen them mating recently. 
However, the mating has not been successful. 

P. R. CHANDRAN 



6. A FURTHER NOTE ON MOSCHUS 



Since contributing a note on the taxonomy 
of Moschus to this Journal (Groves 1976) the 
author has seen a number of further specimens 
which was unavailable to the author at that 
ranges, both geographical and altitudinal, of 
the two species in the Indian region. A taxo- 
nomic contribution by Dao van Tien (.1969), 
which should be recorded as they extend the 
time, should also be evaluated now. 

Two species of Musk-deer are found in In- 
dian and Nepalese territory: M. sijanicus has 
light brown fur, the backs of the ears are rim- 



med with pure yellow, the skull length aver- 
ages about 160 mm, and the lacrimal bone is 
long and low; M. chrysogaster has dark brown 
fur, the ear-backs are wholly dark, the skull 
length is about 150 mm, and the lacrimal is 
relatively short and high. The former, which 
lives above the Iree-line, is represented in 
China by a race in which the whole tip of the 
ear, not just the rim, is yellow, but which is 
otherwise poorly distinguished and is an any 
case unnamed; the latter species, which lives 
in forest and is represented in India and Nepal 



130 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



by its nominate form, is smaller and short- 
faced, though it was pointed out that in fact 
two subspecies would probably be better re- 
cognised in China (see below). 

It must be mentioned that in the table of 
skull measurements (Groves, 1976:674), there 
is a misprint. Two headings read "M. si fam- 
ous" : only the second of these is correct, the 
first being a lapsus for "M. c. chrysogaster'' . 

The additional specimens examined are as 
follows: 

1. M. sifanicus 

Two skins, one skull and a headskin in the 
Powell-Cotton Museum, Birchington, Kent, 
England. T.31.2 is a skin and skull; the skin 
is light tobacco brown, fading to off-white on 
head, shoulders and again on rump. The ears 
are yellow-rimmed. Skull broken, but its length 
is approximately 160, lacrimal 21 x 14; mid- 
point of skull probably in orbit. Locality is 
Baital, Kashmir (not found on any map). The 
other complete skin (no number) and the 
headskin (M.46.99) have no locality beyond 
"Kashmir", but are clearly of this species. 

2. M. chrysogaster chrysogaster 

The Powell-Cotton Museum possesses an 
incomplete skull that is probably of this form, 
numbered T.31.3, from Srinagar, which (if it 
is the actual locality rather than a base camp) 
is in the forest zone. The length would have 
been about 145 mm.; lacrimal 23 x 20; mid- 
point would have been approximately at the 
front edge of the orbit. 

The Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, 
has three specimens: two skins with skulls 
(see Biswas & Khajuria, 1957) and unmatched 
skin. The first two are nos. 12448 and 12449, 
of the "Daily Mail" expedition, 1954; locali- 
ties respectively Thami and Hunko, both at 
13,000 feet but, because of the protected loca- 
tions, in the forest zone (mainly rhododendron 



and juniper). Skins are dark brown with ear- 
backs dark, becoming nearly black towards 
the tips. The skull of the former is 145 mm. 
long, with lacrimal 25 x 19; the other speci- 
men is immature, with third molars not yet 
erupted, but skull length is 140, lacrimal 
23 x 15. In both, skull midpoint is well within 
the orbit. The metacarpal length of 12448 is 
93.5, metatarsal length 126; both these mea- 
surements are slightly above the figures for 
M. c. berezovskii given by Flerov (1952) and 
Kao (1963), but well below the limits for M. 
sifanicus given by the same authors. The third 
skin, no. 12451 from Khumbu, 12,000 feet, 
closely resembles the other two. 

Two head-skins and a partial skull are pre- 
served in the palace at Wankaner, Gujarat; 
they were obtained by M. K. Ranjitsinh at 
Shodu, Bhutan (in the rhododendron zone), 
and are the only known specimens from Bhu- 
tan. The head-skins are very dark grey-brown, 
the ears being dark especially on the terminal 
half. The skull, which may belong with one of 
the skins, is incomplete but is clearly short- 
faced. 

The importance of the above specimens is 
that they confirm the distinctiveness of the two 
species, the association of skull and skin char- 
acters, where both are represented for the same 
specimen, being demonstrated; and that they 
confirm the association of each with a diffe- 
rent habitat type, even when the forest zone 
extends to a higher altitude than usual. 

A recent paper by Dao (Dao 1977) refers 
to a taxon, Moschus moschiferus caobangis 
Dao, 1969, from North Vietnam and provides 
the first description of this in French (the ori- 
ginal description being in Vietnamese). Dao's 
papers were based on the old single-species 
theory, and clearly written without knowledge 
of Groves's revision, but neatly extend the re- 
sults. It is clear from the description that cao- 



131 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



bangis is Groves's "M. chrysogaster subsp." 
recorded from Kwangsi, to which the British 
Museum specimens from Ichang also probably 
belong: 

(1) Dao's new race is described as "brun 
grisatre", which approximately describes 
B.M.1.3.2.6 from Ichang; Wang et al. 
(1962) describe a specimen from Kwangsi 
as "brown". Skins of M. c. berezovskii from 
Szechwan, Kansu, Shensi and Shansi are de- 
scribed as darker than this ("dark olive- 
brown with a red tinge" in Kao, 1963, which 
describes B.M.3.5.15.6 and 11.9.8.144, both 
from Szechwan). 

(2) Skulls in two caobangis are 113 and 
132 mm. long; the second of these, the type, 
is figured, but it is not stated whether the 
other is adult or not. Kao's (1963) Kwangsi 
skull is 121 mm., whereas all his and other 
authors' other berezovskii skulls are at least 
136 mm. Wang et al. (1962) report a 
Kwangsi skull as being 116.7 mm, but this 
may actually mean the basal length; it is, 
at any rate, short. The Ichang skulls in the 
British Museum are 135 and 141 mm, so 
overlapping with one of Flerov's (1952) 

Department of Prehistory & 
Anthropology, 

Australian National University, 
Canberra, Australia, 
August 28, 1979. 



specimens, whose age is however not stated. 
(The locality "Peling Mts.", whence comes 
a rather large skull, is probably not Mt. 
Pai Ling in Kwangsi as surmised by Groves 
(1976), but the Pai-Lung Chiang in south- 
ern Kansu.) 

The light colour probably, and the small 
size definitely, validate Dao's subspecies; it ex- 
tends into Kwangsi and probably even as far 
as Ichang. M. moschiferus caobangis Dao, 
1969, and "M. chrysogaster subsp. uncertain" 
of Groves, 1976, therefore both become M. 
chrysogaster caobangis. 

Acknowledgements 

I would like to thank all those who have 
specimens in their care which were made avail- 
able to me for study: in Birchington, Mr. L. 
Barton, Curator of the Powell-Cotton Mu- 
seum; in Calcutta, Dr. B. Biswas, Superintend- 
ing Zoologist of the Zoological Survey of In- 
dia, and all staff; in Wankaner, H. H. Maha- 
rana Saheb and M. K. Digvijaysinhji. I am 
most grateful to all these people for their 
courteous assistance in this study. 

COLIN P. GROVES 



References 



Biswas, B. & Khajuria, H. (1957) : Zoological 
results of the "Daily Mail" Himalayan expedition, 
1954. Notes on some mammals of Khumbu, eastern 
Napal. Proc. Zoo/. Soc. Calcutta, Mookerjce Memor. 
Vol., 229-253. 

Dao van Tien (1969): Ve hai loai huou o Viet 
nam, huou sao (Cervus nippon) va huou xa (Mos- 



chus moschiferus). Thong bao khoa hoc, Sinh vat 
hoc, Dai hoc tong hop Ha noi, 4:49-53. 

(1977): Sur quelques rares mammi- 

feres au nord du Vietnam. Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 
55:325-330. 

Flerov, C. C. (1952): Musk and deer. Fauna of 
USSR, Mammals, vol. 1. 



132 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



Groves, C. P. (1976) : The taxonomy of Moschus 
(Mammalia, Artiodactyla) , with particular reference 
to the Indian region. /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc, 
72:662-676. 

Kao Yeuh-ting (1963): Taxonomic notes on the 



Chinese musk-deer. Acta zool. sinica, 75:479-488. 

Wang Sung, Lu Chang-kwun, Dao Yueh-ting 
& Loo Tai-chun (1963): On the mammals from 
south-western Kwangsi, China, Acta zool. sinica, 
74:555-568. 



7. REPORT OF THE OCCURRENCE OF THE METAD IN 
WEST BENGAL 



In the afternoon of the 17th February, 1978, 
while digging rodent burrows in a harvested 
paddy field, south of Apurbapur village near 
Singur in Hugh District, we caught an adult 
female rat with five juveniles, which were iden- 
tified as of the Soft-furred Field Rat or Metad, 
Millar dia meltada (Gray). 

The known distribution of Millardia meltada 
(Gray), is Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Nepal Tarai, 
Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Peninsular India 
south of the Satpura-Vindhya ranges, south 
to Nilgiris, south-western Sri Lanka, parts of 
Gujarat and the adjacent region of Pakistan, 
but does not include the north-eastern part of 
India (Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, 
Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura and Mizoram), 
Orissa and West Bengal. The present collec- 
tion, therefore, constitutes the first authentic 

Zoological Survey of India, 
8, Lindsay Street (1st floor), 
Calcutta-700 016, 
September 21, 1978. 



record from West Bengal. 

The details of the specimen is given below. 
The external measurements were taken in the 
field and are in mm. 

Material: 1 9; ZSI Reg. No. 19935; in alcohol; 

17.2.78; A. K. Mondal Coll. 
Measurements: External — Head and body 111.0; tail 

76.0; hind foot 22.0; ear 20.0. 

Cranial — Occipitonasal 31.4; condylobasal 30.5; 

nasal 11.5; palate 16.4; bulla 6.1; tooth row 5.6; 

anterior palatine foramina 7.4; diastema 8.8. 

In comparison with the recognised subspe- 
cies of Millardia meltada namely, the Millar- 
dia meltada meltada (Gray) and the Millardia 
meltada pallidor (Ryley), the present material 
is much darker. However, without examination 
of additional material nothing definitely could 
be said of its subspecific status. 

AJOY KUMAR MANDAL 
SANTANU GHOSH 



8. SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE BIOLOGY OF THE OPENBILL 
STORK, ANASTOMUS OSCITANS (BODDAERT), IN 
SOUTHERN BENGAL 

(With a plate) 

The Openbill Stork [Anastomus oscitans South Bengal in Saknakhali bird sanctuary in 
(Boddaert)] is the smallest and commonest the Sundarban Reserve Forest, Sagar Island, 
stork of our country. Frazergunge and Diamond Harbour by the 

This paper reports on observations made in author from 1975 onwards. 



133 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



The Openbill is a tree-nester. Generally it 
forms a huge breeding colony of its own but 
also nests in a breeding colony with other 
birds. In the Sajnakhali bird sanctuary, Sun- 
darban, the breeding colony included such spe- 
cies as the large egret (Egretta alba Linn.), 
smaller egret (Egretta intermedia Wagler), 
little egret (Egretta garzetta Linn.), little cor- 
morant (Phalacrocorax niger Vieillot), paddy 
bird [Ardeola grayii (Sykes)] and some others. 

The situation and size of the breeding colo- 
nies depend to a great extent on the available 
marshy conditions, richness of feeding ground 
in the vicinity and non-interference by preda- 
tors and man. Colonies have been found very 
close to human quarters, roads and railway 
stations, where birds are not disturbed or 
pestered. Some colonies are found in impas- 
sable marshes in dense forested area on isolat- 
ed islands for safe raising of the brood. 

Pair formation and pair bond 

Since the male and female are almost alike 
in general appearance in the non-breeding pe- 
riod, sexes cannot be differentiated, but dur- 
ing the breeding period it becomes possible to 
distinguish them by their behaviour, specially 
the attitude of the male towards the female. 
The males are rather more aggressive quar- 
relling amongst themselves for nesting space 
than the females. At times, subadult males 
have been found courting adult females, but 
such females simply change their perch and 
pay little heed to them. Consort pairs are 
formed just before the monsoon starts. Such 
pairs often forcibly push each other which 
compels one of them to fly from the perch 
and again after a short flight return to occupy 
the same place in close proximity of its partner 
who waits for its mate. Courtship display is 
not very conspicuous. The male has been ob- 



served at times to throw its neck backward 
when the female returns from flight. After 
sometime the male stretches its neck up and 
partially opens its wings and bill. The male 
offers a stick to the female and if it is accept- 
ed by the female, it signifies approval of pair 
formation. In selecting the nesting site the 
male and female perform a ritual. They perch 
face to face, lower their heads and point at 
the nest-site with their bills partly open. After 
this act the pair flies away but returns to the 
spot. The same performance is repeated three 
or four times within an hour. When the site 
selection is finalised the male is also finally 
accepted by the female. 

Nest-building, Sexual display and Mating 

The bird selects trees that are from three 
to ten metres high. In Sundarban (Sajnakhali) 
most of the nests that I came across were hard- 
ly four to five metres from the ground level. 
The host plants selected for nesting were 
mostly Bina, Avicennia alba and Avicennia 
officinalis, which represented about 80 per cent 
of the plant community. These provided bet- 
ter support due to ramification of branches, 
and also the canopy provided wider landing 
space which generally varied from 9 to 16 
square metres. The next choice was the Geng 
wa, Excoecaria agallocha, which represented 
roughly 15 per cent. Other trees that were 
sometimes selected were Passur, Xylocarpus 
sp., Goran, Rhizophora sp., and Kulsi, Aegi- 
ceras sp., but these were comparatively of 
small percentage. In Diamond Harbour, trees 
that were used for nesting were Jarul, Lager- 
stroemia flosreginae, Neem, Melia azadirach- 
ta, Peepul, Ficits reh'giosa, etc. It seems that 
the bird does not bother much about the height 
of the trees, some 10-12 metres height was 
mostly preferred, whereas in Sagar Island and 



134 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



Frazergunge areas the nesting tree heights 
were only five to seven metres. Nesting sites 
were generally not changed in the following 
year unless there was disturbance in the area. 

The tree-tops are the first choice of nesting 
site and when this is not available, alternative 
sites are selected further down. Generally tree- 
forks are the usual sites for nests. Trees which 
provide a good number of forks are preferred. 
Since the birds are gregarious, congregation 
is quite dense; naturally there is overcrowd- 
ing and struggle for space. Nests may be 60 
centimetres apart, but there is a good under- 
standing between the breeding pairs in the 
colony. The male with nest-building material 
flies straight to the nest-fork, and as soon 
as it perches it drops the material, and the 
female which waits at the rim of the nest makes 
a guttural buzzing sound on the arrival of the 
male, and the freshly brought material is then 
properly arranged. The male erects the neck 
and exposes the breast feathers and produces 
a buzzing sound and both bend their heads 
over the nest. It is interesting to note that 
the sticks that are brought by one of the 
partners, generally the male, is examined by 
the other. During this process the material that 
falls down is not picked up. Sometimes the 
female rejects the material brought by her 
partner. In Sundarban heronry, as many as 
30 trips per day were counted in connection 
with the nest-building operation during the 
whole day in the beginning but the trips were 
gradually cut off as the nest under prepara- 
tion was half way to completion. After almost 
half the nest is ready the pairs mate usually 
in the late afternoon or any time on a cloudy 
day. The act is performed when the female 
settles herself on a branch near the nest. 
The male vigorously beats the beak of the 
female with his own, thereby producing a clat- 
tering sound which coaxes, the female to bend 



her tail laterally to allow copulation. 

It generally takes 1 1 days to complete the 
construction of a nest. Nest may be construct- 
ed even in late August. Sometimes when the 
nest prepared is destroyed by storms and gales, 
it is soon replaced by a fresh one. 

The nest is a loose, flimsy, structure which 
generally does not last till the next season 
but those that withstand the rough weather 
are taken as foundations and fresh nest-build- 
ing material is brought for their repair. In 
Sajnakhali and Frazergunge, soft and leafless 
branches of Excoecaria, Avicennia and some- 
times branches of Derris, Ceriops and Xylo- 
carpus species are added. Soft leaves brought 
by the male are properly arranged in the egg- 
chamber so as to prevent the eggs from drop- 
ping. Green leaves are from time to time add- 
ed to replace the old dry ones in nests till the 
fledglings are ready to leave the nests. The 
size of nests vary largely. The circumferences 
of five nests measured 100-125 cm (average 
113) in Sajnakhali. 

The eggs are laid by the third week of June 
and egg-laying continues till the first week of 
August depending on the onset of monsoon. 
Generally three to five eggs are found in a 
nest but in two nests in Sajnakhali, Sundar- 
ban, only two have been found. Some nests 
were also found without any egg. Incubation 
period varies from 28 to 30 days. Regurgita- 
tion of water and mucous over eggs specially 
on dry rainless days has been observed. The 
parent birds also control the humidity by wet- 
ting their abdominal feathers to aid fermen- 
tation of nest material to help incubation. 

Predation 

Predation is largely by the Water Monitor 
{Varanus salvo/or) which is the most common 
species of reptile in Sundarban. It not only 
destroys eggs but also appropriates nestlings. 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



The lizards has been found to swim in creeks 
and climb trees to devour eggs and chicks. At 
the approach of the parent birds it jumps from 
trees and dives into the water. The land moni- 
tors, namely Varanus jlavescens and V . ben- 
galensis, also predate on eggs and chicks. Other 
than the Varanus species, the Jungle Crow 
(Corvus macrorhynchos) destroys eggs and 
steals chicks at the slightest opportunity. The 
mother guards her eggs while incubating from 
predators by partially opening her wings and 
bill, and tries to scare away the intruders, but 
a powerful predator like the water monitor 
compels the parent bird to leave the nest. 
Some birds of prey, namely the Pariah Kite, 
{Milvus migrans), Bonelli's Hawk Eagle (Hie- 
raaetus jasciatus) and Pallas's Fishing Eagle 
(Haliaeetus leucoryphus) have been observed 
to fly over and snatch the nestlings at oppor- 
tune moments. 

The reeaction of adults and fledlings 

towards intruder 
As soon as the adult birds become aware 
of the presence of an intruder, they react 
sharply by an escaping flight in flocks, not 
bothering much about their chicks and nests. 
This sudden evacuation of the nests by the 
adults, causes a panic among chicks and fledgl- 
ings. Their fear is reflected through their 
struggle by sudden hopping and beating of their 
tiny wings, which enable them to escape to 
safety to some other area. As a result of which 
accidents occur and a few chicks do fall to 
the ground to die. But, most of the nestlings 
which have not developed enough strength to 
stand up or beat v/ings lie helpless in the nest. 
In Sajnakhali bird sanctuary, I have observed 
that the birds are so sensitive that they be- 
come alarmed even when a country boat is 
traversing a creek through or near the sanc- 
tuary. 



Food of chicks and fledglings 

Mukherjee (1975) gave a detailed analysis 
of the food of the Openbill in Sundarban and 
found that 85 per cent of its food comprised 
of Mollusca in wet season. Both parents gather 
soft body and viscera of the gastropods, which 
are skillfully extracted from shells chiefly of 
Vila globosa, to feed the young. Availability 
of gastropods does not pose a problem since 
the area is well-watered. These are collected 
from wet paddy fields and marshes. The bird 
flies to the nests to regurgitate the food on 
the floor of the nest for the brood. The sup- 
ply of food is about 5-6 times in a day. Chicks 
and fledglings pick up the food-material from 
the floor. 

Breeding success 

Breeding success was about 50 per cent, 
based on the remaining fledglings almost ready 
to fly. This was observed in ten nests in Sun- 
darban which had a total of 41 eggs and the 
count of fledglings in advanced age was 20 
only. It takes 35-36 days for the fledglings to 
fly after hatching and they finally leave the 
nest after 6 weeks. 

Population 

In approximately one hectare of intensive 
nesting area in Sajnakhali, Sundarban, the 
total number of nests of Openbill counted 
was approximately 80 in the year 1977 
(Plate). The population of adult birds toge- 
ther with the fledglings at the closure of the 
breeding season in that area was 320. In 
about 350 hectares of the total breeding area, 
the estimated population was over 10,000 
birds. 



136 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



Zoology Department, ANAND MUKHOPADHYAY 

Calcutta University, 
Calcutta-700 019, 
April 6, 1978. 

Reference 

Mukherjee, A. K. (1975): Food-habits of Water- Bengal, India. /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 71: 188- 
birds of the Sundarban, 24-Parganas District, West 191. 



9. THE NESTING OF THE COOT (FULICA ATRA) IN THE 
VILLAGE POND OF KHANDALA 



Lavkumar Khachar's note, in the Journal 
vol. 74: 525, recording several Coots {Fulica 
atra) nesting near Nasik, reminds me that last 
month (December 1978) Fr. J. Hernandes of 
our Institute reported a pair nesting in the 
village pond along the roadside at Khandala 
(Poona). There are earlier records of Coots 
nesting near Poona, where Major Betham 
(JBNHS 14 p. 176) found it breeding between 
14th July and 17th August 1901. He speci- 
fically refers to this being the first occasion on 
which he found the species nesting, in India. 
Some of these eggs are in the BNHS collection 
which, contains another obtained at Pashan, 
near Poona, on 29th August 1920 by F. Lud- 
low. 

Salim Ali and Humayun Abdulali in "The 
Birds of Bombay and Salsette" (1939) said 
that there were no nesting records from Bom- 
bay, but I later discovered in the St. Xavier 

St. Xavier's High School, 
Bombay-400 001, 
February 6, 1979. 



High School collection, an egg taken at Maha- 
laxmi, Bombay in 1910. It would appear that 
the nesting of this species in peninsular India 
is sporadic. 

Incidentally, Indian handbook (2:181) re- 
fers to Whistler's statement (Pg. 263, The Avi- 
faunal Survey of Ceylon - 1944). 

"It has now established in Ceylon" (Giant's 
Tank, near Marungam), but adds on page 
183. "It has not yet been recorded nesting 
in Ceylon". It may be worthwhile drawing at- 
tention to a note by A. E. Butler in Ceylon 
Bird Club notes — December 1962, where he 
refers to a young Coot brought to him on 5th 
December in brownish-black plumage, with 
the shield undeveloped, and the bill pinkish in 
colour. There would appear to be no doubt 
that Whistler meant that he had nesting re- 
cords for Ceylon (Sri Lanka). 

A. NAVARRO 



137 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



10. A NOTE ON THE SURVEY OF THE GREAT INDIAN BUSTARD 
(CHORIOTIS NIGRICEPS) 



Shri R. S. Dharmakumarsinhji, Regional 
Honorary Secretary (West) of the Indian 
Board for Wildlife, Member of the Maharash- 
tra State Wildlife Advisory Board, and Mem- 
ber of the Working Group of World Bustards, 
was keen that we should survey the habitat of 
the Great Indian Bustard {Choriotis nigriceps) 
in Marathwada region, with a view to afford 
stricter protection to this rare bird, which is 
alarmingly on the decline and to promote 
conditions for its breeding and multiplication. 
The likely habitat of this bird, was indicated 
as the area in the vicinity of the confluence 
of the rivers Godavari and Pravara, known as 
the Pravarasangam, about 40 km to the south- 
west of Aurangabad district, on its border 
with the adjoining Ammednagar district. An- 
other probable site suggested, was the area 
near about the confluence of the rivers Goda- 
vari and Purna, about 20 km to the south of 
Purna in Parbhani district. The Divisional 
Forest Officers concerned, as also the field- 
staff, were given description the bird and were 
asked to keep an eye on its occurrence and 
movement and to report no sooner than it was 
sighted. 

Local enquiry revealed that nearly two de- 
cades ago this bird was seen in fair numbers, 
in the grassland interpersed with cultivation 
between Vaijapur and Gangapur, along the 
river Godavari on the south-western border 
of Aurangabad district. The other likely areas 
indicated were: Shiur 50 km to the north-west 
of Aurangabad on the Malegaon road, Nim- 
gaon-Chaoba in the eastern part of Ashti ta- 
luka, in Beed district, bordering Ahmednagar 
district, Chausala, 35 km to the south of Beed 
in Beed district, and near about Ruibhar and 
Tuljapur in Osmanabad district. 



We had been in quest for the bird for near- 
ly a year when on 28-9-1978 accompanied by 
Shri K. K. Chavan, Divisional Forest Officer, 
Aurangabad. I undertook a rapid survey, of 
the tract between Vaijapur and Gangapur 
along the river Godavari. After a brief halt 
at Gangapur, we proceeded southwards to Pra- 
varasangam (the confluence of rivers Goda- 
vari and Pravara) and crossed over into New- 
asa taluka, of Ahmednagar district, to the 
other bank of the river Godavari. Enquiry 
about the bird, with the local villagers near 
Pravarasangam, drew a blank. We found there 
was no access by road, along the river Goda- 
vari on the other side of the Pravarasangam. 
We therefore thought of returning and survey- 
ing the fringe, on the other side of river Goda- 
vari in Aurangabad district. As we were pro- 
ceeding along this course, we met some villa- 
gers near Pravarasangam, who were hacking, 
Prosopis juli flora (Mesquite), which has wild- 
ly overrun the low-lying tract, near the con- 
fluence of the above rivers for fuelwood. En- 
quiry with them, gave us a ray of hope, as 
one of them said, that he had seen this bird 
two years ago, in bajra fields near his hamlet, 
at Babulkheda, in Newasa taluka, in Ahmed- 
nagar district. He described the bird, vividly 
and offered to take us to the site. 

It was incredible, that almost on our arrival 
I could sight two bustards foraging for food, 
on the edge of a bajra field about a hectare in 
extent. On two sides of the field, were small 
patches of grassland, admeasuring barely 2 ha. 
dotted with shrubby growth of ber (Zizyphus 
jujuba) and hivar (Acacia leucophloea) . The 
birds were about 150 m away from us. We 
tried to approach them on foot, to have a 
closer glimpse and we succeeded in getting 



138 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



within a distance of about 30 m from them. 
The birds which had strayed into the bajra 
field perfectly camouflaged with the crop. We 
could spot another pair, in all four birds. Two 
were smaller than the others, leading to infer, 
they were a pair each, male and female. As 
we got closer to them we could clearly see 
their majestic, almost martial stride, with their 
conspicuous black-crested crowns, swivelling 
right and left, looking out warily for the in- 
truder. As we got closer to them, within a 
range of about 30 m they took off in the air, 
almost instinctively, flapping their wings rhyth- 
mically. 

Though the common vernacular name of the 
bird is 'maldhok", it is locally known as: "kal- 
dhok" or "kuldhokmane". The villagers in- 
formed us, that Babulkheda fields and grass- 
lands are permanent habitat of the birds and 

Conservator of Forests, 
aurangabad circle, 
aurangabad, (m.s.), 
November 27, 1978. 



that they are also come across in the neigh- 
bouring villages of Salbatpur, and Jalka. They 
estimate a population of about ten birds in 
this tract. 

The natural habitat of the bird, is very much 
disturbed with cultivation perniciously making 
inroads into grasslands and the shrubby vege- 
tal growth being cleared in the process. Con- 
tinual human traffic too, as a result of the 
spread of cultivation all round, also comes in 
the way of safe and sheltered habitat for the 
birds. The fringe of grassland interspersed 
with cultivation and shrubby growth, on either 
side of the river Godavari between Vaijapur 
and Salbatpur (about 1500 sq. km.) both in 
Aurangabad and Ahmednagar districts, could 
be considered for protection and development, 
as available habitat for the vanishing Great 
Indian Bustard in Maharashtra. 

L. H. A. REGO 



11. ON THE TAXONOMIC VALIDITY OF THE SOUTH INDIAN 
BLACKHEADED ORIOLE, ORIOLUS XANTHORNUS 
MADERASPATANUS FRANKLIN (AVES: ORIOLIDAE) 



(With a ttxt- figure) 



During the course of a faunistic survey in 
Andhra Pradesh in 1978, I collected a female 
specimen of Oriolus xanthornus maderaspata- 
nus Franklin on 22 February from Kotapalli, 
c 48 km north-east of Mancherial, Adilabad 
district, Andhra Pradesh. Its measurements 
are: Wing 144, tail 87, and bill 30 mm. 

The south Indian population of the Black- 
headed Oriole was separated from Oriolus 
xanthornus xanthornus Linnaeus, 1758, as 
Oriolus xanthornus maderaspatanus by Frank- 



lin, 1831, on the basis of yellow markings on 
inner secondaries and tertiaries being reduced 
to terminal spots. Baker (1926) considers the 
whole population of Indian Blackheaded 
Oriole under one subspecies, Oriolus xanthor- 
nus xanthornus. Biswas (1947) also treated 
maderaspatanus as a synonym of xanthornus, 
since he found that the yellow markings are 
very variable and not a constant character. 
Rand & Fleming (1957) while studying the 
birds from Nepal, commented that the 



130 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Table 1 



5 $ 

Tripura 
1 $ 
West Bengal 

6 $ 

1 9 

1 ? 
Bihar 

4 $ 

1 9 

2 ? 

Uttar Pradesh 

2 5 

1 ? 

Orissa 

6 3 

5 9 

Madhya Pradesh 
4 g 

Andhra Pradesh 

1 $ 
Maharashtra 

7 $ 

Goa 

1 3 
Tamil Nadu 

1 9 

2 ? 

Kerala 
2 5 



20.00-22.00 
(21.00) 

26.00 

19.00--26.00 
(23.00) 
19.00 
21.00 

16.00-24.00 
(19.00) 
27.00 

21.00-23.00 
(22.00) 

19.00-23.00 
(21.00) 
29.00 

15.00-22.00 
(18.00) 

15.00-27.00 
(22.00) 

11.00-17.00 
(14.50) 



9.00-11.00 
(7.00) 

11.00 

9.00 
8.00-10.00 
(9.00) 

10.00-11.00 
(10.50) 
10.00 



20.00-23.00 
(21.40) 

26.00 

20.00-28.00 
(23.50) 
18.00 
24.00 

18.00-24.00 
(21.50) 
23.00 

18.00-22.00 
(20.00) 

23.00-25.00 
(24.00) 
29.00 

12.00-20.00 
(16.00) 

15.00-27.00 
(22.00) 

12.00-17.00 
(14.25) 

11.00 

10.00-14.00 
(11.14) 

10.00 

9.00 
8.00-10.00 
(9.00) 

10.00-11.00 
(10.50) 
10.00 



19.00-24.00 
(20.80) 

25.00 

20.00-32.00 
(23.00) 
20.00 
25.00 

16.00-23.00 
(20.25) 
22.00 

18.00-23.00 
(20.50) 

25.00 
(25.00) 
31.00 

9.00-17.00 
(14.00) 
15.00-24.00 
(20.00) 

11.00-16.00 
(12.50) 



10.00-15.00 
(11.85) 

10.00 

7.00 
7.00-10.00 
(8.50) 

9.00-11.00 
(10.00) 
10.00 



140 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



validity of maderaspatanus of peninsular India 
was questionable. Ali & Ripley (1972, p. 110, 
note) while admitting maderaspatanus stand 
that the 'subspecies is considered questionable 
by some authors'. 

An attempt has, therefore, been made to 
review the taxonomic status of Oriolus xan- 
thornus maderaspatanus on the basis of the 
material present at the Zoological Survey of 
India. The differences of measurements (in 
mm) of yellow spots on secondaries 6, 7 and 
8 (from outside) between the populations 
from northern and southern India are given 
in Table 1 (averages in parenthesis). 

From the table 1 the difference in the sizes 
of the yellow spots on three secondaries bet- 
ween the northern and southern populations 
appears quite clear, although a very small 
number of specimens exhibit some variations 
which may possibly be only individual varia- 
tions. The accompanying sketch showing yel- 
low spots on the secondaries of the two popu- 
lations also make the issue quite clear (fig. 1 ) . 

On the basis of the data presented above, 
I believe (Ali and Ripley 1972) are justified 
in recognizing maderaspatanus as a distinct 
subspecies. 

Acknowledgement 

I am grateful to Dr. B. Biswas, Zoological 
Survey of India, Calcutta, for his valuable 
suggestions and for going through the manu- 
script. 

Zoological Survey of India, 
Indian Museum, 
Calcutta 700 016, 
January 7, 1978. 




Fig. 1. Secondary wing feathers of Oriolus xan- 
thomas showing the extent of yellow spots on the 
6th, 7th and 8th feathers. 

A. North Indian population; B. South Indian 
population. 

N. MAJUMDAR 



141 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



References 

Ali, S. & Ripley, S. D. (1972): Handbook of Birds from the Darrang District, Assam. Rec. In- 
the birds of India and Pakistan, Vol. 5: 110. dian Mus. 45: 233. 

Baker, E. C. S. (1926): Fauna of British India, Rand, A. L. & Fleming, R. L. (1957): Birds 
Birds 3: 11. Taylor & Francis, London. from Nepal. Fieldiana, Zoology, 47(1): 108. 

Biswas, B. (1947): Notes on a Collection of 



12. ON THE VALIDITY OF DENDROCITTA FORMOSAE SARKARI 
KINNEAR & WHISTLER 



In the course of the Vernay Scientific Sur- 
very of the Eastern Ghats held during 1929- 
30, seven specimens of the Himalayan Tree 
Pie (Dendrocitta jormosae) were obtained in 
the Vizagapatam Hills and separated as Dcn- 
drocitta jormosae sarkari by Kinnear & Whist- 
ler (1930, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 51 p. 17). 

It was referred to again in the course of the 
Eastern Ghats Report (JBNHS 35 p. 517) as 
differing from the form in the Eastern Hima- 
layas (now D. f. himalayensis Blyth). 

Biswas 1964, JBNHS 60: 650-1 measured 
three paratypes of sarkari (2 S <3 1 2 ) and 
compared them with a large series (30 S <$ 
20 ? 5 32 o?) from Eastern (himalayensis 
Blyth) and Western (occidentalis Ticehurst) 
Himalayas. Noting the slight overlap in the 
measurements he expressed the opinion that 
sarkari was synonymous with himalayensis. 
This has been accepted in ind. handbook (5: 
226). 

In the course of cataloguing the Bombay 
Natural History Society collection, I have 
examined 9 specimens, 2 from the original 
series from Anantagiri, Vizagapatam Hills, 
and 7 fresh specimens collected by Salim Ali 
at Berbera, Puri, and Mahendragiri, all in 
Orissa. 



While the average measurements are not 
very different, in series they are strikingly 
smaller than both occidentalis and himalayen- 
sis, and the range of measurements is also very 
different. 

The wing and tail measurements decline 
from the north-west (occidentalis) through 
Eastern Himalayas (himalayensis) to Orissa 
and the Vizagapatam Hills (sarkari). The 
measurements overlap with those of the ad- 
joining race, the only consistent difference 
being the acquirement of a larger wing and 
tail, both by occidentalis, as compared to 
himalayensis, and the latter as compared with 
sarkari. 

In the first two, the distribution is contigu- 
ous and they no doubt form a cline. The 
southern birds are, however, isolated and of 
those examined, the largest wing is 143 mm., 
bill 23.7 and tail 207. 

It is generally overlooked that the bird was 
described only for its smaller bill. When view- 
ed sideways, it is much smaller than in any 
of the others and the width at the nostrils 
never exceeds 11 mm., while it is always more 
in the others. 

On these differences, I think that sarkari 
is a good race and deserves to be retained. 



142 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 





Wing 


Bill 


From 


Width at 


Tail 








nostril 


nostril 






(4) 135-143 


28.5-30.6 


21-23 


9.8-10.6 


200, 207 


hiiricilciyctisis 


(8) 135-148 


29.8-33.3 


22-25 


11-12 


188-224 


Biswas s 


(30) 137-151 ( 142.7) 


34-39.5 (36.5) 






194-228 




(6) 140-154 


32-35 


24.3-26 


11.3-12.3 


233-249 


Biswas's ,, 


(4) 147-156 


35-37.5 (36.5) 






243-260 


S 9 












sarkari 


(5) 133-140 


27.5-30.7 


21.7-23.7 


10-11 


193-203 


himcdayensis 


(12) 135-150 


29-33.2 


22-25 


11-12.3 


188-233 


Biswas"s „ 


(20) 137-148 


33.5-39 (36.1) 






192-230 


occidentalis 


(2) 152, 153 


30, 33 


?,? 7 25.8 


11.5, 12.3 


238, 243 


Biswas's „ 


(7) 149-156 


35-40 (37.4) 






241-261 



75 Abdul Rehman Street, HUMAYUN ABDULALI 

Bombay-400 003, 
March 31, 1979. 



13. ON THE OCCURRENCE OF TYTLER'S LEAF WARBLER, 
PHYLLOSCOPUS TYTLERl BROOKS IN GOA 



Grubh & Ali (1976) state that they obtain- 
ed a specimen of Tytler's Leaf Warbler Phyllo- 
scopus tytleri Brooks in Goa in early Decem- 
ber 1972. I have examined this specimen in 
the collection of the Bombay Natural History 
Society. The diagnostic characters of this spe- 
cies are its "peculiarly long thin bill" (Tice- 
hurst 1938) and dark lower mandible. Com- 
parison with specimens obtained during the 
breeding season from Kashmir shows that this 
specimen does not have these characters. It is 
clearly a Greenish Warbler, Phylloscopus tro- 
chiloides (Sundevall), of which I have made 
a special study (MS.). 

Presumably the mis-identification was made 
on the basis of no wing bar. However, indi- 
vidual Greenish Warblers in worn plumage 
(as this specimen is) often show very faint 
or missing wing bars (pers. obs.). The Green- 

Division of Biological Sciences, 
The University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, 
Michigan 48109, 
U.S.A., 

January 3, 1979. 



ish Warbler goes through its complete annual 
moult in Spring (Ticehurst 1938) and would 
be expected to be in worn plumage at this 
time. Tytler's Leaf Warbler, on the other hand, 
goes through a complete post-nuptial moult 
(Ticehurst 1938) and would be expected to be 
in relatively fresh plumage. 

There are therefore only three confirmed 
records of the Tytler's Leaf Warbler in Winter 
(Grubh & Ali 1976) and several sight re- 
cords (Ali & Ripley 1973), all from the west 
side of the Indian peninsular. The Winter 
range of this species remains unclear. Ripley 
records this species in the Dhenkanal District, 
Orissa, which extends its known winter range 
considerably further east (Ripley 1978). 

I thank Dr. Robert Grubh for help with the 
Society's collections. 

TREVOR D. PRICE 



143 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



References 



Ali, S. & Ripley, S. D. (1973): Handbook of 
the Birds of India and Pakistan. Volume 8. Oxford 
University Press. 

Grubh, R. B. & Ali, S. (1976): Birds of Goa. 
/. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 73: 42-53. 

Price, T. D. (1978): The Ecology of the Green- 
ish Warbler, Phylloscopus trochiloides (Sundevall) 
in its Winter quarters. Manuscript. 



Ripley, S. D. (1978): Changes in the bird fauna 
of a forest area; Simlipal Hills, Mayurbhanj Dis- 
trict, and Dhenkanal District, Orissa. J. Bombay 
nat. Hist. Soc. 75(3): 570-574. 

Ticehurst, C. B. (1938): A Systematic Review 
of the Genus Phylloscopus. British Museum (Natu- 
ral History). 



14. GREEN MUNIA (ESTRILDA FORMOSA) AT DELHI, AND 
OTHER INTERESTING RECORDS FOR 1978 



During 1978 we recorded two species which, 
according to Ganguli (1975), have not been 
recorded previously within the Union Terri- 
tory of Delhi, the Plaintive Cuckoo and the 
Green Munia, the latter record falling well out- 
side the normal range of the species. In addi- 
tion we obtained evidence of breeding for two 
species formerly of doubtful status within the 
area, the Red and Spotted Munias. All obser- 
vations were made in the Government Nur- 
sery, Sunder Nagar, just beside Delhi Zoo. 

Plaintive Cuckoo Cacomantis merulinus. An 
immature of this species was seen on 20 Au- 
gust 1978 perched in the crown of a mango 
tree, into which it made periodic sallies to 
snatch insects. It was identified from the si- 
milar Bay-banded Cuckoo C. sonneratii by the 
presence of a rufous suffusion on the face and 
throat, and by the fact that the legs were 
orange and the bill brown, becoming yellow- 
ish at the base of the lower mandible. 

Green Munia Estrilda jormosa. A male was 
seen feeding in tall grass along with Red Mu- 
nias on 11 October 1978. The bird was in 
very fresh plumage and we were able to ob- 
serve it at ranges down to 3 m. It took no 
notice of us, but appeared unsettled, flying 
round more than the other munias present, 



and after half an hour flew off and did not 
re-appear. The bird was also seen by Narender 
Sharma. 

According to Ali and Ripley (1974) the 
species' main range is in central India, but 
there are tv/o isolated records from the north- 
ern part of the sub-continent, at Lucknow and 
Lahore, and it is therefore possible that a scat- 
tered population does exist north of the Vin- 
dhyas. 

Red Munia Estrilda amandava. Birds 
were seen collecting and transporting nest ma- 
terial on 17 September and 11 October 1978 
and pairs were seen with fledglings from 31 
October onwards. Spotted Munia Lonchura 
punctulata. One was seen repeatedly carrying 
strips of green grass blades to a nest in the 
crown of a palm tree, about 6 m up. The 
pieces were frequently several times the length 
of the bird and could be carried only with 
difficulty. Juveniles were noted in November, 
but the nest seen being built did not fledge 
any young. 

One other record for 1978 which is worth 
mentioning is that of a male Dark Grey Bush- 
chat Saxlcola jerrea seen by AJG on 29 Octo- 
ber. The two records mentioned by Ganguli 
from Delhi were apparently not certain. 



144 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 

c/o Oxford University Press, 
2/11 Ansari Road, 
Darya Ganj, 
Delhi 110 002, 
February 19, 1979. 

References 

Ali, S. & Ripley, S. D. (1974): Handbook of Ganguli, U. (1975): A Guide to the Birds of the 
the Birds of India and Pakistan, Vol. 10. Delhi Area. I.C.A.R., New Delhi. 
Oxford University Press, Bombay. 



A. J. GASTON 
J. MACKRELL 



15. A CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS IN THE COLLECTION OF THE 
BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 
PARTS 1-17— NON-PASSERIFORMES 
ERRATA 



JBNHS 


Serial 


I. H * 




Vol. p. 


page No. 


No. 




65(1) : 189 


(8) 


23 


"December" is month of acquisition, and not collec- 
tion. 


65(1) : 191 


(10) 


33 


For "Ardea Unperialis" read " Ardea insignis Hume". 


65(2): 423 


(24) 


97 


For "25356" read "15356". 


65(2): 424 


(25) 


101 


Specimen 15384 marked "Gadwall /Mallard hybrid" 








has been re-identified as a teal /Baikal teal hybrid, Bull. 








BOC 1969:100. 


65(2) :429 


(30) 


121 


The specimen marked "Gangpur, Bihar" was obtain- 








ed by the ruler of that State on lb River, Sambalpur, 








Orissa. 


65(3): 700 


(36) 


138 


"Bhagat State (in Simla Hills), N.W.P." not N.W.F.P." 


65(3): 706 


(42) 


157 


Khojdar is not in Persia but in Baluchistan 27.48N., 








65.36E (Dr. R. D. Etchecopar, in epist.). 


65(3) :713 


(49) 


185 


In line 8 for " bengalensis" read "indicus". 


65(3) :718 


(54) 


203 


For "Shaiba, Arabia" read "Shaiba, Iraq". 


66(2): 264 


(73) 


264 


For "Manipur Bush Quail" read "Assam Bush Quail". 


66(2): 267 


(76) 


278 


For "Bharatpur, Rajasthan" read "Karauli, District 








Sawai Madhopur, Rajasthan". (Sent by Maharaja of 








Bharatpur!). 


66(2): 270 


(79) 


286 


For "Tragopan satyr" read "Tragopan satyra". 


66(2): 283 


(92) 


314 


Insert name "Yellowlegged Button Quail". 






♦Originally 


based on Ripley's Synopsis. 



145 



10 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



66(3) :544 


(97) 


334 


66(3) :547 


(100) 


347 


66(3) :559 


(112) 


384a 


67(2) :282 


(122) 


415 


67(2) :283 


(123) 


420 


67(2): 284 


(124) 


424 


67(2) :289 


(129) 


439 


68(1): 148 


(160) 


535 


68(1) : 152 


(164) 


544a 




(191) 


605 


fion v- 104 


( 195) 


614 


69(1): 105 


(196) 


617 


69(1): 106 


(197) 


618a 


69(1) : 115 


(206) 


643 


69(1):121 


(212) 


660b 


69(1): 126 


(217) 


675 


69(1) : 129 


(220) 


682a 


69(2): 382 


(225) 


698 


69(2) :385 


(228) 


707 


69(3) :541 


(236) 


726 



For "Shaiba, Arabia" read "Shaiba, Iraq". 
For "Shaiba, Arabia" read "Shaiba, Iraq". 
This is synonymous with No. 375 and should be en- 
tirely omitted. 

The measurements of Sp. No. 14793 from Chiika Lake 
are erroneous and the specimen is minutus No. 416. 
In the penultimate sentence the word "omitted" is in 
error for "accepted". 

Delete "nil" for some specimens under the next may 
be of this subspecies. 

Delete "nil" for some specimens under the next may 
be of this subspecies. 

For "Shaiba, Arabia" read "Shaiba, Iraq". 

In first line read " there is only one female 



Ten live birds in Calcutta Zoo (1 April 1973) had 
yellow claws. 

Under subadult tarsus read "av. 40.4". 
In fine 5 for "third primary" read "first primary" and 
in following paragraph the date of the Ratnagiri speci- 
men should be "8 January 1879". 
After "Supa" add "N. Kanara". 
The single specimen is Otus magicus (?) 
For "Sonapura" read "Sonarupa". 
2 <$ d from Nilgiris (February 1975) agree with the 
bird from Yercaud and the differences from Strix lep- 
togrammica indranee Sykes are probably due to the 
other skins being older and having faded. 
In type locality for "Bengal" read "now Chaibassa, 
Bihar". 

In last line after "JBNHS" insert '69: 185". 

For "Apus acuticaudis"' read "Apus acuticauda" . (R. 

K. Brooke, Bull. B.O.C. 1969:97-99). 

For "C. p. batasiensis" read "C. p. balasiensis" . (Wells 

& Medway, JBNHS 723:539-542). 

Insert locality "Jalawli, collected by T. R. Bell = N 

Kanara?". 



146 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



ADDENDA 

Only species /subspecies of which no specimens were available or had not been 
correctly identified are now listed. 



Indian 
Handbook 
No. 

19 Phaeton Upturns lepturus Daudin 
(Mauritius) 

1 off Battye Malve, between Anda- 
man and Nicobar Islands (pair of 
central feathers only). 
43 Ardeola bacchus Bonaparte (Malay 
Peninsula), 1 <S Sipighat, South 
Andamans, 1 9 Narcondam Island. 
108/9 Paget's Pochard, a cross between 
Ay thy a ferina and Ay thy a nyroca 
netted at Bharatpur. JBNHS 69(2): 
415-417. 

128 Aviceda leuphotes andamanensis 
Abdulali & Grubh 
1 d 1 1 2 Type & paratype (Wright- 
myo, South Andaman). 

202 Spilornis cheela klossi Richmond 
(Pulo Kunyi, Great Nicobar). 
1 2 Campbell Bay, Great Nicobar, 
(Topotype). 

240 Francolinus pictus pallidus (J. E. 
Gray) (Udaipur). 
1 d 1 Udaipur, 1 September 1977 — 
See note JBNHS 76(2) : 362. 
— Lophurus sp. 

In JBNHS 66(2), p, 276, I refer- 
red to 3 specimens (2 <$ 1 ? ) from 
near Htangaw between Kachin Hills 
and China which I was unable to 
identify. A d and 9 were sent to 
Dr. Delacour at American Museum 
of Natural History and in a letter 
dated 4 November 1974 he replied 
"They are L. leucomelanus lathami 



(Horsfield's Kalij) williamsi, but 
they are much nearer to lathami. 
There are a lot of more or less in- 
termediate specimens from the Ka- 
chin Hills. They are unstable and 
do not deserve names". 
254 Coturnix chinensis trinkutensis 
(Richmond) (Trinkut Island, Nico- 
bar Group). 

2 d d 2 2 9 Trinkut Island, Cen- 
tral Nicobars (Topotypes). 
345b Amaurornis phoenicurus midnicoba- 
rica Abdulali (Nancowry, Central 
Nicobars). 

1 d (Holotype) 1 9 Nancowry; 
1 cf 1 9 Camorta. 
378 Charadrius hiaticula tundrae (Lowe) 
(Valley of Yenessei) 

1 o? Muthupet, Thanjavur dist., 
Tamil Nadu. 

386 Numenius phaeopus variegatus 
(Scopoli) (No locality = Luzon, ex 
Sonnerat) . 

2 obtained from Japan in exchange 
for Indian specimens. Others from 
Andamans & Nicobars, and 1 from 
Pulicat, Madras, transferred from 
385 (JBNHS 71, p. 497). 

427 Phalaropus julicarhis (Linnaeus) 
(Hudson Bay) 

1 c? Oregon, U.S.A. (in exchange). 
527b Macropygia rujipennis tiwari Abdul- 
ali (Campbell Bay, Great Nicobar) 
4 d 1 9 Campbell Bay, Great 
Nicobar. 

543 Chalcophaps indica robinsord Baker 
(Cocawath Estate, Ceylon) 
d No. 23485, collected by S. Green 



147 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



at Colombo, Ceylon. 
610a Phodilus badius ripleyi (Hussain & 

Reza Khan (Nelliampathi Hills) 

1 Peria Solai Estate, Nelliampathi, 

Kerala (Type). 
642c Otus mag'wus subsp. yet undescribed. 

1 <$ Campbell Bay, Great Nicobar 

(1969). 

646 Ninox af finis of finis Beavan (Aber- 
deen Point, Port Blair, Andaman Is- 
lands. 

1 9 South Andamans, (Topotype). 

647 Ninox affinis isolata Baker (Car 
Nicobar) 

2 c? 9 Car Nicobar*, 1 9 Camor- 

75 Abdul Rehman Street, 
Bombay-400 003, 
June 8, 1977. 



ta, (* Topotypes). 
647a Ninox affinis rexpimenti Abdulali 
(Great Nicobar). 
2 o* 6 1 9 Topotypes. 

728 Ceyx erilhacus macrocarus Oberhol- 
ser (Great Nicobar) 

1 c? Campbell Bay, Great Nicobar. 
The specimen obtained in 1966 and 
listed under this form is of the no- 
minate race and was wrongly iden- 
tified. 

729 Pelargopsis amauroptera (Pearson) 
(Calcutta) 

2 cf o* Bhitarkanika, Athadhar 
Forest Division, Balasore, Orissa. 

HUMAYUN ABDULALI 



16. TERRITORIALITY IN IMMATURE CAPTIVE SALTWATER 
CROCODILES (CROCODYLUS POROSUS SCHNEIDER) 



Since 1975, extensive rearing of saltwater 
crocodiles, hatched in captivity, has taken 
place at Dangmal, Orissa as one facet of a con- 
servation programme on this endangered spe- 
cies (FAO, 1975). 

Hatchlings show a strong tendency to aggre- 
gate, but by about eight months old they start 
to loose this aggregation tendency becoming 
progressively more solitary if space permits. 
In the early spring (February/March) of their 
third year, at an age of 2\ years, signs of ter- 
ritoriality /dominance behaviour commenced 
in groups in two successive years (Table 1)). 
This behaviour was exhibited by both sexes. 

The dominant female of the all female batch 
hatched in 1975, did not allow the other four 
females to enter the 4x4x1 m deep pool 
when she was in the pool or to approach her 



on land. In September 1978 this female was 
removed and housed separately, following 
which the next largest female in the group 
became dominant. The 1976 batch showed si- 
milar dominance behaviour from February/ 
March 1978, the dominant in this year being 
a male. Towards the end of the third year the 
dominants commenced actual physical attacks 
on the subordinate members of their respec- 
tive groups. This behaviour was very marked 
during the fourth year resulting in injuries to 
the head, jaws and back legs. 

We consider that this dominance behaviour 
results from territoriality which cannot find 
expression in a confined space, hence result- 
ing in the development of a dominance hierar- 
chy. 

The development of strong territoriality is 



148 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



Development of territoriality/dominance behavior in groups of immature saltwater crocodiles. 
Sizes (m) and weights (kg) 



Date of birth 


Time /Age of commencement 
of territorial / dominance 
behaviour 


Composition 
of group 




Dominant 






Sex 


Size 


Weight 


21 August 1975 
17 August 1976 


Feb/ Mar 1978 (21 years) 
Feb /Mar 1979 (2\ years) 


5 Females 
3 Females 


Female 
Male 


1.42 
1.29 


10.5 
7.5 



surprising in immature individuals assumed to 
have at least a further 5 - 7 years of immature 
life prior to first breeding ( Yangprapakorn 
1971). Furthermore, the existence of strongly 
developed female territoriality is likewise un- 
expected. However, as pointed out by Neill 
(1971) virtually nothing is known of the bio- 
logy of C. porosus outside of nesting. Further- 
more, crocodilians may represent a behaviour- 
ally more diverse group than hitherto limited 
data have suggested. 

Crocodile Breeding & Management 
Training Institute, 
19-4-314 Lake Dale, 
Rajendranagar Road, 
Hyderabad-500 264. 

Saltwater Crocodile Research 
and Conservation Centre, 
Dangmal-754 220, Orissa, 
February 20, 1980. 



It is standard practice in large-scale croco- 
dilian rearing to restrict the numbers per pool, 
to keep year classes separately, and to resort 
individuals within year classes so that similar- 
sized individuals are kept together. This is 
done to prevent bullying of smaller individuals 
by larger animals. However, the behaviour de- 
scribed here for C. porosus is markedly diffe- 
rent in degree from our experience with other 
crocodilian species. 

H. R. BUSTARD 



S. K. KAR 



References 



FAO (1975): India: Gharial and Crocodile Con- 
servation Management in Orissa (based on the work 
of H. R. Bustard) FAO, Rome (FO:IND/71 /033). 

Neill, W. T. (1971): The Last of the Ruling 



Reptiles. Columbia Univ. Press. New York. 

Yangprapakorn, U. (1971): Captive Breeding 
of Crocodiles in Thailand. In Crocodiles. IUCN 
Pubis. N.S. Suppl. 33: 98-101. 



14') 



JOURNAL. BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



17. STATUS OF THE GHARIAL (GAVIALIS GANGETICUS) 
GMELIN) IN BHUTAN 



The distribution of the gharial is given by 
Malcolm Smith (1931) as, "The Indus, Gan- 
ges, Mahanadi and Brahmaputra Rivers and 
their tributaries, and the Kaladan River, Ara- 
kan." 

The gharial formerly occurred in the Manas 
River, a tributary of the Brahmaputra which 
rises in the hill country in the himalayan King- 
dom of Bhutan and passes through southern 
(lowland) Bhutan before entering Assam. In 
1978 I carried out crocodile field work in 
Bhutan including Manas Sanctuary (Bustard 
1979) and confirmed the presence of ideal 
gharial habitat on the Bhutan portion of the 
Manas river from the border with India until 
the Manas enters the hill country. This area 
of the Manas river appeared similar to the 
so-called Satkosia Gorge of river Mahanadi 
in Orissa which is one of the sanctuaries dec- 
lared for the gharial under the Government 
of India Crocodile Project. Satkosia Gorge has 
long been famous as gharial habitat. The Ma- 
nas river within Bhutan includes good bas- 
king/nesting sandbanks further enhancing its 
habitat potential. 

No gharial appear to occur today in this 

Central Crocodile Breeding & 
Management Training Institute, 
Lake Dale, Raiendranagar Road, 
Hyderabad-500 264, 
February 2, 1980. 



stretch of the Manas River in Bhutan nor in 
the stretch within India adjacent to Bhutan. 
The last definite records of gharial were of an 
adult of 5-5.5 m which was frequently seen 
between 1962 and 1964 about 8 km upstream 
from the Bhutanese Manas Tourist Lodge, 
and another individual of about 4.5 m which 
was seen daily for about 17 years until con- 
struction of the Tourist Lodge at the site where 
the Tourist Lodge now stands. 

In November 1977 Forest Department per- 
sonnel of Project Tiger brought a gharial, re- 
ported to be about 1.5 m in length, and libe- 
rated it in the Manas river on the Bhutanese 
side of the Indo-Bhutanese border. This gha- 
rial v/as seen for 7 months until the commen- 
cement of the 1978 monsoon. However, I was 
advised by Shri Deb Roy, I.F.S., Field Di- 
rector, Project Tiger, Manas, during Decem- 
ber 1979 that this gharial is still being seen 
occasionally. 

As recorded in my 1979 FAO report, efforts 
should be made to re-establish the gharial in 
Bhutan in this good habitat in Manas, espe- 
cially in view of the extensive protection now 
afforded to Manas Sanctuary. 

H. R. BUSTARD 



References 

Bustard. H. R. (1979): Bhutan: Crocodile Con- dia including Ceylon and Burma. Rentilia and Am- 
servation Commercial Fanning. FO:DP/BHU/78/ phibia. 7. Loricata Testudines: Taylor and Francis, 
003. FAO. Rome January 1979. London. 

Smith, M. A. (1931): The Fauna of British In- 



150 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



18. EXTENTION OF RANGE OF THE NARROW-MOUTH FROG, 
UPERODON GLOBULOSUM (GUNTHER) TO KAMRUP DISTRICT, 
ASSAM 



The narrow-mouth frog, Uperodon globulo- 
sum (Gunther), is believed to be a rare spe- 
cies from its small numerical records from the 
reported areas, although it enjoys a wide range 
of distribution. The species has been obtained 
from West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh 
and Maharashtra. Orissa has also been includ- 
ed in the range of distribution of this species 
(Boulenger 1890) but no specimen from that 
state could be traced. In West Bengal, this 
species has been collected from the Botanical 
Gardens, Shibpur, Howrah District in 1880's; 
from Khardah, 24 Parganas District in 1928, 
from Jalpaiguri District in 1956, and recently 
from Barakpur and Baj Baj, 24 Parganas Dis- 
trict. 

In their note on its record from Jalpaiguri, 
West Bengal, Bhaduri and Basu (1956) wrote: 
"The presence of U. globulosum in Jalpaiguri 
in northern Bengal particularly as it is situat- 
ed in the borderline of Assam, seems to be 
an interesting feature. Its occurrence, there- 
fore, in some parts of Assam may not be un- 
likely from the point of view of its distribu- 
tion". This remark has now been fully borne 
out by a recent finding of an example of this 
species from a termitarium in Mothanguri, 
Manas Sanctuary, Kamrup District, Assam, by 
one of us (S.S.S.), who brought a live speci- 
men to Calcutta. 

The alleged rarity of the species is probably 
because it eludes collectors from its subter- 
ranean habits. There remains much to be 
learnt about the biology of this narrow-mouth 
frog. On earlier occasions the frog was exhum- 
ed from termitarium or from fields, usually 
from among debris. Abdulali & Daniel (1954) 
found it in fair numbers in the Salsette Island, 
Bombay, when the frogs came out of their 



burrow habitats for breeding. The present col- 
lection was from a forested area, in the semi- 
open mixed forest tract of Manas Sanctuary, 
in a block where the soil was damp and (he 
forest floor was littered with piles of decay- 
ing logs, mostly infested with termites. The 
narrow-mouth frog was located underneath a 
decaying log and partly embedded in soft clay. 
The soil termite, Speculitermes sp., was found 
in association with this frog. This termite does 
not make exposed mounds but forms a system 
of tunnels in the clay as well as in the decay- 
ing logs lying on the ground. The frog was 
found buried in the soft clay, head and part 
of its upper back out of soil but under a de- 
caying log, hollowed out just over the frogs 
body. Termites were apparently undisturbed 
by the presence of the frog. However, it is 
presumed that those termites constitute the 
chief food of the frog. The live specimen was 
brought back to Calcutta. No attempt was 
made to feed this animal and it died after 14 
days of starvation. It may be recalled in this 
connection that Mukerji (1933) observed this 
species died after 31 days of starvation. 

Material: 1 $ , collected on 14 June 1975 
by Shri S. S. Saha from Mothanguri, Manas 
Sanctuary, Kamrup District, Assam, and de- 
posited in the National Zoological Collections, 
Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. 

The present finding, extending the range of 
distribution of Uperodon globulosum (Gun- 
ther) to Assam, has significant bearing on the 
zoogeography of the species. Discoveries from 
further eastern part of its known range, parti- 
culuarly from the Indo-Malayan subregion 
may, perhaps, throw some light on the affinity 
of the species. 



151 



JOURNAL. BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY. Vol. 77 



Zoological Survey of India, JNANENDRA LAL BHADURI 

Indian Museum, SUBHENDU SEKHAR SAHA 

Calcutta-700 016, 
January 10, 1979. 



References 



Abdul al i, H. and Daniel, J. C. (1954) : Exten- 
tion of range of the frog Uperodon globulosum 
Gunther). J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 52: 637. 

Bhaduri, J. L. and Basu, S. L. (1956): Further 
extention of range of the frog, Uperodon globulo- 
sum (Gunther) in Jalpaiguri, West Bengal, ibid. 
53: 712-713. 



Boulenger, G. A. (1890): Fauna of British In- 
dia. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor and Francis. 
London. 

Mukerji, D. D. (1933): Some observations on 
burrowing toad, Cacopus globulosum Gunther. /. 
Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, N. S. 27: 97-100. 



19. OCCURRENCE OF BOT1A LOHACHATA CHAUDHURI IN 
HIMACHAL PRADESH WITH REMARKS ON THE TAXONOMY 
OF INDIAN SPECIES OF BOTIA GRAY (PISCES: COBITIDAE) 



Recently, I came across in the fish collec- 
tion of this Station 3 specimens of Botia loha- 
chata Chaudhuri collected from Naked Khud, 
10 kms from Dehragopipur, Distt. Kangra 
(H.P.). These specimens, labelled as Botia 
dayi Hora, agree well with the account of B. 
lohachata as given by Chaudhuri (1912). 
Since B. lohachata is hitherto known from 
Bihar, Uttar-Pradesh, Rajasthan (Udaipur), 
Delhi, Punjab and Sind (Menon 1974), the 
present find extends its distributional range to 
Himachal Pradesh, as may be expected from 
the zoogeographical point of view (Menon 
1962). 

Tilak and Hussain (1977) in their check- 
list of the fishes of Himachal Pradesh includ- 
ed two species of Botia, B. birdi Chaudhuri 
and B. dayi Hora, the latter species recorded 
for the first time from Himachal Pradesh. Hi- 

iSee vol. 76 (3): 525-527, for the validity of 
this record — Eds. 



therto, B. dayi was known from Eastern Hi- 
malayas (Menon 1974) and from the western 
ghats (Rao and Yazdani 1978). 1 

Day (1878-1889) referred to 6 species of 
Botia, namely, B. nebulosa Blyth, B. dario 
(Ham.), B. geto (Ham.), B. almorhae Gray, 
B. berdmorei Blyth, and B. histrionica Blyth, 
As Day's (op. cit.) key to the species of Bo- 
tia, based mainly on the differences in the fin- 
ray counts and number of barbels, was not 
helpful Hora (1922) analysed Botia spp. on 
the basis of other characters such as size and 
position of eyes and length of snout in rela- 
tion to head. He (op. cit.) dealt with alto- 
gether 17 species, 8 of which, namely, B. al- 
morhae, B. birdi, B. dario, B. geto, B. histrio- 
nica, B. lohachata, B. rostrata, and B. striata 
were considered valid from India. He (op. 
cit.) synonymised B. berdmorei (having 6 bar- 
bels) with B. hymenophysa (Bleeker) — a spe- 
cies (having 8 barbels) known from Burma, 
Thailand, Indo-Australian Archipelago and re- 



152 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



jected B. nebulosa of Day on the ground that 
it was a species of Noemacheilus. 

Hora (1932) described B. dayi from River 
Mahanadi, Darjeeling Himalayas and synony- 
mised with it the species described by Day 
(1878, 1889) under the name Botia geto. Me- 
non (1974), in his check-list of fishes of Hi- 
malayan and Indo-gangetic plains, recorded 6 
species of Botia, namely, ahnorhae, berdmorei, 
dario, histrionica, lohachata and rostrata. He 
(op. cit.) ignored the synonymy of B. berdmo- 
rei with B. hymenophysa but omitted B. birdi, 
perhaps inadvertently, and B. geto without cla- 
rifying their taxonomic status. Thus, only 8 
species of Botia, namely, almorhae, birdi, da- 
rio, histrionica, hymenophysa, lohachata, ros- 
trata and striata may be provisionally recog- 
nised in India. 

As Menon (op. cit.), in his check-list, in- 

Zoological Survey of India, 
High Altitude Zoology Field Station, 
Solan (Himachal Pradesh), 
August 30, 1979. 



eludes Botia berdmorei from India, and as 
Hora synonymised it with B. hymenophysa, 
Hora's (1922) key may be modified as fol- 
lows: 

Under Group II. Barbels eight (Botia s.s. ), 
after the position B, I, b, i and after the state- 
ment "Anterior origin of dorsal almost equi- 
distant from tip of snout and base of caudal", 
add 

Length of head greater than depth of body . . 

.... Botia hymenophysa 
Length of head almost same as depth of 
body .... 

ACKNOWLEDGEM E NT 

I am grateful to Dr. H. Khajuria, Deputy 
Director, for kindly providing necessary faci- 
lities. 

G. M. YAZDANI 



References 



Chaudhuri, B. L. (1912): Descriptions of some 
new species of freshwater fishes from North India. 
Rec. Indian Mus., Calcutta, 7, pp. 437-444. 

Day, F. (1878) : The fishes of India, being a Na- 
tural History of the fishes known to inhabit the seas 
and freshwater of India, Burma, and Ceylon (Re- 
printed in 1958 William Dawson & Co.. London), 
pp. l-XX-778, pis. 195. 

(1889) : The Fauna of British India. 

including Ceylon and Burma, Fishes, London, /. pp. 
1-XIII, 1-548, 104 figs. 

Hora, S. L. (192.2): Notes on fishes in the Indian 
Museum. IV. On fishes belonging to the genus Botia, 
(Cobitidae). Rec. Indian Mus., Calcutta. 24(3): 
313-321. 

(1932): Notes on the fishes of the 

Indian Museum XIX. On a new loach of the genus 



Botia, with a remark on B. dario (Ham.-Buch.) . 
Rec. Indian Mus., Calcutta. 34: 571-573. 

Menon. A. G. K. (1962): A distributional list 
of fishes of the Himalayas. /. zool. Soc. India. Cal- 
cutta. 14(1): 23-32. 

(1974): A check-list of fishes of 

the Himalayan and the Indo-gangetic plains. Inland 
fisheries Society of India, Special Publication No. /, 
pp. i-vii. 1-136. 

Rao, M. B. and Yazdani, G. M. (1978): Occur- 
rence of the cobitid genus Botia Gray in the western 
ghats of India. /. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 74(2): 
367-368. 

Tilak, R. and Hussain. A. ( 1977): A check-list 
of the fishes of Himachal Pradesh. Zool. J. Syst. Ed., 
104: 265-301. 



153 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



20. THE GIANT MAHSEERS OF KUMAUN HIMALAYAS WITH A 
RECENT RARE RECORD 



The mahseers of Kumaun Himalayas, 
either from lentic or lotic waters, are famous 
throughout the world. They not only provide 
good sport for the angler but are also good to 
eat. Records of the largest mahseers caught 
in Kumaun and other waters of the Himalayas 
are many in the past, but few recent records 
are available. 

Hamilton (1822) found a 271 cm (9 ft) 
mahseer in his collctions from India; Tho- 
mas (1893) reported 18 to 25 kg mahseers 
as common in India without any reference to 
Kumaun Himalayas; Corbett [1923, 1937, in 
his observations sent to B. S. Raj (1945) in 
mahseer symposium] records mahseers of 
approximately 27.00 kg from Malwa tal, a 
22.50 kg from Naini tal and one of 13.50 kg 
from Bhim tal. Hora (1939, 1940, 1951) made 
observations on the natural history and iden- 
tification of different mahseer species, with 
the largest size upto 60 cm (2 ft) from his 
all-India collections. Raj (1945) reported that 
Mr. Langdale Smith reared a 13.50 kg mah- 
seer in his pond at Bhowali near Naini tal. 
McDonald (1939) reported his largest mah- 
seer of 12.75 kg from Himalayan rivers. The 
size and population of mahseers of Kumaun 
have been going down in recent years, and 
no recent record of giant mahseer is avail- 
able. However, I was able to record the largest 
recent catch of an 18.50 kg female mahseer 
(Tor putitora) by rod and line in the early 
morning (at 6.10 a.m. on 8th August, 1977) 
from Bhimtal lake of Kumaun Himalayas. The 
bait used was a 0.2 kg Jabua (Barilius ben- 
delisis). This mahseer was caught in the in- 
shore region from the lake bank in breeding 
season when the fish migrates to shallow 
spawning sites in Bhimtal lake. They also come 



inshore to feed even in spawning season (Pa- 
thani 1979). Thus the large female mahseer 
may have come to the shallow region for 
spawning and littoral feeding and was caught 
by rod and line at dawn. 

The fish exhibited swollen abdomen and 
female secondary sexual characters (as already 
recorded by Pathani 1978). The various body 
measurements taken are as follows: 

Total length, 126.00 cm; caudal fork length, 
117.00 cm; standard length, 110.00 cm; body 
length, 78.30 cm; head length, 31.70 cm; eye 
diameter, 3.10 cm; body depth, 31.00 cm; 
depth at caudal region, 11.00 cm; length of 
dorsal spine, 16.00 cm; length of pectoral fins, 
16.00 cm; length of pelvic fins, 14.00 cm; 
length of anal fin, 9.40 cm; and length of cau- 
dal fin, 16.00 cm. 

The weight of the fish with viscera was 18.50 
kg. The age of the fish determined by me by 
scale method was 12 rh years. 

Autopsy of the fish was done and length 
and weight of ripe ovary was recorded, its 
total length being 35.5 cm and weight being 
1.5 kg. The ovarian eggs were interspersed 
in four sizes confirming the observations of 
Pathani (1979). The largest mature egg dia- 
meter ranged from 3.0 to 3.2 mm and the 
smallest egg diameter ranged from 0.66 to 0.74 
mm. The total fecundity estimated v/as 
3,56,500. The length of alimentary tract was 
246 cm and length of intestinal bulb was 40 
cm. 

The present rare record of an 18.50 kg. 
mahseer is the first such record in the last 
four decades, and is higher than the last re- 
cord of 13.50 kg from Bhimtal by Jim Cor- 
bett. The present find also demonstrates the 



154 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



rarity of giant sized mahseers in Kumaun 
waters. 

I am grateful to Dr. S. M. Das for critically 

D.S.B. University College, 
Zoology Department, 
Naini Tal, (U.P.), 
December 24, 1979. 

Refer 

Das, S. M. and Pathani, S. S. (1978) : Studies on 
biology of Kumaun mahaseer Tor putitora (Ham.). 
Indian J. Anim. Sci. 48(6) : 461-465. 

♦Hamilton, B. (1822): An account of the fishes 
in river Ganges and its branches. Edinburgh, p. 405. 

Hora, S. L. (1939): Game fishes of India VIII, 
(The putitor mahseer). /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 
40: 272-285. 

(1940): The game fishes of India, 

IX. The tor mahseer, Tor tor (Hamilton), ibid. 40: 
518-525. 

* (1951): Knowledge of ancient 

Hindus concerning fish and fisheries of India. 2. 
Fish in the Sutras and Smruti literature. Jour. 
Asiastic Soc. Dett. 17: 61-68. 



going through the manuscript. Thanks are also 
due to CSIR, New Delhi for awarding a fel- 
lowship. 

S. S. PATHANI 



ENCES 

Pathani. S. S. (1978): A note on secondary 
sexual characters in Kumaun mahaseer, Tor tor and 
Tor putitora (Ham.). Indian J. Anim. Sci. 48(10): 
113-115. 

(1979): Studies on the ecology and 

biology of Kumaun mahaseer, Tor tor and Tor puti- 
tora (Ham.). Ph. D. Thais, Kumaun University, 
Naini Tal. 

Raj, B. S. (1945): The decline of mahseer fish- 
eries of the Kumaun lakes and possible remedy. 
Proc. Nat. Inst. Sci. India, 11(3): 341-345. 

Singh, A. et al. (1975) : Souvenir of the Corbett 
Centenary year, 70 p. 

Thomas, H. S. (1893): The Rod in India. W. 
Thacker & Co., London. 

♦Original not consulted. 



21. MALE IN COPULATION WITH DEAD FEMALE OF 
HIEROGLYPHUS NIGROREPLETUS BOL. 



Uvarov (1928) described abnormal pairing 
among locusts. He mentioned that many males 
copulate with dead females. Husain and Ma- 
thur (1945) stated that pairing of male with 
dead female locust is a physical impossibility. 
Bhatia (1959) observed eight instances of ma- 
ture males of Desert Locust, Schistoeerca gre- 
garia Forsk. copulating with females which 
had died the previous night. Katiyar (1962) 
observed males of Aularches punctatus Drury 
and Parahieroglyphus bilineatus Bol., to ride 
and copulate with dead females. He also ob- 
served a few females of P. bilineatus in coitus 



with dead males. 

During the normal course of breeding of 
Hieroglyphus nigrorepletus Bol. males were 
noticed to continue copulation even after the 
death of female. This appears to be the first 
report of such phenomenon in H. nigroreple- 
tus. 

We are highly indebted to Prof. S. M. Alam, 
Head, Department of Zoology for providing 
laboratory facilities and encouragement. One 
of us (S.A.) is also thankful to University 
Grants Commission for financial assistance. 



155 



JOURNAL. BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY. Vol. 77 



Entomology Section, SHAMSHAD ALI 

Dept. of Zoology, 

Aligarh Muslim University, 

Aligarh-202 001 (U.P.), 

Januuary 20, 1979. 

References 



Bhatia, D. R. (1959): Copulation of Locusts 
males with dead-females. Indian J. Ent., New Delhi, 
2/(3): 220. 

Husain, M. A. and Mathur, C. B. (1945): Stu- 
dies on Schistocerca gregaria Forsk. XIII. Sexual 
life. Indian J. Ent., 7(1 & 2): 89-101. 

Katiyar, K. N. (1962): A crazy-instinct of copu- 



lation in males with dead females and vice-versa 
among short-horned grasshoppers (Acrididae: In- 
secta). Sonderdruck Aus Z. Ang. Entomologie, 
49(4): 399-401. 

Uvarov, B. P. (1928): Locusts and Grasshoppers. 
London (Imp. Inst. Ent.). A text Book on Locust 
and Grasshoppers. 



22. MATERNAL CARE IN OXYRHACHIS TARANDUS FABR. 
(MEMBRACIDAE: HOMOPTERA) 



Oxyrhachis tarandus is a common species 
of membracid usually found on Acacia ara- 
bica and Cassia fistula. It is a brown insect 
with the posterior pronotal process extending 
backwards upto the posterior end of the ab- 
and fulgorids. The female of this species 
anterolateral processes of the pronotum are in 
the form of short tricarinate horns. 

This treehopper caught our attention dur- 
ing field surveys for collecting the membracids 
and fulgorids. The female of this species 
usually sits on the egg mass laid by it on 
the twig of Acacia arabica. While laying eggs 
the female cuts the bark longitudinally and 
inserts eggs into the twig in two parallel rows 
on either side of the slit and placing them at 
an acute angle to the main axis. The micro- 
pylar end of the egg is exposed. 

Careful examination of the tree twigs re- 
vealed many females sitting over the eggs. The 
tree was marked and the females were observ- 
ed closely for several days. After about three 
weeks the little ones were out and on account 



of their gregarious habit they grouped a little 
above the egg shells and the mother had mov- 
ed a little away from the egg mass but was 
still amidst the young treehoppers. 

The mother always sat tightly perched over 
the egg mass least disturbed by approaching 
animals or man. It did not move away even 
if the twig was shaken violently. It could only 
be removed from its place through a physical 
push. If any object was gently directed at it 
with the purpose of inducing it to move away 
from the egg mass, it usually retaliated and 
tried to push it aside with its pronotal horns. 
The female was observed to get extremely 
agitated on sighting minute hymenopterous 
egg parasites which threatened to parasitise 
the eggs. The female used to push aside the 
hymenopterous egg parasites with the help of 
its pronotal horns and by the movement of 
wings and legs. 

It was apparent that the mother never leaves 
its eggs even temporarily till they are hatch- 
ed and it may also be assumed that the brood 



156 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



mothers remain foodless during the period of 
maternal care as very careful observations 
have failed to reveal any punctures in the twig 
in front of them. 

Maternal care in this species can be attri- 
buted to the fact that eggs of membracids are 
frequently parasitised by the hymenopterous 
parasites. In order to protect the eggs from 
parasitisation by these insects the female sits 
over the eggs. In this context the observation 
that the most of the eggs that remain uncover- 
ed are parasitised by the hymenopterous para- 
site is revealing. So it can be safely conclud- 
ed that this instinctive type of maternal care 
exhibited by O. tarandus pertains to the pro- 



tection of its eggs from the attack of its 
enemies. 

Murtfeldt (1887) 1 observed the female of 
Eutilia sinuala Fabr., a membracid, hovering 
over a cluster of her eggs laid on the leaf of 
Ragweeds (Ambrosia). He found the parent 
insect remaining with her eggs and young 
leafhoppers. When the female was touched 
with finger even with all the shaking and 
brushing the mother was not dislodged. 

Acknowledgement 

We are thanful to University Grants Com- 
mission for the grant of a fellowship to one 
of us (S.K.S.). 



Department of Zoology, SAWAI SINGH 

Punjabi University, SURYA KANT SHARMA 

Patiala-147 002, 
(Punjab), India, 
March 19, 1979. 

Murtfeldt, Mary E. (1887): Traces of mater- 
nal affection in Eutilia sinuata Fabr. Enl. Amcr. 3: 
177-178. 



23. PARNARA BUTTERFLY FROM PATNA: A CORRECTION 



In our faunal list of butterflies from Patna 
(Bihar) published in this Journal (Varshney 
and Nandi 1977), the occurrence of Parnara 
guttatus bada (Moore) has been shown in the 
Family Hesperiidae. According to Evans 
(1949) the species guttatus is now almost re- 
stricted to China, Japan, Sumatra etc. eastern 
countries. Only one subspecies guttatus man- 
gala Moore is found in India, which too has 
limited distribution — Kashmir to Kumaun, 
Sikkim, Assam. 

The subspecies bada Moore, which is com- 
mon in peninsular India, has been placed 

Zoological Survey of India, 
34, Chittaranjan Avenue, 
Calcutta- 12, 
June 27, 1978. 



under the species naso Fabricius. The type 
material of bada came from Ceylon (Sri 
Lanka) and it has been collected all over In- 
dia, except western parts, vide Evans (1949). 
Thus, the Patna material should rightly be 
named as Parnara naso bada (Moore). 

Evans (1. c.) has pointed out that the fi- 
gures given of guttatus in Seitz (1927) also 
belong to naso bada. 

We are thankful to the Director, Zoological 
Survey of India, for providing facilities and 
permission to publish this note. 

R. K. VARSHNEY 
B. NANDI 



157 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



References 



Evans, W. H. (1949) : A Catalogue of the Hespe- 
riidae from Europe, Asia and Australia in the Bri- 
tish Museum (Natural History). London: 1-502 (p. 
435). 

Seitz, A. (1927): Macrolepidoptera of the World. 



Vol. 9 — Indo-Australian Region. 

Varshney, R. K. and Nandi, B. (1977) : Butter- 
fly fauna of Patna (Bihar). /. Bombay nat. Hist. 
Soc, 73(2): 325-328. 



24. OCCURRENCE OF ARTEMIA SAUNA (CRUSTACEA: 
PHYLLOPODA) IN DIDWANA LAKE, RAJASTHAN 



Recently, the study of Artemia has gained 
importance because of its utility as food in 
aquaculture. Artemia nauplii constitute the 
best available source of live food for the young 
stages of most cultured species of larval 
fishes and decapods (Bardach 1972, Godwin 
1976). There has been a numbr of records 
of Artemia from salt pans near sea coast in 
India. But barring Baid's (1958) record of 
Artemia salina from Sambhar lake in Rajas- 
than, there is no record of its occurrence from 
other inland salt lakes. During the course of 
a limnological study of two major salt lakes 
of the country, namely Sambhar and Didwana 
(Rajasthan), we found A. salina in Didwana 
lake. It is the first record of its occurrence 
from this lake. But, surprisingly, A. salina was 
not found in Sambhar lake by us. 



The study of Didwana lake was conducted 
from March to May 1979. Water samples were 
collected in the first week of each month and 
analysed for chemical factors such as pH, dis- 
solved oxygen, alkalinity and salinity. pH was 
measured by a battery-operated pH meter, 
dissolved oxygen by Miller's method (as sug- 
gested by Walker et al. 1970), alkalinity and 
salinity after APHA (1975). For collection of 
zooplankton, 50 litres of water were filtered 
through a bolting silk net (0.3 mm mesh size) 
and zooplankton thus collected preserved in 
4% formalin. 

The data of the physico-chemical factors are 
given in Table 1. During the course of the 
study, with the advance of summer, salinity 
and total alkalinity tremendously varied from 
one month to another. Dissolved oxygen was 



Table 1 

Physico-chemical factors of Didwana Lake during March-May 1979 





March 


April 


May 


Air temperature (°C) 


24.5 


35.0 


30.0 


Water temperature (°C) 


23.0 


26.5 


26.5 


pH 


8.2 


8.5 


9.5 


Dissolved oxygen (ml/L) 


2.24 


1.45 


0.6 


Total alkalinity (ppm) 


1738 


2920 


3700 


Carbonate alkalinity (ppm) 


870 


1240 


2000 


Bicarbonate alkalinity (ppm) 


868 


1680 


1700 


Salinity (% 0 ) 


108.0 


170.0 


268.0 



158 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



found to be inversely related with alkalinity, 
salinity, pH and water temperature. 

A. salina was the only zooplankter found in 
the samples. During the first sampling 40 spe- 
cimens were found — all live adults. In the 
second sampling 150 specimens were collect- 
ed, mostly larval stages with 50% dead indi- 
viduals. In the third sampling only cysts were 
found. By this time the salinity had increased 
to 268% 0 and lake water assumed the form 
of saturated brine. The death of the speci- 
mens occurred some time between the second 
and fourth weeks of April due to the high 
salinity and alkalinity and paucity of dissolved 
oxygen. 

During the study period, two types of indi- 
viduals of different size and colour were found. 
The males were pale yellow and shorter in 
size while the females were reddish in colour 
and longer. Probably they feed on Aphano- 
theca sp., Anabaena sp. and Nitzschia sp. as 
these were the only phytoplankton present in 

Department of Zoology, 

University of Jodhpur, 
Jodhpur-342 001 (Rajasthan), 
December 4, 1979. 



the lake. The data (Table I) reveal that the 
maximum limit of tolerance for salinity lies 
between 170 and 268% 0 and for alkalinity 
2920-3700 ppm. Baid (1958) reported maxi- 
mum salinity tolerance limit for Artemia salina 
to be 194.3% 0 at Sambhar lake. But during 
the course of our 15 month's study (from 
April, 1977 to June, 1978) of Sambhar lake, 
the maximum salinity was only 15% and A. 
salina was totally absent. The disappearance 
of Artemia might be due to drastic changes 
in ecological conditions, mainly the decrease 
of salinity, owing to heavy rainfall and flood 
conditions for 3 to 4 years from 1975 onwards. 

Our thanks are due to Prof. S. D. Misra, 
Head, Department of Zoology, University of 
Jodhpur for guidance and to Dr. J. Royan, 
National Institute of Oceanography, Dona 
Paula, Goa for help in identification of the 
species. Thanks are also due to U.G.C. for 
financial support to M. Alam. 

S. C. BHARGAVA 
M. ALAM 



References 



American Public Health Association (1975): 
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water 
and Waste Water. APHA, 14th ed. Washington. 

Baid, I. C. (1958): Occurrence of Artemia salina 
in Sambhar Lake, Rajasthan. Citrr. Sci. 27(2) : 58- 
59. 

Bardach, J. E. Ryther, J. H. & McLarney. W. 
O. (1972) : Aquaculture; The Farming & Husban- 



dry of Fresh Water and Marine Organism. Wiley 
Interscience. New York. 

Godwin, H. L. (1976): Proc. First Int. Conf. 
Aqua. Nut., Delaware (USA). 

Walker, K. F., Williams, W. D. and Hammer, 
U. T. (1970): The Miller method for oxygen deter- 
mination applied to saline lakes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 
15: 814-815. 



1 59 



JOURNAL. BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



25. ON A SMALL COLLECTION 
DURING THE DAPHABUM ANI 
ARUNACHAL 

The present note is based on a small collec- 
tion of leeches collected by one of us (JMJ) 
as a member of the multidisciplinary scientific 
survey expeditions to hitherto unexplored 
areas of Daphabum (Lohit Distt.) and Suban- 
siri in Arunachal Pradesh. The leech fauna of 
Arunachal Pradesh is known only from the 
contribution of Chandra (1970) who records 
five species, viz., Haeinadipsa montana, 77. 
sylvestris sylvestris, H. zeylanica zeylanica, 77. 
zeylanica agilis and H. zeylanica montivindicis 
from the Kameng District. Except H. zeylanica 
zeylanica, all these species are re-recorded in 
the present communication. In addition, two 
species, viz., Paraclepsis praedatrix and Her- 
pobdelloidea lateroculata are being recorded 
for the first time from Arunachal Pradesh. 

Family Glossiphonidae 
Paraclepsis praedatrix Harding 

Material. — 1 ex; Glo-Howel Lake, about 4 
Ion. from Tihun (Lohit Distt.); alt. 1170 m; 
9.xii.69. 

Remarks. — This is the first record of Para- 
clepsis praedatrix from Arunachal Pradesh. It 
is generally found attached to submerged arti- 
cles in lakes, tanks, pools and small streams. 
It often attacks molluscs, amphibians and rep- 
tiles. 

Distribution. — India: Glo-Howel Lake (pre- 
sent record) in Arunachal Pradesh; Assam; 
Bihar; Haryana; Himachal Pradesh; Rajas- 
than; Maharashtra; Karnataka. 

Family Herpobdellidae 
Herpobdelloidea lateroculata Kabu- 
raki 

Material. — 4 ex; Wakro (Lohit Distt.); under 



[ OF LEECHES COLLECTED 
» SUBANSIRI EXPEDITIONS, 
PRADESH 

stones in the vicinity of a hill stream; alt. 510 
m; l.xii.69. 

Remarks. — This is the first record of Herpob- 
delloidea lateroculata from Arunachal Pra- 
desh. In field, this species can be easily re- 
cognised by its planarian-shaped body. It main- 
ly feeds on insect larvae, planktonic crusta- 
ceans and debris. 

Distribution. — India: Wakro (present record) 
in Arunachal Pradesh; Manipur; Madhya Pra- 
desh; Rajasthan; Maharashtra. 
Outside India: Burma. 

Family Haemadipsidae 
Haemadipsa montana Moore 

Material. — I ex; Tihun (Lohit Distt.); under 
stones near a stream in a dense forest; alt. 
1260 m; 13.xii.69. 

Remarks. — H. montana inhabits mountain 
forests. This species is reported to attack cat- 
tle and man. The colour ornamentation on the 
dorsum is mainly of a black median and a pair 
of lateral white longitudinal stripes. 
Distribution. — India: Moshing, Domkho, 
Shergaon and Chug valleys in Kameng Distt. 
(Chandra. 1970), and Tihun in Lohit Distt. 
(present record) in Arunachal Pradesh; Sik- 
kim; Darjeeling Hills in West Bengal; Palni 
Hills in Tamil Nadu. 

Haemadipsa sylvestris sylvestris 
Blanchard 

Material. — 3 ex; Chowkham (Lohit Distt.); 
under stones on the bank of Berang river; alt. 
242 m; 22, 23.xi.69. 2 ex; Wakro; alt. 510 m; 
l.xii.69. 

Remarks. — This land leech is known to at- 
tack fresh-water crabs, cattle and man. The 



160 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



colour in living specimens is brownish with 
three black longitudinal stripes on the dorsum. 
Distribution. — India: Amatulla, between 
Jhumla and Moshing, Dorkochu, Shergaon 
village, Sangloo and Domkho in Kameng Distt. 
(Chandra 1970) and Chowkham, Wakro in 
Lohit Distt. (present record) in Arunachal 
Pradesh; Assam; Sikkim; W. Bengal; Uitar 
Pradesh; Meghalaya. 
Outside India: Burma, Indonesia. 

Haemadipsa zeylanica agilis Moore 

Material. — 1 ex; Damin (Subansiri Distt.); 
under stones near a stream; alt. 1100 m; 
20.1.75. 

Remarks. — H. z. agilis is commonly found in 
forests and grasslands. It is known to attack 
cattle and man, and can be easily recognised 
by the dark-blotched pattern on the dorsum. 
Distribution.— India: Ankaling village in Ka- 
meng Distt. (Chandra 1970), Damin in Suban- 
siri Distt. (present record) in Arunachal Pra- 

High Altitude Zoology Field Station, 
Zoological Survey of India, 
Solan-173 212 (H.P.), 
February 12, 1979. 



desh; Uttar Pradesh; Himachal Pradesh; Ta- 
mil Nadu; Kerala. 
Outside India: Nepal. 

Haemadipsa zeylanica montivindieis 

Moore 

Material. — 2 ex; Tihun (Lohit Distt.); under 
stones near a stream in a dense forest; alt. 
1260 m; 13.xii.69. 

Remarks. — This species is very common in 
forests of the eastern Himalayas. It often at- 
tacks cattle and man. Dark-blotched pattern 
on the dorsum is obscure or absent. 
Distribution.— India: Ankaling village in Ka- 
meng Distt. (Chandra 1970), Tihun in Lohit 
Distt. (present record) in Arunachal Pradesh; 
Sikkim; Assam; W. Bengal. 
Outside India: Nepal, Burma. 

We are grateful to the Director and Dr. H. 
Khajuria, Deputy Director, Zoological Survey 
of India for the necessary facilities for this 
research. 

J. M. JULKA 
M. CHANDRA 



References 

Chandra, M. (1970) : Notes on a small collec- 
tion of leeches in the Zoological Survey of India. 
Rec. zool. Surv. India. 64: 107-109. 



26. SOME INTERESTING OBSERVATIONS ON A SPIDER 
ARGIOPE ARCUATA SIMON (ARACHNID A: ARANEIDAE) 



During the course of desert locust survey 
conducted along the Indo-Pak border area 
during August-September 1976, some interest- 
ing observations were recorded on an orb 
weaving spider, Argiope arcuata Simon. 

Habitat: The habitat of this spider was in 
most difficult and inaccessible desert tracts 



comprising high sand dunes with narrow ba- 
sins. Even in this habitat their population was 
confined to the narrow basin and lower edges 
of the sand dunes as the population of Acri- 
dids was heavy in the areas. Not a single 
spider was detected at the top of the high 
sand dunes or their upper slopes. The webs 



161 



11 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



were mostly found on woody shrubs growing 
in the basins but sometimes they were also 
seen on luxuriantly growing herbs such as 
Boerhavia elegans Choisy. The habitats of 
grasshoppers and that of this species of spider 
are almost the same. 

Food and feeding habits: The web formed 
by this spider is an efficient trap even for very 
large insects; the gossamer being quite strong. 
In its web, nymphs and adults of grasshopper 
such as Acrotylus sp., Oedaleus sp., Chroto- 
gonus trachypterus, Thisioecertus littoralis, 
Ochrilida sp., Truxalis exima exirna, bugs, 
dung rollers and other beetles, some unidenti- 
fied caterpillars and that of Celerio sp. were 
detected. At two places Solitaria hoppers of 
4th instar of the desert locust were also found. 
On one occasion one Truxalis adult got en- 
tangled in its web but by struggling hard it 
escaped. It is interesting to note that large 
insects such as grasshoppers etc. when trap- 
ped in the web are further rendered helpless 
by being speedily fastened with silky thread 
on the legs and wings of the prey insect by 
the spider, and this ultimately causes death 
of the prey. 

As many as eight insects were found in the 
skins of one web. Bhatia and Singh ( 1966) 1 
recorded Argiope sp. as predator of the desert 
locust adults and hoppers from Bikaner dis- 
trict but it is not known to which species, the 
spider belonged. It appears that many species 
of Argiope may be predating on nymphs and 
adults of grasshoppers and desert locust. 

Cannibalism: Some instances of cannibal- 
ism were also observed. 

Predators: Lizards are predators of this 
spider. Several specimens of Acanthodactylus 

iBhatia, D. R. & Singh, Charan (1966): Natural 
enemies of the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria 
Forsk.). Plant Protection, Bull. 18 (1-2): 14-17. 



cantoris cantoris and Skink Ophiomorus tri- 
dactylus and Calotes versicolor were dissected 
and spiders of this species were found in their 
gut contents. Some passerine birds also pre- 
date upon these spiders when they move from 
one place to another. 

Population: I have frequently visited border 
areas of Barmer and Jaisalmer districts from 
1974 to 1977 but only during August-Septem- 
ber 1976 a significant population of this spider 
was noted. Maximum number of spiders per 
bush was two individuals. Prior to 1976, a web 
of this spider was seldom seen; obviously po- 
pulations were extremely low, thus escaping 
notice. 

The number of the spiders was generally 
five per square metre in Dhanana-Murar area 
(Jaisalmer). The population explosion (appro- 
ximately 2000 per hectare) observed during 
1976 was most probably due to availability 
of ample insect food and good vegetation dur- 
ing 1975 to 1976 in view of good rains. 

Distribution: The spiders of this species 
have been collected from Sundra area of Bar- 
mer district and Dhanana-Murar area of Jai- 
salmer district during September 1976. It was 
commonly met with in the desert belt from 
Sundra (Barmer) 25° 05' N, 71° 07' E to 
Dhanana-Murar (Jaisalmer) 26° 42' N, 70° 
12' E during 1976. It is just possible that the 
belt of its distribution may be further extend- 
ed into Bikaner district along the Indo-Pak 
border, being of similar terrain, vegetation and 
insect fauna. This appears to be the first re- 
cord of its occurrence from these districts. 

Acknowledgements 

I am obliged to Dr. B. K. Tikader, Deputy 
Director, Zoological Survey of India, Western 
Regional Station, Poona for identification of 
the spider and scrutiny of the manuscript and 



162 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



helpful suggestions. I am thankful to Dr. S. Government of India, Faridabad for the faci- 
N. Banerjee, Plant Protection Adviser to the lities. 

Locust Warning Organisation, CHARAN SINGH 

Locust Sub- station, 
Jodhpur, 
May 29, 1978. 

27. OBSERVATIONS ON THE SILK CHAMBER CONSTRUCTION 
AND BROODING BEHAVIOUR OF PSEUDOSCORPIONS 
(CL. ARACHNIDA) 

(With five text-figures) 



It is the habit of pseudoscorpions to build 
chambers of silk which are used for breeding, 
moulting and hibernation (Gabbutt and Va- 
chon 1965). The silk chamber is generally 
constructed with the help of the spinneret or 
galea, situated at the distal end of the fixed 
finger of chelicera (fig. la). The silk glands 
lie in the prosoma and ducts pass along the 
fixed finger and open at the tip of the galea 
(fig. lb) or the spinneret. Savory, T.H. (1935) 
pointed out the homology of the silk appara- 
tus with that of the poison apparatus of Ara- 
neae. It is to this presence of the silk glands 
in the chelicerae, the false scorpions owe the 
name chelonethi, given by Thorell. 

By the issue of silk glands, the chambers 
of silk are constructed in damp places under- 
neath the barks of trees by the bark dwelling 
forms or under decaying leaves of debris by 
fitter inhabiting pseudoscorpions. It is of in- 
terest to know whether the method of cons- 
truction, the period of nesting and the reaction 
towards external disturbance differ among 
the members of the three different suborders 
namely Monosphyronida, Diplosphyronida 
and Heterosphyronida, inhabiting different 
habitats. Furthermore, extensive work has 
been done in the field of population dynamics 



of pseudoscorpions in different parts of the 
world (Kew 1914; Morikawa 1962; Gabbutt 
and Vachon 1965). However, during the 
studies they have failed to take into conside- 
ration nested forms, which may influence the 
population fluctuation remarkably. In this 
connection, a statistical allowance has been 
thought of during the present investigation. 

Methods 

Tullgrenius indicus, Calocheiridius elegans 
and Lechytia indica were taken up for obser- 
vation as members of the suborders namely 
Monosphyronida, Diplosphyronida and Hete- 
rosphyronida respectively. For each species 10 
individuals were observed at the time of nest- 
ing, moulting, brooding and hibernation with 
reference to their behaviour variations. 

Observations 

Tullgrenius indicus : (Table-1): This species 
was seen beneath the bark of tamarind trees. 
During breeding season, the gravid female 
carries 10 to 12 eggs attached to the genitalia 
as a spherical mass and covered by a thin 
membrane. With the help of the branched 
galea the female deposits the silk in an irre- 
gular fashion between the stem and the bark 



163 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 





1c) 



n: 





5) 





Figs. 1-5. 1) Chelicerae of Tullgrenius indicus; lb) galea; 3) spinneret of Lechytia 
indica. 2) Nests of T. indicus. 3) Nests of Calocheiridius elegans. 4) Nests of L. 
indica. 5) T. indicus female carrying eggs. 

Abbreviations 

bf — brooding female of Tullgrenius indicus, br — bark of tree, ch — chelicera, eg — 
egg cluster, g — galea, It — litter, mf — movable finger, n — nest, sp — spinneret. 



164 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



of the tree. The deposition of sand grains and 
tiny bark particles over the completed nest 
have been observed. The males and the 
females hibernate during winter (December 
and January), but the females club the brood- 
ing during that period. At a time, below a 
bark 5 to 7 nests have been observed with the 
least gap of 0.5 mm between two nests. In- 
variably the ramification of the hyphae of 
saprophytic fungi like Penicillium and Asper- 
gillus have been observed over the silken 
chambers. (Fig. 2). 

After about four weeks the protonymphs 
hatch from the eggs and remain with the 
mother inside the nest and they feed on the 
exudation from the mother. During moulting 
the three nymphal stages (Protonymph, deuto- 
nymph and tritonymph) build nests and the 
diameter of the nest varies from 6 to 8.5 mm. 
The brooding female constructs the largest 
chamber. 

Calocheiridius elegans : (Table 1): This spe- 
cies occurs beneath the bark of tamarind 
trees. During the breeding season the gravid 
female extrudes 6 to 8 eggs which remain 
attached to the genitalia and present a rous- 
sette-like appearance. 

At that time, the gravid female, with the 
help of the galea issues sticky silk and screens 
the gap between the stem and the bark of the 
tree. The deposition of coarse wood particles 
over the completed nest has been observed. 
The males and females hibernate during win- 
ter, during that period the females also exhi- 
bit the brooding of eggs while in the silken 
chamber. At a time, 4 to 5 nests have been 
observed below a piece of bark with the least 
gap of 4 cm. Fungal growth over the nest 
has been observed in this species also (Fig. 
3). 

After about three weeks the protonymphs 
hatch from the eggs and remain with the 



mother till moulting. The nymphs also build 
nests during moulting and the size of the 
nest varies among the three nymphal stages. 
The diameter of the nest varies from 2.5 to 
4 mm and the brooding female constructs the 
largest nest. 

Lechytia incllka : (Table 1): This species 
was observed beneath decaying leaves of soil 
litter. During brooding, the gravid female 
having 5 to 6 eggs as globular mass, moistens 
the leaf with silk from the spinneret (fig. lc). 
Gradually debris and sand particles deposit 
over the wet silk. Some times the nest appears 
like a ball of insect faecal matter. The size 
varies from 1 to 3 mm in diameter (Fig. 4). 

Since winter migration from litter to soil 
is predominant and is subsequently followed 
by hibernation in silken chambers, the indi- 
viduals are fewer in number during sampling. 

In all these forms, when the nest is disturb- 
ed the animal comes out immediately and in 
the case of brooding female the brood sac is 
discarded. (Fig. 5). Besides, they cease to con- 
struct another silken chamber for a minimum 
period of 20 days. When the nymphal forms 
undergoing moulting were disturbed, they died 
within a period of 2 hrs. due to lack of chi- 
tinization. The body cavity of the dead ani- 
mals showed the presence of fungal hyphae. 

Discussion 

The Chelonethi use their nest solely for 
protection and the form of construction varies. 
Among bark inhabiting pseudoscorpions, Tul- 
Igrenius indicus and Calocheiridius elegans 
there is lesser deposition of sand grains or 
wood particles on their nest, whereas in Lechy- 
tia indica, a litter inhabitant, the deposition 
of decaying matter and sand grains is more, 
which gives strength and protection to the 
nest. In bark dwelling forms probably due to 



165 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 
Table 1 

The nature of silk chamber construction and the period of nesting among pseudoscorpions 



Suborder and 
name of 
species 



Silk, issuing 
organ of 
chelicera 



Shape of 
the nest 



Diameter 
of nest 
(in mm) 



Additional 
substances 



Period of 
nesting in 
days 



MONOSPHYRONIDA 

Tullgrenius 
indicus 

D1PLOSPHYRONIDA 

Calocheiridius 
elegans 



branched 



branched 



heterosphyronida 

Lechytia indica spinneret 



irregular 



circular 



globular 



6 to 8.5 



1 to 3 



Coarse sand 
and wood 
particles 

Coarse 

wood 

particles 

Sand 

particles 

and 

decaying 
matter 



20 to 24 



30 to 50 



the availability of controlled microclimate, the 
additional substances are not much utilized. 
It may be inferred here that the variation in 
the mode of construction of silken chamber 
depends upon the habitat of the pseudoscor- 
pion. 

Further pseudoscorpions undergo nesting 
during winter and the nymphs moult through- 
out the year. Similar conditions that influence 
the population study of pseudoscorpions, have 
been observed in the life history analyses of 
pseudoscorpions by Gabbutt and Vachon 
(1965). In this connection Gabbutt (1970) 
has stressed the inclusion of nested forms in 
population recordings to arrive at a probable 
figure. The suggestion of Gabbutt (1970), 
does not seem to be sound since it has been 
observed that the encumbered female rejected 
the brood-sac when disturbed, thereby deplet- 

Department of Zoology, 
Loyola College, 
Madras-600 034, 
February 6, 1980. 



ing the number of individuals during the next 
sampling. In addition, the mortality rate of 
nymphs increases when the nests are disturbed 
during collection. 

Thus, the present study suggests that nested 
forms should not be disturbed during popu- 
lation analysis and a statistical modulation 
could be introduced inorder to incorporate the 
nested forms in the population dynamics. 

AC K N OWLEDGE M E N TS 

We are indebted to Prof. Dr. T. K. Raghu- 
natha Rao for the help and advice rendered 
during the course of investigation. Our sincere 
thanks to Principal, Loyola College for evinc- 
ing keen interest and for his continuous en- 
couragement throughout our work. 

S. SIVARAMAN 
V. A. MURTHY 



166 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



References 



Gabbutt, P. D. & Vachon, M. (1965): The ex- 
ternal morphology and life history of the pseudos- 
corpion Neobisium muscorum. Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond. 145: 335-358. 

Gabbutt, P. D. (1970). Sampling problems and 
the validity of life history analysis of pseudoscor- 
pions. /. Nat. Hist. 4: 1-15. 

Kew, H.W. (1914): On the nest of pseudoscor- 
pions with historical notes on the spinning organs 



and observations on the building and spinning of 
the nests. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1914: 93-111. 

Morikawa, K. (1962) : Ecological and some 
biological notes on Japanese Pseudoscorpions. 
Mem. Ehime. Univ. Vol. IV. No. 3: 417-35. 

Savory, T. H. (1935): Arachnida. Academic 
Press, London, 1-291. 

Weygoldt, P. (1969). The biology of psudos- 
corpions. Harvard. Univ. Press., 1-145. 



28. SOME INTERESTING OBSERVATIONS IN WRIGHT I A 
T1NCTORIA R.BR. SSP. T/NCTORIA 



(With a text-figure) 



An interesting specimen of Wrightia tincto- 
ria R. Br. ssp. tinctoria was collected by the 
senior author from Kumbharli ghat, about 12 
kms from Koyna, Maharashtra during a bota- 
nical exploration tour in April 1978. 

The species W. tinctoria R. Br. has been 
divided into two subspecies namely ssp. tincto- 
ria and ssp. rothii by P. T. Pgan (1965). The 
specimen (Nayar 153166) collected from 
Kumbharli ghat differs from W. tinctoria ssp. 
tinctoria in the following characters: 

1) Inflorescence less lax 

2) Pedicel not exceeding 12 mm. 

3) Corolla lobes acute 

4) Corona segments not distinguishable as 
supplementary segments and alternipe- 
talous segments. 

The most interesting observation made was 
on the nature and arrangement of the corona 
segments. Pgan (1965) has described the 
structure of corona in W. tincotria, wherein 
he has explained the arrangement of corona 
segments in three distinct series, i.e. supple- 
mentary segments, alternipetalous segments 
and antepetalous segments. Pgan had noticed 
some variations in the corona segments of 



W. tinctoria (Fig. 1, A-A3). 

The variations observed in the corona seg- 
ments of the specimen (Nayar 153166), how- 
ever do not agree with any of the variations 
as shown in fig. 1 (A-A3). On a critical 
study it was observed that the corona segments 




Fig. 1. A- A3: Diagrams showing variation in co- 
rona structure; antepetalous segments white, alter- 
nipetalous segments dotted; supplementary segments 
solid black. 

B: Diagram showing an inner row of segments 
(solid black) indistinguishable as alternipetalous 
segments and supplementary segments; antepetalous 
segments white. 



167 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



are not clearly distinguishable as supplemen- 
tary segments and alternipetalous segments 
(Fig. 1-B). In this case the true alternipetalous 
nature of corona segment is not observed, 
only an inner series of corona segments of 
variable lengths (not exceeding 2 mm) and 
an outer series of antepetalous segments are 
seen. 

These interesting observations can be inter- 
preted as a result of hybridization as suggest- 

Botanical Survey of India, 
Poona-411 001. 
December 30, 1978. 



ed by Pgan or due to abberation. 

The specimen (Nayar 153166) is deposited 
in the herbarium of the Botanical Survey of 
India, Poona (BSI). 

Acknowledgement 

The junior author wishes to thank the 
Director, Botanical Survey of India for award- 
ing him a Research scholarship. 

M. P. NAYAR 
R. K. KOCHHAR 



References 

Pgan, P. T. (1965): A revision of the genus 
Wrightia (Apocynaceae) . Ann. Missouri Bot. Garcl. 
52 (2): 114-175. 



29. VERNONIA CHINENSIS LESS.— A NEW RECORD FOR 
ANDAMANS 



Vernonia chinensis Less, is known from 
Malay peninsula, Burma, China and Philip- 
pines. During re-organisation work we noticed 
a few specimens collected from South Anda- 
man which after critical study were identified 
as Vernonia chinensis; a first record for 
Andaman. 

The plant is characterised by tomentose 
slender, terete branches, leaves petioled ellip- 
tic or ovate-elliptic 2.5-7.5 cm. x 1.5-3.5 cm., 
puberulous, serrate, bracts pubescent, lanceo- 
late, awned, receptacle pitted, achene small, 
4-5 ribbed, glabrous. 

Vernonia chinensis Less, in Linnaea, IV. 

Botanical Survey of India, 
Howrah-711 003, 
May 16, 1978. 



674, Miq. Flor. Ind. II p. 18; Clarke, comp. 
Ind. 18:1876; Flora Brit. Ind. 3; 235: 1881. 
Cyamosa pubescens and Cyanopsis villosa 
DC, v. p. 69; Conyza punctulata, Wall, list 
2995. 

Specimens examined : 

Tavoy, 4 nov. 1829, Wall, list 2995; Burma, 
Kurz 843, Kurz 2237 (CAL); Malay Penin- 
sula, King's collector 1120 (CAL), Hook. 1325 
(CAL). Philippines, Elmer 8209, Lohr 3686, 
Kobbi 6582 (CAL); Andaman: North Bay, 
Hill jungle, Dr. King's Collector, 8-9-1895, 
s.n. (CAL). 

BIMALENDU MITRA 
GIRIJA SANKAR GIRI 



168 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



30. A NEW DISTRIBUTIONAL RECORD FOR EUPATORIUM 
ADENOPHORUM SPRENG. FROM TEHRI GARHWAL 



During a recent survey of, 'The Flora of 
Tehri Garhwal,' Eupatorium adenophorum 
Spreng., a weed belonging to family Compo- 
sitae was found growing in moist and shady 
situations at Vyasi, in the Tehri Garhwal, at 
an altitude of 455 metres. It is being reported 
for the first time from this region. This weed 
is a native of Mexico and Jamaica. It was in- 
troduced as a garden plant about 1924 but 
within recent years has run wild and natura- 
lized. 

The distribution of the taxon is not wide- 
spread in the area and its migration seems to 
be recent to the area. 

Eupatorium adenophorum Sprengel, Syst. 
Veget. 3: 420, 1826; Koster in Blumea 1 : 
502, 1935. Hara in Fl. E. Himal. 137, 1971. 
An erect, perennial branched undershrub. 

Depatment of Botany, 
D. A. V. (P.G.) College, 
Dehradun-248 001. 
May 15, 1978. 



Branches cylindrical, densely glandular hairy. 
Leaves opposite, petioled, sharply pointed, 
coarsely serrate above the cuneate base, 2.5-9 
cm. long. Corymbs fastigiate trichotomous, 
flower heads clustered, white, pedicelled, 40- 
70 flowered, slightly fragrant, receptacle flat, 
involucral bracts about 20 in two rows, lan- 
ceolate. Corolla tube white, 1 mm., slender, 
abruptly dilated. Achenes black glabrous, 
slender, crowned by a pappus of 10-12 white 
scabrid hairs, twice as long. 

Flowers and Fruits: March- July. 

Specimen examined: Dhyani 115, 28-3-1976. 

Collected from Vyasi, Tehri Garhwal. 

Acknowledgement 

I am indebted to Prof. Som Deva for his 
invaluable help. 

SHIV KUMAR DHYANI 



31. WIESNERIA TRIANDRA (DALZ.) MICHELI ( ALISM AT ACE AE ) 
— AN INTERESTING AND RARE ADDITION TO THE FLORA OF 
THE PRESIDENCY OF MADRAS, FROM KERALA, SOUTH INDIA 

(With eleven text-figures) 



The genus Wiesneria Micheli is represented 
so far by four species throughout the world. 
Out of which only one species is recorded 
(from Konkan, Western Peninsula) in India 
hitherto. There is every possibility that an in- 
tensive search for them in pools and ponds 
of Kerala may result in the discovery of the 
other allied species as well. The present paper 
with its detailed description incorporating in- 



traspecific variation and analytical sketches 
would definitely facilitate in the search. This 
is an addition to the flora of erstwhile Presi- 
dency of Madras and thus this present dis- 
covery extends its distribution to the Southern 
most part of India. 

Wiesneria triandra (Dalz.) Micheli in A. 
DC. Monog. Phan. 3 : 82-83. 1881; Benth. & 
Hook, in Gen. Plant. 3: 1007. 1883; Hook. 



169 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 




Figs. 1-11. Weisneria triandra (Dalz.) Micheli: 1. Whole plant; 2. Single leaf; 3. In- 
florescence; 4. Infructescence; 5. Basal portion of the inflorescence ( 9 flower with 
sepals spreadout); 6. Terminal portion of the inflorescence (# flowers); 7. 9 flower: 
7a. sepal, 7b. petal, 7c. staminode, 7d. gynoecium; 8. $ flower: 8a. sepal, 8b. petal, 
8c. stamen; 9. Fruits (young); 10. C. S. of young fruit; 10a. L. S. of young fruit. 
11. Bract from young fruit, spreadout (not to scale). 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



f. Fl. Brit. India 6 : 562. 1893. Buchenau in 
Engler, Pflanzenr. 16: 60-61. 1903; Cooke, Fl. 
Press. Bombay 3: 346-347. 1958. (rep. ed.) 
Sagittaria triandra Dalz. in Hook. Journ. bot. 
and Kew Gard. Misc. 2: 144. 1850; Dalz. & 
Gibs. Bombay Fl. 249. 1861. 

Aquatic plants in shallow water in paddy 
fields, gregarious, semi-submerged, caespitose, 
monoecious, rooted. Roots many, long, white 
spongy. Leaves radical, numerous, long petiol- 
ed, linear, lamina shorter than the petiole, 
ligulate; petiole ± 20.0 x 0.6 cm, constricted 
at the joint with the lamina, obtusely trigon- 
ous in cross section, aerenchymatous, broad- 
ened into a sheathing base; lamina ± 14.0 x 
0.7 cm, linear, keeled especially towards the 
base, obtuse at tip. Inflorescence raceme, ± 
20 cm long, with long peduncle and very short 
floriferous portion, axillary, shorter than leaves, 
erect; peduncle ± 18 cm long, obtusely trigo- 
nous; flowering axis sharply trigonous with 
unisexual flowers arranged at very short inter- 
vals; floriferous portion ± 2 cm long, narrow 
with 5 or 7 whorls; lower 2 (or 3) whorls 
with pistillate flowers (or very rarely 3rd 
whorl with both sex flowers) and upper whorls 
with staminate flowers, sometimes the upper 
most whorls sterile, intervals of whorls (es- 
pecially the lower ones) elongating very much 
after fertilization. Flowers white, bracteate, 
trimerous. Female flowers shortly pedicellate; 
bracts three, connate at base, ± 3.0x2.0 mm, 
erect, trapezoid, truncate and subentire at apex, 
slightly accrescent; sepals three not spreading, 
± 3.0x2.0 mm, erect, ovate, obtuse, slightly 
accrescent in fruit; petals three, alternating 



sepals, ± 1.0x0.5 mm, ovate or obovate to 
ligulate, obtuse, persistent; pistils 3 or 4 (rare- 
ly less), ± 2.0x0.75 mm, flask shaped; ovary 
globose to ovoid, abruptly narrowed into a 
short neck and ending in a bilobed stigma; 
lobes of stigma broadly auricular, warted on 
the receptive surface; staminodes three, trian- 
gular, ± 0.75 mm long, thick, acute. Male 
flowers about 3.5 mm across; pedicel ± 1.75 
mm long; bracts three, similar to those of 
female flowers; sepals three, spreading, ovate 
to obovate, slightly connate at base, obtuse to 
rounded at tip, subequal, longer one ± 2.0 x 
1.25 mm; other two sepals ± 1.5x1.0 mm; 
petals three, much smaller than sepals, as large 
as the petals of female flower, obovate, round- 
ed at tip; stamens three, antisepalous, ± 1.5 
mm long; filaments ±1.0 mm long, dilated 
towards base; anthers large, conspicuous, basi- 
fixed, anther lobes reniform; pistillodes usual- 
ly three, ovoid. Young fruits subglobose or 
ovoid with short apical beak, one seeded; em- 
bryo curved. 

Specimens examined: Joseph 44444 (BSI/ 
SC acc. nos. 85768 & 85769), fallow paddy 
fields, near Kottur dairy farm, Trivandrum 
District, Kerala, 27-9-1973, + 300 m; Stocks. 
Law etc. s.n. (MH acc. no. 73292) Malabar, 
Concan etc. 

Acknowledgement 

We wish to express our thanks to the De- 
puty Director, Central National Herbarium, 
Botanical Survey of India for confirming the 
identity of the specimen. 



Botanical Survey of India, J. JOSEPH 1 

Southern Circle, V. CHANDRASEKARAN 

Coimbatore-2, 
May 20, 1978. 

1 Present address: Botanical Survey of India, 
Shillong, Meghalaya. 



171 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY. Vol. 77 

32. CHLOROPHYTUM ARUNDINACEUM BAKER (LILIACEAE) 
IN MAHARASHTRA 

{With five text-figures) 



Chlorophytwn anmdinaceum , (family Lilia- 
ceae) was newly collected from Chandra- 
pur district, Maharashtra. The species has not 
been earlier recorded by Cooke (1901-08) or 
by Haines (1916). 

In view of the absence of any known pub- 
lished illustration of the plant, a drawing is 
given along with a few salient points below, 
based on the study of our specimens {see text- 
figures on p. 173). 

Chlorophytum arundinaceum Baker in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. 15: 323, 1876; Fl. Brit. 
India 6: 333, 1892. 

Herb. Leaves lanceolate-oblanceolate. Scape 
long, racemes ± 12 cm long. Pedicels about 

Botanical Survey of India, 
Western Circle, Pune, 
March 3, 1978. 



6 mm long in flower, 9-10 mm in fruit, arti- 
culated at or below the middle. Perianth outer 
9-10x3 mm oblong or elliptic oblong. Inner 
9-10x3.5 mm oblong-lanceolate, both five 
nerved. Anthers 6 mm long, filaments 2-3 mm 
long. Stigma simple. Capsule subglobose. Fl. 
& Frt.: July-October. 

hoc: Bhambra nallah (Allapalli) Malhotra 
135799. 

Acknowledgements 

We are thankful to the Deputy Director, 
Botanical Survey of India, Western Circle, 
Pune, for facilities and to Shri M. Y. Ansari, 
Systematic Botanist, for helpful suggestions. 

S. K. MALHOTRA 
SIRASALA MOORTHY 



33. NOMENCLATURE OF SOME BULBOUS LILIACEAE OF INDIA 



In the Flora of British India, J. D. Hooker 
recognised 5 species under genus Urginea 
Steinh. Subsequently Blatter & McCann (1928) 
described U. polyantha from Western India 
and Boraiah et Fatima (1970) have added 
U. govindappae from Karnataka. However, 
during a recent revision of the genus from 
India, Deb & Dasgupta (1974) have reduced 
U. coromandeliana Hook. f. and U. govindap- 
pae as synonyms under U. indica (Roxb.) 
Kunth, with the result they recognise only 4 
species in India, namely U. indica, U. congest a 
Wt., U. polyantha and U. polyphylla Hook. f. 

Jessop (1977) while critically analysing the 



bulbous Liliaceae of Africa, is of the opinion 
that the genera Urginea Steinh., ldotheae 
Kunth, Thuranthos Wright, Urgineopsis Com- 
pton and Drimia Jacq. ex Willd. are closely 
allied to each other having no reliable con- 
stant distinguishing character to separate them 
and hence he preferred to treat them all under 
Drimia Jacq. ex Willd., the earliest valid name. 
The differences between Urginea and Drimia 
are essentially based on their perianth being 
reflexed or not, the nature of perianth tube 
and colour of the bulbs. The degree of fusion 
of the perianth tube considerably varies and 
overlaps in both the genera and although a 



172 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 




JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



majority of the species under Urginea from 
India have only white bulbs, a few (from 
South Africa) have red bulbs as well. Fur- 
ther, in Indian species of Urginea, it is also 
observed that perianth segments are spreading 
and get reflexed either partially or wholly when 
fully opened. The arguments put forth by 
Jessop are convincing and equally apply to 
the Indian species of Urginea. As a result new 
combinations have been suggested for the 
other 3 Indian species, the one Urginea indica 
being already changed to Dritnia indica 
(Roxb.) Jessop comb. nov. along with other 
22 new combinations effected by Jessop 
(I.e.). 

1 . Drimia congesta (Wt.) Ansari et Ragha- 
van comb. nov. 

Urginea congesta Wt. Icon. t. 2064 (Left- 

Botanical Survey of India, 
Western Circle, Pune, 
May 16, 1978. 



hand fig.) 1853; Baker in J. Linn. Soc. 13: 
218, 1873. Deb & Dasgupta in Bull. bot. Surv. 
India 16: 121-122. 1974. 

2. Drimia polyantha (Blatt. et McC.) An- 
sari et Raghavan, comb. nov. 

Urginea polyantha Blatt. et McC. in J. 
Bomb. nat. Hist. Soc. 32: 735. Deb & Das- 
gupta I.e. 122-123. 1974. 

3. Drimia polyphylla (Hook, f.) Ansari et 
Raghavan, comb. nov. 

Urginea polyphylla Hook. f. Fl. Brit. India 
6: 348. 1892; Deb & Dasgupta I.e. 123. 1974. 

Acknowledgement 

We are grateful to the Deputy Director, 
Botanical Survey of India, Western Circle, 
Poona for his kind encouragement. 

M. Y. ANSARI 
R. SUNDARA RAGHAVAN 



References 

Boraiah, G. & Fatima, T. K. (1970): Cytotaxo- Liliaceae in South Africa: 7. The taxonomy of 
nomy of Urginea govindappae sp. nov. Bull. bot. Drimia and certain allied genera. Jour. S. Afr. Bot. 
Surv. India 12: 128-131. 43(4) : 265-319. 

Jessop, J. P. (1977): Studies in the Bulbous 



34. HITHERTO UNDESCRIBED FOLLICLES OF MARSDENIA 
BRUNONIANA WT. & ARN. AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 



(With three text-figures) 



R. Wight and G. A. Walker-Arnott (1834) 
described Marsdenia brunoniana without fruits 
based on his collections "Wight! Cat. n. 1524 
— Prope Columala". It is understood from 
correspondence with Kew Herbarium that the 
4 type sheets are of specimens all in flower- 
ing condition, as is another unnumbered sheet 
from Wight's herbarium; and only one sheet 



has the reference on distribution "Coroman- 
del". In the literature the references on its 
distribution are "COROMANDEL, near Co- 
termala" (Hooker 1883); "Prope Columala" 
(Wight 1834); and "near Columala (Kolli- 
malais?)" (Gamble 1923). Further there is 
no specimen of this species represented either 
in Madras Herbarium (MH) or in Central 



174 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 




JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



National Herbarium (CAL). Thus the exact 
locality of its occurrence has not yet been 
clearly indicated in the floras by J. D. Hooker 
(1883) and J. S. Gamble (1923); also the 
description on the fruits of this species is not 
available in literature since there was no col- 
lection with fruits. 

Surprisingly the occurrence of this species 
was recently noted by the senior author on 
the northern slopes of Palni hills during a 
plant exploration trip, and collected with 
flowers during October 1977 and with fruits 
during February, 1978. Thus the rare and 
interesting species has been rediscovered after 
a lapse of over 100 years. Since the fruits 
of this species are not known so far, a short 
description of them with figures has been 
provided. 

Marsdenia brunoniana Wt. & Arn. in Wt. 
Contr. 40. 1834; Wt. Ic. t. 356. 1840; Dene, 
in DC. Prodr. 8: 614. 1844; Hooker, Fl. 
Brit. India 4: 36. 1883; Gamble, Fl. Pres. 
Madras 846. 1923 & 2: 594. (rep. ed.) 1957. 
Follicls 8-9 x 3-5 cm, green, ripe pale yellow, 

Botanical Survey of India, 

CoiMBATORE, 

Tamil Nadu, 
December 29, 1978. 



two or solitary, ovatelanceolate, 4-angled, 
angles sharply winged, smooth, glabrous, ob- 
tuse, slightly indented at apex, truncate at 
base; seeds 1-1.5x0.7 — 1 cm, many, black, 
white-margined, ovate-elliptic, flattened, sub- 
obtuse at apex, with white silky coma up to 
4.5 cm long. (Figs. 1-3). 

Field note: This climbing shrub grows over 
small trees in scrub jungles at an altitude 
of ± 700 m. Fruits are quite distinct in having 
4-winged angles. 

Specimens examined: India, tamil nadu: 
Madurai Dt, Poomparai-Vilpatti R. F., 
18-10-1977, Chandrabose 51367; Palani-Kodai- 
kanal, 17-2-1978, Chandrabose 53371. 

Acknowledgements 

We are grateful to the Director, Royal 
Botanic Gardens, Kew, England for providing 
the details on the type specimens of the above 
species and to Dr. A. N. Henry, Systematic 
Botanist, Botanical Survey of India, Coimba- 
tore for help. 

M. CHANDRABOSE 
N. C. NAIR 



35. MORE RECORDS OF ENTOMOGENOUS FUNGI FROM 
PRESERVED DRAGONFLY COLLECTIONS 



Introduction 

Several reports of fungal infestation of in- 
sects have been brought out by many work- 
ers. In India, however, comparatively much 
less work has been carried out on this phase 
of study. The most noteworthy and informa- 
tive reports on fungi entomogeni have been 
produced by Kamat et al. (1952), Jagtap 



(1958) and Narasimhan (1970) who have 
reported fungi from various groups of 
insects, such as, Aphids, Termites, Mosqui- 
toes, House flies, Grasshoppers, Butterflies, 
Honey bees, Cockroaches, Ants, Scale insects, 
Beetles etc. A review of the above literature 
clearly indicates that no attenion has so far 
been given on the dragonflies being infested 
by fungi, and the sole exception are the papers 



176 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



of Pacioni (1977) and Tyagi and Vijay Veer 
(1978). The latter workers, in their general 
study of the entomogenous fungi attacking 
preserved dragonfly collections, also, discussed 
the various precautionary and control methods 
on such fungi. 

The present note is the second report on the 
fungi entomogeni infesting the preserved dra- 
gonfly material, which also marks the end of 
our current investigations in this field. 

Observations 

In the present investigation were used some 
nine dragonfly species from which the follow- 
ing fungus material was recorded, altogether 
for the first time. The dragonfly material exa- 
mined for the purpose are as follows, Copera 
marginipes, Pseudagrion rubriceps, Ceriagrion 
coromandelianum, hchnura forcipata, Rhino- 
cypha quadrimaculata, Anisopleura lestoides, 
Brachythemis contaminata, Trithetnis festiva 
and Trithemis pallidinervis. Save for the last 
species, all the dragonfly material were male. 
The fungus species discovered on these dra- 
gonflies are, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus flavus, 
Aspergillus nidulans, Coelomomyces sp., En- 
tomophthora aphidis, Spicaria javanica, and 
Stemphylium sp. Considering the entire 
amount of fungi entomogeni thus far known 
to the world, it seems worth mentioning here 
that no Spicaria sp. has ever been discovered 
from any insect previously and, therefore, its 
first record is only from a dragonfly. 

Summing up our knowledge on the prepon- 
derence of all the fungus species hitherto 

Department of Zoology, 
D.V.A. (P.G.) College, 
Dehradun-248 001, U.P., 
December 29, 1978. 



known to occur or attack dragonflies, whether 
dead, preserved or alive, it soon becomes evi- 
dent that Entomophthora spp. are the most 
common fungi to infest their present hosts 
among which, also, the former has a good 
dispersal range. Generally, a single fungus 
species may be found on many different dra- 
gonflies while, at the same time, several spe- 
cies of fungi are apt to be obtained from the 
same individual belonging to any dragonfly 
species. This conclusion suggests that these 
fungi are not specific to any particular dragon- 
fly host and can be found attacking any part 
of the dragonfly body. 

This opinion regarding the general abund- 
ance of more than one fungus species on a 
solitary dragonfly host is in contrast to our 
previous view as mentioned in the former re- 
port (cf. Tyagi & Vijay Veer 1978), and 
which has now become certain as to the non- 
specificity of these fungi with respect to their 
host under discussion and that even several 
fungi can simultaneously infest one and the 
same insect, and vice versa. 

Acknowledgements 

We are grateful to Dr. S. K. Sangal and 
Dr. S. K. Kulshrestha (both of the Depart- 
ment of Zoology, D.A.V. College, Dehra 
Dun) for encouragement; to Dr. M. B. Lai 
(Head of the Department of Zoology, D.A.V. 
College, Dehra Dun) for laboratory facilities; 
and to Mr. S. N. Sachan (Botany Depart- 
ment, D.A.V. College, Dehra Dun) for kind- 
ly identifying the fungus species. 

BRIJ KISHORE TYAGI 
VIJAY VEER 



177 



12 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



References 



Jagtap, A. P. (1958) : Studies in the entomoge- 
nous fungus, Metarrhizium anisophae (Metsch.) 
Sorok. Curr. Sri. 27: 99-100. 

Kamat, M. N., Patel, M. K. and Dhande, G. 
W. (1952) : Occurrence of the green muscardine 
fungus on Pyrilla sp. in Bombay. Curr. Sci. 21 : 
317. 

Narasinhan, M. J. (1970): Entomogenous fungi 
and possibility of their use for biological control 



of insect pests in India. Indian Phytopath. 23: 
16-26. 

Pacioni, G. (1977): Interessanti fungi entomogeni 
italiani: I Paecilomyces fumosa-rosens, Cordyceps 
memorabilis. Giornala Botanica Haliano 111 (3) : 
145-151. 

Tyagi, B. K. and Veer, Vijay (1978) : A note on 
some entomogenous fungi attacking the preserved 
dragonfly collections. /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 
75 (3): 946-947. 



178 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY 
SOCIETY FOR THE YEAR 1977-78 



Executive Committee 



President 

Dr. Salim Ali, D.Sc, F.N.A. 



Vice-Presidents 

Mr. R. E. Hawkins 

Mr. G. V. Bedekar, ICS. (Retd.) 

Mr. D. J. Panday 

Member 



> Ex-ofjicio 



Secretary, Dept. of Science 
Government of India. 



Technology, 



Elected Members 



Advisory Committee 



Mr. Humayun Abdulali 


Mr. H. G. Acharya 


Ahmedabad 


Dr. S. R. Amladi, M.D. 


Mr. F. C. Badhwar, O.B.E. 


New Delhi 


Prof. P. V. Bole 


Dr. B. Biswas 


Calcutta 


Mr. Divyabhanusinh Chawda 


Mr. S. Chaudhuri 


New Delhi 


Dr. B. Dasgupta 


Dr. Chintaman Deshmukh, I.C.S. (Retd.) 


Mr. H. K. Divekar 




Hyderabad 


Dr. C. V. Kulkarni, M.Sc, Ph.D. 


Mr. Zafar Futehally 


Bangalore 


{Hon. Treasurer) 


Mr. N. D. Jayal 


New Delhi 


Mr. Nazir Latif 


Mr. Shivarajkumar Khachar 


Jasdan 


Mr. Bansi Mehta 


Mr. M. Krishnan 


Madras 


Dr. A. N. D. Nanavati (Hon. Secretary) 


Mr. Duleep Matthai 


New Delhi 



Mr. M. S. Srinivasan 
Mrs. Dilnavaz Variava 



179 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



HONORARY SECRETARY'S REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1977 



The report covers the activities of the Society 
in the 94th year of its existence. 

Membership 

During the year 161 new members were en- 
rolled. Unfortunately the total number of 
ordinary members continues to be more or 
less static in the region of 700-800. There has 
been an increase of interest of members in the 
Society's activities and we hope to reduce the 
number of members lost every year. Drop outs 
were 100 and resignations 32 during the year 
under review. The number of members in each 
class of membership is given below: 



ing the year, two of them (Vol. 73 No. 2 and 
Vol. 73 No. 3) being issues of the Journal for 
the previous year, and only one issue (Vol. 
74 No. 1) relates to the current year. It has 
been possible, with the increased page space 
available in the new format to reduce the 
number of pending articles. 

The articles continued to cover a wide range 
of subjects with emphasis on the ecology, be- 
haviour, and taxonomy of Indian Fauna and 
the taxonomy and regional lists of Indian 
Flora. 

The Society's illustrated newsletter-cum- 
popular Journal, the Hornbill has had a sue- 





1974 


1975 


1976 


1977 




Ordinary Members 


~rm 


763 


719 


702 


Individual 561) 












Corporate 160) 


Life Members 


198 


232 


247 


247 


Individual 246) 












Corporate 13) 


Student Members 


16 


20 


19 


20 




Honorary Members 


4 


4 


4 


4 




Forest Dept. Nominees 


90 


90 


90 


36 





cessful year and has served the purpose of 
Publications creating and retaining member interest in the 

Society and in attracting new members. Four 
The Journal continues to be delayed in its issues of the Hornbill were published during 
publication. Three issues were published dur- the year. 



180 



A. G. M. 1977-78— PROCEEDINGS AND ACCOUNTS 



Books: 

During the year the following sales were 
made: 



Book of Indian Birds 
Book of Indian Animals 
India's Wildlife in 1959-70 
Some Beautiful Indian Trees 
Glimpses of Nature in India Booklet 
Checklist of the Birds of Maharashtra 



The following books were published: 
book of INDIAN biros by Salim Ali, 10th edi- 
tion. This edition received excellent support 
from members and others and nearly one third 
of the copies printed were sold. 
some beautiful Indian trees by Blatter and 
Millard, 3rd edition. We are grateful to the 
Department of Science and Technology, Gov- 
ernment of India for the financial assistance 
which made this publication possible. 
India's wildlife 1959-70 by M. Krishnan. 
Based on Mr. M. Krishnan's survey of the 
wildlife in India during 1970 under a Jawahar- 
Ial Nehru Fellowship. The publication of this 
book was made possible by the generous finan- 
cial assistance of the Seth Purshottamdas 
Thakoredas and Divalibai Charitable Trust. 
Books under preparation: 
We have in the press the second edition of 

A SYNOPSIS OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA AND PAKIS- 
TAN by Dillon Ripley and the second edition 

Of SOME BEAUTIFUL INDIAN CLIMBERS AND 

shrubs, by Bor and Raizada. The former is 
financed by the author and the latter from 
funds made available by the Department of 
Science and Technology, Government of India. 
Also under preparation are the 4th edition 



of the book of Indian animals and the first 
edition of the grasses of western india by 
T. Hodd. The work on the Centenary Publi- 
cation, ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INDIAN NATURAL HIS- 



Sale Balance stock 

31 December 1977 

2894 5106 

479 61 

319 161 

235 2765 

267 2774 

58 466 



TORY with Mr. R. E. Hawkins as general edi- 
tor, is in progress. This publication is also 
being financed by the Department of Science 
and Technology, Government of India. 

Conservation 

The Society continued to take an active part 
in the Conservation Movement in the country 
through its association with State and Central 
Wildlife Boards, and through its members on 
the International Union for Conservation of 
Nature and Natural Resources, the World 
Wildlife Fund, and the International Council 
for Bird Preservation. 

The Society's Curator has been nominated 
as the Co-Chairman of the SSC's Asian Ele- 
phant Specialist Group. The regional meeting 
of the group was arranged at Bangalore at the 
Indian Institute of Science, when the program- 
me of work and regional task forces to under- 
take surveys were organised. 

Members' Activities 

It has been possible to interest and encour- 
age members in Bombay and elsewhere in field 
activities. 



181 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Bird Count: A monthly roadside count of 
birds in the Borivli National Park was organis- 
ed with the assistance of members. The acti- 
vity received financial assistance from the 
Salim Ali/Loke Ornithological Research Fund. 
The activity is being continued. 

Nature Walks: Nature walks were organised 
in Borivli National Park and elsewhere for 
bird-watching, vegetation studies and general 
natural history. A large number of members 
participated. 

Nature Camp: A camp was organised in 
October at Bandipur National Park and the 
Tahr country in the Nilgiris. 41 members par- 
ticipated in two groups led by Dr. Robert B. 
Grubh, Dr. Reza Khan and Mr. P. B. Shekar. 

Research 

Bird banding data: Computer analysis of the 
data has been arranged in collaboration with 
the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research; 
feeding of data has commenced. 

University Department: Mr. M. A. Reza 
Khan was awarded the Ph.D. Degree in Field 
Ornithology of the Bombay University for his 
thesis on the ecology of the Black-and-Orange 
Flycatcher in South India. Mr. M. K. Chan- 
drahas was awarded M.Sc. degree for his thesis 
on the Ecology of the Five-striped Palm 
Squirrel. 

Nilgiri Bird Survey: On behalf of the Gov- 
ernment of Tamil Nadu two field trips to the 
Nilgiri district were made by the Society's 
staff and the report on the birds of the district 
has been sent to the Government. 

Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary: The Maharaja 
of Bharatpur has very generously donated the 
Kadam Kunj rest house in the Sanctuary to 
the Society. It is proposed to establish a 
hydro-biological station in collaboration with 
the WWF (India) to monitor the ecology of 



the Sanctuary on a continuing basis. 

Ecology of the Honeyguide: Studies were 
made by Dr. Salim Ali assisted by Mr. S. A. 
Hussain. Both of them made visits to Bhutan 
for preliminary investigation of Honeyguide 
locations. An ad hoc grant of Rs. 5000/- was 
made by the Govt, of Bhutan, towards expen- 
ses of the study. 

ICAR Frog Project: The project with Mr. 
Humayun Abdulali, as Principal Investigator 
is programmed to examine the effect produced 
on agricultural ecology by the removal of frogs 
for the export of froglegs. 

Donations 

For Salim Ali Nature Conservation Fund 

Rs. 

Dr. Salim Ali 3,51,000.00 
Mr. E. W. Mudge Jr. 879.57 

For Charles McCann Fieldwork Fund 
Mr. S. Choudhury 600.00 
Mr. H. Abdulali 175.00 

For Salim Ali-Loke Wan Tho Ornithological 
Research Fund 

Dr. Salim Ali 1000.00 
For Hornbill Newsletter 
Dr. Dasgupta 100.00 
Mr. Dilip Patil 50.00 
Dr. Scaver A. Ballard 56.00 
Mr. H. K. Divekar 101.00 

Meetings 

January, 27: Talk: 'Biological clocks and 
seasonal breeding cycles in Animals' by Prof. 
B. K. Follet. 

February, 1: Talk: 'Scientific expeditions 
connected with Zoology and Marine Biology' 
by Dr. Ferdinand Starmuehlner. 

March, 19: Talk: 'Introduction to Bird 
Watching' by Mr. S. A. Hussain. 



182 



A. G. M. 1977-78— PROCEEDINGS AND ACCOUNTS 



May, 21: Talk: 'Introduction to Bird Wat- 
ching' by Dr. Robert B. Grubh. 

May, 16: Film show: 'The Last Strong- 
hold'. 

May, 27: Film show: 'Snakes of India'. 

June, 29: Talk: 'Indian Flowering Trees' 
by Prof. P. V. Bole. 

July, 16: Talk: 'Introduction to Bird Wat- 
ching' by Dr. Robert B. Grubh. 

September, 17: Talk: 'Identification of 
Waders' by Dr. Robert B. Grubh. 

October, 19: Film show: 'Antarctic' by Miss 
Meher Moos. 

November, 24: Talk: 'Wildlife of the Nil- 
giris' by Mr. Reza Khan. 

November, 29: Talk: 'Environment' by Dr. 
R. M. Naik. 

November, 30: Slide show: 'Ladakh' and 
other subjects by Mr. Prakash Gole. 

December, 16: Talk: 'Another trip to the 
Andamans and Nicobar' by Mr. Humayun 
Abdulali. 

December, 20: Talk: Bhutan: 'In search of 
the Honeyguide' by Mr. S. A. Hussain. 

Reference Collection 

During the year 273 specimens were receiv- 
ed at the Society: 



Mammals 3 

Birds 149 

Reptiles 56 

Amphibians 65 

Total 273 



Important additions are: 

Birds: Ninox affinis, Micropygia ruftpennis — 
Coll: H. Abdulali. New subspecies from 
the Car Nicobar 1976 collection are 
being described. 



Phodilus hadius ripleyi — Coll: Reza 
Khan & V. S. Vijayan. 
Amphibians: Philaulus glandulosus — Coll: J. 
C. Daniel. 

Philautus chalazodus — Coll : i . 
C. Daniel. 

Nature Education Scheme 

More than 400 schools were contacted from 
time to time through circulars. 32 field trips 
were arranged to Borivli National Park in- 
cluding one for a blind school. 

A nature camp was arranged for Municipal 
Secondary School children. Students from 18 
schools were taken to the Prince of Wales 
Museum, 9 to taraporewala Aquarium and 12 
to Jijamata Udyan (Victoria Gardans). 

Guidance was given to schools in the pre- 
paration of projects on different aspects of 
nature. 40 schools were visited personally. In 
addition 5 radio talks on Nature Education 
were given during the year. Slide shows were 
arranged in 5 schools. 

During the wildlife week an xhibition of 
'Our Wildlife' was arranged for school child- 
ren. 5862 students from 46 schools visited the 
exhibition. 

Library 

During the year 1977 thirty eight (38) books 
were added to the Society's Library. Of these: 

18 were presented 
8 purchased 
12 received for review 

Total 38 



183 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Revenue and Accounts 

The financial situation of the Society conti- 
nued to be unsatisfactory. The year's operation 
showed a small surplus. 

Staff 

The Committee wishes to record its appre- 



ciation of the willing co-operation of the staff 
in the activities of the Society. 

Acknowledgement 

The Committee wishes to record its appre- 
ciation for the assistance received from mem- 
bers towards the activities of the Society. 



184 



A. G. M. 1977-78— PROCEEDINGS AND ACCOUNTS 



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The Annual General Meeting of the Bom- 
bay Natural History Society for 1977 was held 
on Wednesday, the 10th January 1979 at 6.30 
p.m. at Hornbill House, Opp. Lion Gate, 
Shahid Bhagat Singh Road, Bombay, when 
the following were present: 

Mr. Humayun Abdulali 
Dr. Salim Ali 
Mr. G. V. Bedekar 
Mr. H. K. Divekar 
Mr. S. P. Godrej 
Mr. D. N. Goenka 
Mr. R. E. Hawkins 
Mr. J. P. Irani 
Dr. A. K. Joshee 
Dr. C. V. Kulkarni 
Mr. Duleep Matthai 
Mr. Bansi Mehta 
Mr. C. B. Mehta 
Mr. S. N. Mistry 
Dr. A. N. D. Nanavati 
Mr. Dinsha J. Panday 
Mr. V. K. Paralkar 
Mr. Dilip Patil 
Mr. Ulhas Rane 
Mr. A. Rashid 
Mr. K. K. Vajifdar 
Mrs. D. S. Variava 

Dr. Salim Ali proposed Mr. R. E. Hawkins 
to the Chair and was seconded by Dr. A. N. 
D. Nanavati. 

The Honorary Secretary's report having been 
circulated was taken as read, and the mem- 
bers present were asked if they had any queries 
on the report. 

Mr. Humayun Abdulali questioned the 
wisdom of carrying on with the computerisa- 
tion of the Bird Banding data. His enquiries 
in the company of a knowledgeable friend at 
the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research 



at the instance of the Society's last AGM re- 
vealed that no programme was set, and he was 
doubtful if any useful purpose would be served 
by carrying on with the work. 

Mr. Hawkins explained that computerisation 
of some 250,000 records was being carried on 
for sake of a general study of the data collect- 
ed during the ten years of bird banding. 

Mr. Abdulali enquired about the proposed 
Hydrobiological Station at Bharatpur and 
whether a project proposal has been prepared 
and submitted to the Executive Committee. 

The Honorary Secretary stated that a pro- 
ject has been prepared and incorporated in the 
Society's Five- Year Plan and that further 
action depends upon the availability of funds. 

Mrs. Variava proposed that the Honorary 
Secretary's report be accepted, and Mr. Bede- 
kar seconded the proposal. 

The Honorary Treasurer while dealing with 
the Balance Sheet and Accounts stated that 
the Balance Sheet showed a surplus of 
Rs. 7166.35, reducing our previous deficit from 
Rs. 61,973.16 to Rs. 54,806.81. 

He explained that the suggestions made at 
the last AGM have been executed as far as 
they were practicable. 

Mr. Bedekar proposed that the Honorary 
Treasurer's report be accepted and was second- 
ed by Mr. H. K. Divekar. 

Mr. Bedekar proposed that the auditors 
Messrs Habib & Co. be re-appointed on the 
same terms (viz. a fee of Rs. 1000/-) and 
was seconded by Dr. Kulkarni. 

The Chairman expressed the hope that, as 
the business of the meeting had been complet- 
ed expeditiously, the next Annual General 
Meeting would be combined with a lecture or 
film. 

The meeting terminated with a vote of 
thanks to the Chair. 



199 



I 



THE SOCIETY'S PUBLICATIONS 
Mammals 

Tbe Book of Indian Animals, by S. H. Prater, 4th edition (reprint). 28 plates in 
colour by Paul Barruel and many other monochrome illustrations. Rs. 60.00 

(Price to members Rs. 55) 

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many monochrome plates. Rs. 60.00 

(Price to members Rs. 55) 
Checklist of the Birds of Maharashtra, by Humayun Abdulali. Rs. 2.50 

(Price to members Rs. 2) 
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J. D. Panday. Rs. 3.00 



Identification of Poisonous Snakes, Wall chart in Gujarati, and Marathi. Rs. 5 

Plants 

Some Beautiful Indian Trees, by Blatter and Millard. With many coloured and 
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coloured and monochrome plates. 2nd edition, (in Press) 
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The Society will gratefully accept back numbers of the Journal, from mem- 
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The subscription of members elected in October, November, and December covers the 
period from the date of their election to the end of the following year. 



CONTENTS 

Page 



A NEW SPECIES. AND A NEW SUBSPECIES OF BIRD FROM TlRAP DISTRICT, ArUNACHAL 

Pradesh, and comments on the subspecies of Stachyris nigriceps Blyth. 

By S. Dillon Ripley 1 

Freshwater algae of Davanagere and Raichur of Karnataka State, India. 

By U. D. Bongale and S. G. Bharati . . 6 

Bird notes from Baluchistan Province, Pakistan. By T. J. Roberts . . 12 

Observations on food and growth of Bufo meianostictus tadpole. By J. H. Sabnis 

and Ku. S. M. Kuthc .. 21 

Distribution of Molluscs in and around the coral reefs of the southeastern 

coast in India. By C. S. Gopinadha Pillai and K. K. Appukuttan . . 26 

A March bird count in Puona. By Prakash Gole .. 49 

Mammals from Nepal. By David H. Johnson, S. Dillon Ripley, and Kitti Thong- 

longya . . 56 

Parental care in the saltwater crocodile {Crocodylus porosus Schneider) and 

management implications. By H. R. Bustard and B. C. Choudhury . . 64 

Eggs and early development of Tor mahseer fish. By C. V. Kulkarni . . 70 

Family Cyperaceae in Kolhapur and its environs. By A. R. Kulkarni, S. R. Yadav 

and J. S. Pawar . . 76 

A Catalogue of the Birds in the Collection of the Bombay Natural History 

Society — 22. By Humayun Abdulali . 81 

Clutch size, incubation and hatching success of Gharial [Gavialis gangeticus 

(Gmelin)] eggs from Narayani river, Nepal, 1976-1978. By H. R. Bustard .. 100 

New Descriptions . . 106 

Miscellaneous Notes . . 124 

Annual Report of the Bombay Natural History Society for the year 1977-78 . . 179 

Statements of Accounts or the Bombay Natural History Society . . 185 

Minutes of the Annual General Meeting . . 199 



Printed by Bro. Leo at St. Francis Industrial Training Institute, Borivli, Bombay 400 092 
and published by Editors: J. C. Daniel, P. V. Bole and A. N. D. Nanavati for Bombay 
Natural History Society, Hornbill House. Shahid Bhagat Singh Road, Bombay 400 023. 



I 873- 



JOURNAL 

of the 

Bombay Natural History 
Society 



AUG I0tt1 




Vol. 77, No. 2 
£J/7ori : J. C. Daniel, P. V. Bole & A. N. D. Nanavati 



AUGUST 1980 



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Banerji, M. L. (1958): Botanical Exploration in East Nepal. J. Bombay nai. 

llist. Soc. 55(2): 243-268. ^ 

Prater, S. H. (1948): The Book of Indian Animals. Bombay. Titles of papers 

should not be underlined. 

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Hornbill House, Editors, 
Shahid Bhagat Singh Road, Journal of the Bombm 

Bombay 400 023. Natural History. Sodit 



VOLUME 77 NO. 2 : AUGUST 1980 



Date of Publication : 28-3-1981. 

CONTENTS 

Page 

Conservation future of the Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus Schneider) 
in India. By H. R. Bustard and B. C. Choudhury. {With four plates & a text- 
figure) ..201 

Freshwater Snails of Gwalior (M.P.). By H. C. Goel and C. P. Srivastava. {With 

nine text-figures & a map) . . 215 

A contribution of the vegetation of Chaibasa (South), Singhbhum Dist. (South 

Bihar) . By D. K. Biswas and J. K. Maheswari . . 223 

Breeding Habits and Associated Phenomena in some Indian Bats. Part VI — Scoto- 

philus heathi (Horsfield) — Vespertilionidae. By A. Madhavan .. 227 

Studies on the intraspecific variations in Trithemis festiva (Rambur) (Odonata: 

Libellulidae) . By Mahabir Prasad and Arun Kumar. {With six text-figures) . . 238 

Physical characterisation of the song of the Koel Eudynamis scolopacea. By M. 

V. V. Subrahmanyam and R. V. Krishnamoorthy. {With four text-figures) . . 247 

Observations of the reproductive behaviour of the Tiger, Panthera tigris tigris 

Linn, in captivity. By Adhir Kumar Das. {With a chart) . . 253 

Preliminary observations on the status of silver carp in relation to catla in 
the culture fishery of Kulgarhi Reservoir. By S. J. Karamchandani and 
D. N. Mishra. {With two text- figures) .. 261 

Notes on the Ferns and Fern-Allies in the Botany of Orissa. By N. C. Nair and 

R. K. Ghosh . . 271 

Distribution records of Culicine Mosquitoes of Bastar District, Madhya 

Pradesh, India. By Zakir Husain Husainy. (With a text-figure) .. 277 

Notes on the breeding and hunting behaviour of Lion-tailed Macaques {Macaca 

silenus) in captivity. By Y. Artaud . . 285 

New Descriptions: 

On a new silurid cat-fish from Uttar Pradesh, India. By S. K. Gupta, K. C. layaram 

and K. P. Hajela. (With a text-figure) . . 290 

On a new species of genus Allotrissocladius Freeman (Diptera, Chironomidae) from 

India. By P. K. Chaudhuri and S. K. Nandi. (With three text-figures) .. 292 
A new species of the genus Herculia Walker from North India (Lepidoptera : Pyra- 

lidae: Pyralinae). By H. S. Rose and S. S. Dhillon. (With seven text-figures) . . 294 
Description of a new species and a key to Indian species of Belostomatidae. By P. Ven- 

katesan and T. K. Raghunatha Rao. (With seven text-figures) . . 299 

Aconogonon kuttiense (Polygonaceae) — A new species from N. W. Himalaya. By G. 

G. Maiti, R. M. Dutta and C. R. Babu. (With five text-figures) . . 303 

A new species of Jasminum (Oleaceae) from India. By A. K. Sinha, G. G. Maiti and 

G. S. Giri. (With five text-figures) . . 305 

A new species of Eunotia. By P. T. Sarode and N. D. Kamat. (With two text-figures) 307 
Obituary : 

D. E. Reuben (1893-1980) . . 309 

Reviews : 

1. The Fauna of India, Spiders. (M. L. Roonwal) .. 310 

2. Collin's Handguide to the Birds of the Indian Sub-continent, including India, 
Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka & Nepal. (Humayun Abdulali) .. 311 

Miscellaneous Notes: 

Mammals: 1. Food habits of the Indian Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus) : A preliminary analysis. 
By Bruce D. Barnett, James A. Cohen. A. J. T. Johnsingh and Michael W. Fox (p. 313); 
2. Observation on carnivorous habit of Irrawaddy Squirrel, Callosciurus pygerythrus (Geof- 
frey). By Santanu Ghosh (p. 316); 3. Unusual Rat feeding behaviour associated with cattle 
affected with foot and mouth disease. (With a text-figure). By S. Odend'hal (p. 317); 
4. Bait shyness and poison aversion in Bandicota bengalensis (Gray) using RH-787 as Roden- 



ticide. By M. L. Sood and R. P. S. Gill (p. 319); 5. On the unusual occurrence of the 
Common Dolphin. Delphimis del phis Linnaeus in longline catches at Port Blair, Andamans. 
By T. E. Sivaprakasam (p. 320); 6. Litter size of some captive wild mammals. By L. N. 
Acharjyo and S. Mohapatra (p. 321). 

Birds: 7. Observations on parental care of a wounded chick of the Bronzewinged Jacana, 
Metopidius indicus (Latham). By Srikumar Chattopadhyay (p. 325); 8. Blacknecked Crane 
in Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh — A survey report for January-February 1978. By Subhendu 
Sekhar Saha (p. 326); 9. The Bluecheeked Bee-eater Merops superciliosus Linnaeus in Kutch. 
By M. K. Himmatsinhji (p. 328); 10. The Common Hawk-Cuckoo, Cuculus varius Vahl in 
Kutch. By M. K. Himmatsinhji (p. 329); 11. A new nesting site of Common Myna, Acrido- 
theres tristis (Linnaeus), in the Punjab. {With two photographs) . By H. S. Toor and Manjit 
Singh Dhindsa (p. 329); 12. On the taxonomic status of the Eastern Ghats Hill Myna, 
Gracula religiosa peninsularis Whistler and Kinnear, 1933 [Aves: Sturnidae]). By N. Majum- 
dar (p. 331); 13. Egg-bound death of a Purplerumped Sunbird at Baj Baj, West Bengal. 
By Srikumar Chattopadhyay (p. 333); 14. Occurrence of the Bengal Black Robin, Saxicoloi- 
des fulicata erythrura (Lesson ) [Muscicapidae: Turdinae], and the Assam Purple Sunbird, 
Nectarinia asiatica intermedia (Hume) [Nectariniidae] in Orissa State. By N. Majumdar 
(p. 334); 15. Dispersal of bayas with recorded distress calls. By S. T. P. V. J. Swamy, 
N. Shivanarayan and Mir Hamid Ali (p. 335); 16. On nesting association of the Whitebacked 
Munia, Lonchura striata (Linnaeus) with the Mound-Forming Tree-Ant, Crematogaster 
rogenhoferi Mayr. By Srikumar Chattopadhyay (p. 337); 17. Bird pests to rice at Bumbong 
Lima, Province Wellesley, West Malaysia. By Michael Avery (p. 338). 
Reptiles: 18. Notes on sexing crocodilians. {With two plates). By Romulus Whitaker, 
Zahida Whitaker and Allen Vaughan (p. 341); 19. On the occurrence of Bifurcated Tailed 
in Agama Lizard from Simla Hills, Himachal Pradesh. By Mahesh Chandra and Rathin 
Mukherjee (p. 343) ; 20. Recent re-discovery of the rare Agamid Lizard, Otocryptis beddomii. 
By T. S. N. Murthy (p. 343); 21. Growth rate of Indian Python, Python molurus molurus 
(Serpentes: Boidae) in captivity with special reference to age at first egg-laying. {With two 
text-figures). By L. N. Acharjyo and Ch. G. Mishra (p. 344); 22. Cobra and Little Bittern 
lxobrychus minutus. By B. D. Sharma (p. 350). 

Fishes: 23. Khulnawa — A special fishing device for minnows in the river Ganga at Patna 
(Bihar). {With a plate). Bv S. R. Banerji, M. L. Singh. S. K. Thakur and Nirmal K. Thakur 
(p. 351). 

Insects: 24. A note on the Dragonflies (Odonata: Insecta). By Mahabir Prasad and 
M. K. Biswas (p. 353); 25. Microtrombidium sp. — An Acarine Ectoparasite of Musca domes- 
tica nebulo Fabr. By S. C. Dhiman and R. C. Dhiman (p. 353); 26. A supernumerary larval 
instar and antimelanin effect on the 6th insiar larvae of Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera : 
Noctuidae) by Altozar — a juvenile hormone analogue. By S. Badrul Islam and Mumtaz 
Ahmed Khan (p. 354). 

Botany: 27. Pteris dactylina Hook, from Silent Valley — a new record for Peninsular India. 
By N. C. Nair and P. Bhargavan (p. 356); 28. The genus Macroptilium (Benth.) Urb— A 
new record for India. {With eight text-figures). By S. V. Subba Rao and R. Gopalan (p. 357); 
29. Additions to the Flora of Rajasthan. By A. N. Singh (p. 359); 30. Note on the occur- 
rence of Agrostis nervosa Nees ex Trin. in Western Himalaya. By B. C. L. Sah and D. N. 
Joshi (p. 360); 31. On the occurrence of Cleome felina L.f. (Cleomaceae) in Maharashtra. 
{With six text-figures). By S. K. Malhotra and Sirasala Moorthy (p. 361); 32. Arthraxon 
mceboldii Stapf — A grass new to Kashmir. {With a text-figure). By H. Thakur and G. N. 
Javeid (p. 363); 33. Notes on Vaceinium leschenaultii — Complex ( Vacciniaceae) in South 
India. {With two text-figures). By V. Chithra and R. Rajan (p. 365); 34. Cryptolepis grandi- 
flora Wight — A new record for Andamans. By Amit Sinha and Girija Sankar Giri (p. 366); 
35. Occurrence of Pithophora kewensis Wittrock in Bangladesh. {With a text-figure). 
By A. M. Abdus Salam and Yusuf Sharif A. Khan (p. 367); 36. Distributional notes on 
certain recently described Taxa. By V. V Sivarajan and J. Joseph (p. 368); 37. Powdery 
mildew of walking fern {Camptosorus rhizophyllus) — a new record. By J. Raghava Reddy 
and A. Purnachandra Reddi (p. 370). 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY 
SOCIETY 



1980 AUGUST Vol. 77 No. 2 



CONSERVATION FUTURE OF THE SALTWATER 
CROCODILE (CROCODYLUS POROSUS SCHNEIDER) 
IN INDIA 1 

H. R. Bustard 2 and B. C. Choudhury 3 
(With jour plates & a text-figure) 



The conservation future of the Saltwater 
Crocodile in India is discussed together with 
reasons for the species' decline and conserva- 
tion programmes already in progress. The 
Saltwater Crocodile is endangered in India at 
the present time due to inadequate steps be- 
ing taken to ensure the long-term survival of 
its mangrove habitat. Whereas hunting was 
responsible for the earlier dramatic decline in 
the species' numbers habitat loss now poses 
the most serious long-term problem since the 
species is fully protected by law and effective 
protection can be provided in the field. Con- 
servation programmes have operated since 
1975 in Orissa, and 1976 in West Bengal and 

1 Accepted August 1979. 

2 Chief Technical Adviser, Government of India. 
Central Crocodile Breeding and Management Train- 
ing Institute, Lake Dale, Hyderabad-500 264. 

3 Research Scholar, Andhra Pradesh Forest De- 
partment. Crocodile Conservation Project, Nehru 
Zoological Park, Hyderabad. 



Andhra Pradesh, and work commenced in 
1979 in the Andamans. However, the Bhitar- 
kanika Sanctuary in Orissa is the only suc- 
cessfully operating sanctuary for the species 
in India and its integrity is seriously threaten- 
ed by encroachment. Much of India's coastal 
mangrove forests have been destroyed and the 
remnants are rapidly disappearing. Unless 
sanctuaries to effectively protect the man- 
groves, as well as the wildlife, can be set up 
and soundly managed to ensure their long- 
term integrity, the Saltwater Crocodile will 
become extinct. It is suggested that well- 
managed commercial utilisation of this valu- 
able economic species could help to ensure 
the future of the sanctuary areas and with 
them the crocodile. 

"No country has done more than India to 
conserve its crocodilian resources and no- 
where has the effort met with such marked 
success" (Bustard, in press, a). Concerned 
about the future of India's crocodilians, parti- 
cularly the gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) . 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY. Vol. 77 



Government of India asked UNDP for assist- 
ance in carrying out a survey. The resultant 
report (FAO 1974), stated that the Gharial 
was on the verge of extinction, the saltwater 
crocodile {Crocodylus porosus) reduced to 
two pockets in its former strong-hold along 
the Bay of Bengal, and the mugger (C. palu- 
stris) a fast depleting species. 

Following this Report, Government of 
India initiated a Crocodile Project, with FAO/ 
UNDP assistance, and the senior author, who 
had carried out the 1974 investigation, be- 
came Chief Technical Adviser for the large 
scale Project which subsequently ensued and 
is still in progress. (The present project is 
scheduled to terminate in December 1980.) 

An early account of the project develop- 
ment in Orissa, the first State to take up 
works under the Government of India Pro- 
ject, is given in FAO (1975). The gharial 
occurs only in the Indian region and its fu- 
ture was the subject of much international 
concern. The very critical situation facing the 
gharial (FAO 1974, 1975) led naturally to 
maximum efforts being directed to that spe- 
cies in the early years. This tended to over- 
shadow the deteriorating status of the salt- 
water crocodile, and delayed realisation of the 
seriousness of its poor future conservation 
status as a member of the Indian fauna, al- 
though a project was initiated on this species 
in Orissa in 1975, and a further project com- 
menced in West Bengal in 1976. Today, the 
very success of "Project Gharial" tends to 
hide the urgent steps that need to be taken 
to assure the future of the saltwater crocodile 
in India. 

As recently as 1971, Neill was able to write 
of this species. "In spite of its wide range, 
the estuarine crocodile has not become well 
known" and, 

"The activities of the adult estuarine croco- 



diles, outside of nesting and of predation on 
man, are practically unknown." 
Since then the species has been the subject 
of considerable research, particularly in Aus- 
tralia by Messel's group which followed on 
from Bustard's high-lighting of its conserva- 
tion predicament in the Australian region 
(Bustard 1967, 1969 a, b, and c, 1970, and 
numerous inter-governmental reports) and in 
India as part of the Government of India 
Project on Crocodile Breeding and Manage- 
ment (FAO 1974, 1975, Bustard 1978, in 
press, b; Choudhury & Bustard 1980; Kar 
& Bustard, in press). The biology of the spe- 
cies is now sufficiently well known to plan 
sound conservation management. 

Geographical Distribution and present 
Status 

The saltwater crocodile formerly had an 
enormous geographical distribution from 
Cochin in South-west India, eastwards to 
South China, and extending Southwards 
through Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philip- 
pines to New Guinea and Northern Australia. 
In India the species had its world Western 
distributional limits near Cochin and occurred 
along the Bay of Bengal in the States of 
Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and 
West Bengal and the Union Territory of the 
Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Figure 1). 

The species is now extinct on the Asian 
mainland east of Saigon. Throughout this ex- 
tensive remaining distributional range the 
species must now be considered rare to en- 
dangered. It is listed as endangered in the 

RED DATA BOOK of IUCN (1975). 

This species was still common in the im- 
mediate postwar years before large-scale hunt- 
ing commenced. However, whole populations 
were wiped out in a matter of years. In 



202 



CONSERVATION OF THE SALTWATER CROCODILE 



Papua-New Guinea it had become very rare 
by the early sixties (Bustard 1967), in North- 
ern Australia by around the mid-sixties with 
the hunting effort in Western Australia taking 
place last (Bustard 1970). 



India did not escape this large-scale hunt- 
ing phase (FAO 1974). In 1974 no reliable 
information existed on the then status of the 
saltwater crocodile in India. Early writers fre- 
quently commented on its abundance. The 




Fig. 1. Distribution of the Saltwater Crocodile in India today. Mangrove areas are 
indicated by diagonal lines and the occurrence of Saltwater Crocodile by solid black 
areas. The arrow indicates the location of Cochin, the former Western distributional 
limit of the species. The scale indicates 800 km. 



203 



JOURNAL, BOMB A) NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



distinguished herpetologist Gunther (1864) 
wrote, "This is a very common species along 
all the rivers of the East Indian Continent and 
Archipelago." 

More recently Deraniyagala (1939) noted: 
"It flourishes along the shores of the Bay of 
Bengal." 

Within the memory of reliable living wit- 
nesses this species was abundant in most suit- 
able Indian habitat. 

Following a catastrophic decline as a re- 
sult of indiscriminate hunting in the total ab- 
sence of controls (Bustard 1978), the salt- 
water crocodile is now rare or extinct in most 
of its former Indian habitat. Starting at its 
Western geographical limits, it is now believed 
to be extinct in Kerala (where most of the 
mangrove cover has been lost), extinct in 
Tamil Nadu (the last individual was shot 
in 1936, Biddulph 1936), extinct in Andhra 
Pradesh, [a 3.2 m individual was captured in 
the Krishna estuary mangroves in January 
1979 but is believed to have reached there 
from elsewhere (Bustard & Choudhury, in 
press)], virtually restricted to the 176 sq. km. 
Bhitar Kanika Sanctuary in Orissa, which was 
declared for the species under the Govern- 
ment of India Project and very rare in Sun- 
darbans, (FAO 1974). 

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands con- 
stituted a major shelter for this species until 
recently, and apparently, large populations 
existed there (Anon. 1931). However, the 
rate at which the main islands are being settl- 
ed and forest lands encroached, combined with 
the high incidence of poaching, and large-scale 
egg robbing recorded in North Andaman in 
1978 (Choudhury & Bustard 1980) indicates 
that these populations have an uncertain 
future. 

Two pockets of the saltwater crocodile still 
occur, therefore, on mainland India (in Oris- 



sa and West Bengal) together with much re- 
duced populations in the Andaman and Nico- 
bar islands. The latter populations presum- 
ably have had some interchange with those 
in Burma, and in the case of the Nicobars, 
with Sumatra. Similarly, the coastal popula- 
tions were more or less contiguous from 
Burma to Cochin. The present situation is that 
interchange between the Sunderbans and 
Bhitar Kanika populations is now unlikely 
and the Andaman-Nicobar populations are 
discrete from either. 

Reasons for decline 

The likely extinction of the saltwater croco- 
dile will be result of a number of factors some 
operating sequentially and some together. 

1. Commercial hide hunting. Historically 
the reason for the massive depletion in num- 
bers throughout its entire range was commer- 
cial demand for its hide. Reptile leathers have 
long been held in very high esteem. The most 
sought after of the reptilian leathers has al- 
ways been that of crocodiles. The saltwater 
crocodile has an unsurpassed hide among the 
world's twenty-two species of crocodilians. 
This is because, this giant of crocodilians has 
greatly reduced armour, perhaps, as a result 
of its extremely aquatic nature. The hides of 
heavily armoured crocodiles are difficult (ex- 
pensive) to process due to the heavy ossifica- 
tion of the scutes (known as "buttons" in the 
trade) with the result that, in all but small 
individuals, much of the total skin area is un- 
usable. The saltwater crocodile hide is large- 
ly devoid of such problems. 

Furthermore, as pointed out by Neill (1971) 
the large average size, as well as the reduced 
armour, assures the hide-hunter of a hand- 
some profit. Neill stressed: "Man is the great- 



204 



CONSERVATION OF THE SALTWATER CROCODILE 



est enemy of the estuarine crocodile and the 
species is rapidly being exterminated." 

The coastal mangrove-fringed tidal swamps 
and associated river systems favoured by this 
species, are in general inhospitable to man 
and in most parts of the world people for- 
merly entered this ecosystem only to hunt the 
saltwater crocodile. Tt is important to realise 
that enormous sums of money were made by 
certain individuals. The senior author per- 
sonally knows of one shooter who claimed to 
have shot over 40,000 crocodiles in North 
Queensland and in Papua New Guinea pro- 
bably more than half belonging to this species. 

Although the saltwater crocodile now enjoys 
legal protection in at least some parts of its 
range (e.g. India, Australia) prevention of 
poaching requires effective enforcement in the 
field and any sustained level of poaching 
could wipe out the small remnants of the for- 
mer large populations which survive today. 
This threat is still very much alive. 

Commercial hunting for the hide took place 
in India, as elsewhere, resulting in an equally 
massive depletion of the population. 

2. Loss of habitat. The phase of massive 
depletion in crocodile populations is now past, 
but the threat to the species' future survival 
has intensified not decreased. This is because 
the very habitat of the species is now threat- 
ened by land reclamation /drainage of swamps 
and clearing of mangroves. Throughout most 
of its geographical distribution the species is 
closely tied to the mangrove ecosystem. With 
the threatened loss of this whole ecosystem 
the saltwater crocodile will have lost its habi- 
tat. The threat now is to the very vulnerable 
survivors — vulnerable because their numbers 
have shrunk so drastically as a result of the 
hunting phase, and with this their average 
size, threatened because the habitat is con- 
tracting rapidly — nowhere more so than in 



India. 

Habitat destruction in India has been very 
much worse than the mean situation else- 
where in the geographic range. This, in part, 
reflects the massive depletion of India's forests 
in the last three decades, as a result of the 
ever increasing timber requirements for fuel 
and house construction of the rapidly expand- 
ing population. The mangroves have not been 
immune from this, and indeed, have proved 
most vulnerable. This is because: 

a. mangrove forests are not considered to 
be valuable in economic timber terms in 
India, and, therefore, have a low pro- 
tection and management- priority with 
the State Forest Departments, 

b. the alluvial soil built up by the mangrove 
ecosystem is extremely fertile, and when 
reclaimed high quality cultivation land 
is obtained, and 

c. the ecological significance of the man- 
groves — as a barrier to cyclone damage, 
beach erosion and as a natural spawn- 
ing/nursery ground for many species of 
marine fish, prawns and crabs has not 
been properly appreciated. So the loss 
of India's mangroves continues today. 

3. Animosity. Crocodiles suffer from a 
low level of public esteem. The saltwater cro- 
codile, because of its very large size, and its 
existence in a habitat which is itself frighten- 
ing to man, is greatly feared. There have also 
been instances of attacks on humans, mostly 
by nest-guarding females (Bustard & Chou- 
dhury, in press). These, greatly exaggerated, 
have helped to turn the hand of man firmly 
against the species. There was no legislation 
to protect the species anywhere in its world- 
wide range until the massive depletion had 
already occurred. 

4. Use as food. The saltwater crocodile is 
hunted as food in various parts of its range. 



205 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



This subsistence hunting, when not associated 
with commercial hide-hunting, is not usually 
dangerous to the population and has existed as 
part of the species' ecology since time imme- 
morial. The natural increase of the population 
is well able to cope up with such losses in the 
absence of commercial hide-hunting provided 
there is not an explosion in the population of 
the hunters. 

There is little eating of cocodile meat in 
India, apart from some tribal groups, how- 
ever, the eggs are widely eaten. These are a 
good source of nourishment, particularly 
valuable where hens' eggs are rare or expen- 
sive — as in the Andamans. 

5. Medicinal uses. In India, there have 
been additional, subtle pressures on the spe- 
cies not found in many parts of its non-Indian 
range. These include medicinal demand for 
parts of the crocodile and/or its eggs. The 
liver, spleen and particularly the gall bladder 
and also the fat of the crocodile, arc highly 
esteemed medicinally. The gall bladder is be- 
lieved to cure eye diseases such as cataract, 
the liver and spleen bronchitis, and the fat to 
be remedial for rheumatism. In some areas 
the eggs are also believed to have medicinal 
value resulting in enhanced egg hunting 
(Choudhury & Bustard, in press). 

Conservation Programmes 

The first conservation programme for the 
saltwater crocodile started in Papua New 
Guinea following Bustard's Report to Govern- 
ment in 1967 (Bustard 1967, 1969). This has 
now grown into a large-scale project, tied in to 
the commercial economy of the swamplands. 
This Project, now receiving assistance from 
UNDP/FAO, will have major conservation 
impact if it succeeds in combining the conser- 
vation of saltwater crocodiles with successful 
village farming as proposed by Bustard. 



In Australia, the first legislation to protect 
the saltwater crocodile was gazetted by the 
Government of Western Australia in 1971 as 
a result of Bustard's (1970) report on the 
status of the species in the State. Western 
Australia also gazetted the first sanctuary any- 
where in the world specifically for the salt- 
water crocodile in 1971. Meanwhile, conser- 
vation studies aimed at commercial production 
of skins, and a sound conservation program- 
me by tribal aborigines were commenced by 
Bustard at Edward River, Cape York, North 
Queensland, Australia. This work continues 
on a small pilot research basis but has not 
reached the commercial phase of Papua New 
Guinea. Bustard's highlighting of the conser- 
vation status of the saltwater crocodile in 
Australia (see earlier references) has resulted 
in very extensive studies on the species by 
Messel's group (Messel et al. 1977, 1978), 
which are bound to have a useful impact on 
its conservation at least within Australia. 

In India the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 
1972, which listed the saltwater crocodile to- 
gether with India's two other species of cro- 
codilians in Schedule I (fully protected at all 
times) was a most significant step. This legal- 
ly banned all crocodile hunting in India. 
Similarly, Export Instruction No. 46/73 for- 
bade the export of crocodiles and gharial, 
their hides or products therefrom. This Gov- 
ernment of India Act was taken up by all 
States in India. Enforcement of the Act be- 
came a problem and has been overcome with 
varying degrees of success. The initiation of 
even a small-scale project on the species has 
enormous conservation effect, since the pre- 
sence of even a very few dedicated workers 
in India has been found to be an effective de- 
terrent to poaching. 

The present conservation status of the spe- 
cies is presented below on a State by State 



206 



Plate I 



Bustard & Choudhury: Saltwater Crocodile 




Above: Large male Saltwater Crocodile (over 6.5 m) in one of the typical basking 
situations in the Bhitar Kanika Wild Life Sanctuary, Orissa. Such large individuals 
are extremely rare in most of the species' distributional range today. 
Below. A typical 'blank' (Siddhu 1963) in the mangroves of Coringa Reserve Forest 
(now Coringa Wild Life Sanctuary), Godavari delta, Andhra Pradesh. These result 
from clear felling in the past and show little/no mangrove regeneration. 



J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 77 

Bustard & Choudhury: Saltwater Crocodile 



Plate II 




Above: Spoor marks of a large male Saltwater Crocodile (over 5 m) the hind foot 
impressions are seen on the left and on the right the massive rut left by the tail. 
The hind foot impressions, from which total length was established, measured 40-45 cm. 
Below. Preferred basking area of a 3.5-4 m Saltwater Crocodile. The many foot im- 
prints and the semi-circular slide mark should be noted. At high tide this individual 
will be basking in the grass like the male shown in Plate I. 



CONSERVATION OF THE SALTWATER CROCODILE 



basis. 

1. Orissa. The entire remaining man- 
grove forests of the Brahmini-Baitarani delta, 
known as Bhitar Kanika, and comprising 176 
sq. km, was declared a sanctuary in May 1975. 
In the same month, fishing was banned with- 
in the sanctuary. This latter action was essen- 
tial as all poaching activity was carried out 
by people from inter-state visiting the area 
under the pretext of fishing. Furthermore, cro- 
codiles readily become entangled in fishing 
nets and drown or are clubbed to death. Clear- 
felling had been practised on an extremely 
short rotation cycle and was threatening the 
very future of the mangrove forests. Subse- 
quently (1976) the State Government of Oris- 
sa completely ceased mangrove felling ope- 
rations in the entire sanctuary area. 

The sanctuary area comprises part of the 
ex-zamindari lands of former Raja of Kanika. 
Rajasaheb Kanika has long been extremely 
interested in saltwater crocodiles and is very 
knowledgeable about them. Although he al- 
lowed hunting under licence, this was organis- 
ed so that the species would be preserved. 
The massive depletion in numbers took place 
later in the 1950's and early sixties. At the 
end of 1976 the census carried out by Mr S. 
Kar, Research Scholar working on saltwater 
crocodile under the senior author through 
the State Forest Department Crocodile Pro- 
ject, gave a total of thirty-five adults and only 
six in the age classes about to recruit to the 
breeding population. It is interesting that fol- 
lowing twenty months of conservation-re- 
search-management of the area there were 61 
young crocodiles between 1-1.4 m — hatchlings 
of the 1974 season. (Kar and Bustard, in 
press). This contrasts markedly with the situa- 
tion facing the young of the previous year 
(1973), which by late 1975, had "virtually all 
disappeared, presumbaly as a result of poach- 



ing activities prior to the declaration of the 
sanctuary" (FAO 1975). Clearly, the greatly 
enhanced survival observed at the end of 1976 
is a result of the ban on fishing and the pro- 
tection afforded to the sanctuary area. 

The Orissa Project, following the "rear and 
release" technique described in FAO (1974), 
proposes to increase the breeding population 
to several 100 adult individuals and, there- 
after, to manage the population at around 
this optimal level. This is being done by col- 
lecting all available natural nests as soon after 
egg laying as practical for safe hatching in- 
cubation and subsequent rearing of young to 
a release size of 1 metre. First releases back 
into the wild took place in 1977 (15 animals). 
And this, combined with the excellent survival 
of juveniles in the wild described above, 
boosted the potentially recruiting segment of 
the population over twelve times. This is an 
excellent illustration of the ease with which 
a population can begin to recover, if afforded 
stringent protection. The 1978 release (of 80 
crocodiles) has boosted the recruiting segment 
over 25 times, since 1975. 4 The conservation 
programme will ensure that these released 
crocodiles have every opportunity to recruit 
to the breeding cohort of the population with- 
out the risk of being killed by poachers. The 
definitely recorded survival of the 1977 re- 
leases was 80 per cent after two full years 
had elapsed (it may, of course, have been 
even higher). 

2. West Bengal. A project for the salt- 
water crocodile was taken up by the State 
Forest Department in Sunderbans in 1976. 
One nest was collected from the wild for cap- 
tive incubation and rearing of young. Excel- 
lent survival was obtained and the immature 
crocodiles will be released during winter 

* A further thirty were released in January 1980. 



207 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY. Vol. 77 



1978/ 79. 3 Sunderbans is the largest mangrove 
area in the world. A large part of it is in 
Bangladesh but the Indian portion extends to 
200,000 hectares (Blasco 1977). A portion of 
this is already included in the State Project 
Tiger Reserve, protection should be good and 
the potential for the saltwater crocodile ex- 
cellent. 

3. Andhra Pradesh. The major remain- 
ing mangrove area in the State, Coringa Re- 
serve Forest, in the Godavari delta, was de- 
clared a sanctuary (Coringa Wild Life San- 
ctuary) in July 1978 with the aim of rehabi- 
litating the saltwater crocodile, extinct in 
Andhra Pradesh. This is being done by egg 
collection in the Andaman Islands and captive 
rearing at Hyderabad in order to build a stock 
of the species. Three 1.2 m crocodiles hatched 
from eggs collected from the Andamans, were 
released into this area in March 1978. Further 
releases are planned. 

4. Tamil Tadu. The sole remaining man- 
grove area is Pitchavaram in the Cauvery 
delta. This area has been suggested as a re- 
habilitation site for the saltwater crocodile in 
Tamil Nadu. However, the area is extensively 
fished and it may not be possible to recon- 
cile the conflicting requirement of crocodile 
and fishermen. 

5. Andaman and Nicobar islands. Vir- 
tually nothing is known about the quantitative 
status of the saltwater crocodile in this Union 
Territory. Chaterjec (1977) noted that the 
saltwater crocodile; "is widely distributed and 
is found in almost all the islands of the Anda- 
man and Nicobar groups. Unrestricted per- 
secution of these animals by local people in 
the past has greatly reduced their numbers. 
Much destruction is also caused by collecting 

0 Forty 1976 hatchlings were released in May, 
1979. 



their eggs whereby the entire brood is wiped 
out. The slaughter of these animals has been 
greatly reduced since the implementation of 
the Wildlife (Protection) Act." 

Whitaker and Whitaker (1978) highlighted 
the need to carry out detailed surveys to de- 
termine the crocodile population and current- 
ly available habitat, a conclusion with which 
we concur. They also advocated better en- 
forcement of protection by posting adequate 
field staff. 

The Government of India Crocodile Pro- 
ject has been interested to extend conservation 
work to the Andamans and to have the An- 
daman Forest Department as a full member 
of the Project by initiating a Government of 
India-assisted Crocodile Project in the Terri- 
tory. 

The Andaman Forest Department has al- 
lowed the Project to collect eggs since 1976. 
However, due to logistic difficulties, it was 
not possible to undertake a full egg collection 
until 1978 when this was carried out by the 
Andhra Pradesh State Project by one of us 
(Bustard & Choudhury in press). In 1979, the 
Andamans Forest Department started their 
own project with the construction of a holding 
capacity and the collection of eggs. 

Immediate problems facing the species 
in India 

1. Habitat loss. Doubts about the con- 
tinued survival of the mangrove habitat, both 
on the mainland and in the Andamans, gives 
rise to serious concern for even the medium- 
term future of the saltwater crocodile. The 
model rehabilitation programme being operat- 
ed by the Orissa Forest Department at the 
Saltwater Crocodile Research and Conserva- 
tion Centre at Dangmal, within the Bhitar 
Kanika Wildlife Sanctuary declared for the 



208 



CONSERVATION OF THE SALTWATER CROCODILE 



species under the Project, will be of no avail 
unless the habitat can be effectively protected 
against encroachment. This problem is politi- 
cal and applies equally to other projects under 
initiation or planned. 

2. Large-scale egg robbing in Andamans. 
Choudhury &. Bustard (1980) have indi- 
cated the very high level of nest predation 
by settlers (84%) on North Andaman. They 
also noted five instances (if nest-guarding 
females being killed at the nest during the 
1978 nesting season. This represents a loss of 
17% of the nesting females in a singie season. 
Clearly under such a regime, in a species 
which does not commence breeding until it is 
at least 10 years old, the population will soon 
become extinct. This could be effectively slop- 
ped by extending the Government of India 
Crocodile Project to the Territory. 

Need for new incentives if the species is 
to survive 

Now that India has adopted suitable legis- 
lation—the Wild Life (Protection) Act. 1972 
— it is necessary as a second step to see that 
it is fully implemented. Bustard (1969 c), in 
a world-wide review on problems of crocodile 
conservation, wrote; "Few Governments have 
suitable conservation legislation for crocodiles. 
Where legislation does exist no attempt is be- 
ing made to enforce it." This legislation should 
be complemented by the creation of good 
National Parks or Sanctuaries for crocodiles. 
It should be noted that, as pointed out by 
Bustard (1971), National Parks and other 
categories of refuges are not, and can never 
be, any more than tools in crocodile conser- 
vation. Bustard (1971) concluded that the 
creation of National Parks as an act in isola- 
tion would be of little help to crocodile con- 
servation. 

The third step in India is to ensure that the 



National Park and sanctuary areas are in- 
violate — both against legal and illegal en- 
croachment and all kinds of poaching activity. 
This requires active co-ordination at the Cen- 
tral level and staffing by a cadre of motivated 
and specially trained protection staff. 

The various saltwater crocodile habitats in 
India are discussed below in the light of the 
requirements set out above. 

Orissa 

1 . Ten per cent of the sanctuary area was 
reportedly encroached during the year 
1977 '78 (de Waard 1978). The ex- 
zamindari forests which comprise the 
sanctuary have to be clearly demarcated 
to prevent encroachment. 

2. The many villages within the sanctuary 
have to be carefully demarcated to pre- 
vent encroachment, which will otherwise 
obviously take place increasingly with 
population growth. 

3. Adequate supplies of timber for fuel pur- 
poses will have to be maintained at a 
number of conveniently located timber 
depots within and around the sanctuary 
(Kanungo 1976). 

4. Protective staff will, of course, have to be 
maintained as an effective deterrent to 
poaching activities. 

5. The research husbandry unit will have 
to provide continuously updated figures 
on the status and break-up of the croco- 
dile population within the sanctuary, so 
that proper assessment of the perform- 
ance can be made and future require- 
ments planned on a sound scientific 
management basis. 

6. In order to retain the co-operation of the 
local people, so essential for a project of 
this kind, the crocodile management pro- 
gramme should result in real material 



200 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



benefit to the people. This would be pos- 
sible by tying conservation in the sanc- 
tuary to commercial crocodile farming at 
the village level. 
7. Putting such an economic price tag on 
the sanctuary may be the most effective 
method for ensuring its future integrity. 

West Bengal 

There is need for the crocodile project in 
West Bengal to gather momentum. Otherwise 
there are at present no measures specific to 
this area which require implementation. It 
will, of course, be essential to completely ban 
fishing in the crocodile rehabilitation sanctu- 
ary areas. 

Andhra Pradesh 

1. The recently declared sanctuary will have 
to be staffed and become operational. 

2. If the sanctuary is to be of any use, fish- 
ing will have to be banned throughout 
the entire sanctuary as was done in the 
Bhitar Kanika Saltwater Crocodile Sanc- 
tuary, Orissa, immediately following de- 
claration. 

3. Felling of mangroves has ceased in the 
sanctuary. This action must be maintain- 
ed for the following reasons: 

a. the mangroves are not regenerating 
well following clear-felling on a 
twenty year rotation cycle. Even cur- 
sory examination shows that in many 
areas there will not be a further crop 
after twenty years. 

b. furthermore, the clear-felling practice 
used in mangrove areas encourages 
encroachments — there is a strong ten- 
dency for people to move into the 
felled areas and take up cultivation. 

r. finally, the amount of disturbance 
caused by clear-felling is quite incon- 



sistent with a small sanctuary like this. 
4. Proper protection should be given to the 
total land area of the sanctuary so that 
the mammal fauna — especially the ungu- 
lates — can recover. These form an im- 
portant part of the diet of adult saltwater 
crocodiles, and as in the case of tiger, 
healthy populations of deer and wild pigs 
are the best guarantee against predation 
on domestic stock. In the Bhitar Kanika 
Wildlife Sanctuary the chital herds have 
responded excellently to the protection 
and wild pigs have increased to such an 
extent as to become a nuisance on ad- 
jacent agricultural lands. 

Tamil Nadu 

Before a rehabilitation programme could be 
taken up in the Cauvery delta mangrove, it 
would be essential to ascertain that it would 
be possible to completely prohibit fishing 
throughout the proposed sanctuary area. This 
matter is under investigation. 

The Andaman and Nicobar islands 

1 . A crocodile project should be taken up in 
this Union Territory under the Govern- 
ment of India Project, Crocodile Breed- 
ing and Management, receiving technical 
assistance from FAO/UNDP. 

2. In order to implement such a project it 
will be essential to strengthen the Wild- 
life Wing of the Andamans Forest De- 
partment. The sequential tasks of the 
Project would be: 

a. to carry out surveys of the Andaman- 
Nicobar Group in order to establish 
the location of the best remaining salt- 
water crocodile populations and relate 
these to areas where the creation of 
sanctuaries will be feasible. 

h. lo take up conservation /husbandry 



210 



J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 77 

Bustard & Choudhury: Saltwater Crocodile 



Plate III 




Above: Felling of mangroves for fuel-wood and house construction. 

Below. Clearing for cultivation along the sweet-water creeks used for nesting by the 

Saltwater Crocodile. Note the bamboo fencing erected to keep out ungulates. 



J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 77 

Bustard & Choudhury: Saltwater Crocodile 



Plate IV 




CONSERVATION OF THE SALTWATER CROCODILE 



work within the sanctuaries as they 
are gazetted. 
c. to assist the Wildlife Wing of the 
Andamans Forest Department in re- 
ducing nest-robbing and other poach- 
ing activities. 
3. It is urgent to locate and gazette suitable 
sanctuary areas prior to increased settle- 
ment. 

Master plan for the future 

The master plan for the future combines 
the creation, management, and operation of a 
net-work of specially gazetted sanctuaries/ 
National Parks with the creation of a cadre 
of highly trained and motivated wildlife staff. 
Commercial utilisation is seen as an important 
tool in the crocodiles' conservation. 

A. Sanctuaries 

MAINLAND 

1 . The future integrity of the Bhitar Kanika 
Sanctuary must be guaranteed. 
The Bhitar Kanika population of saltwater 
crocodile is remarkable in still having quite 
a number of very large individuals in the 
population. In most of the species range these 
large individuals were wiped out many de- 
cades ago. Ninty-three per cent of the adults 
in this sanctuary measure more than 3.5 m 
and ten per cent exceed 6 m (Kar & Bustard, 
in press). The sanctuary also has the distinc- 
tion of being the habitat of the largest croco- 
dile of any species in the world known to 
scient (Daniel and Hussain 1974, Bustard in 
press, c) . Bustard, on the basis of measurement 
of the intact skull, estimated this crocodile to 
be 7.35 m. 

In view of this, and the excellent conser- 
vation management programme being operat- 
ed by the Wildlife Wing of the Orissa Forest 



Department it is essential that this population 
be preserved for posterity. The threat to the 
population arises from the threat to the sanc- 
tuary itself. To ensure the survival of this 
unique population of a critically endangered 
species, Government of India should assume 
responsibility for the territorial integrity of 
the sanctuary. This might best be achieved by 
making the sanctuary a National sanctuary as 
has been done in case of the gharial (Gavia- 
lis gangeticus) in a tri-state sanctuary (U.P., 
M.P. and Rajasthan) on Chambal river. 

The size of adults of the Bhitar Kanika 
population is very much larger than the popu- 
lation studied on North Andaman (Chou- 
dhury & Bustard 1980). Discussion with a 
number of crocodile hunters, on the basis of 
large samples killed a decade or more ago, 
confirms that the Bhitar Kanika population 
even then consisted of very much larger cro- 
codiles than those of North and Middle 
Andamans. 

In any conservation programme for the 
saltwater crocodile in Tndia the Bhitar Kanika 
sanctuary will be a lynch-pin. This is because 
this is the only scheme for the saltwater cro- 
codile in India which has been fully imple- 
mented. It will still be essential to ensure the 
territoial integrity of this area even if the 
embryonic scheme in Sunderbans becomes a 
success. This is in part because it is most 
unwise to place total reliance for a species 
survival on the animals within one single sanc- 
tuary. 

2. A viable population of saltwater croco- 
diles, should be built up in Sunderbans 
within the Project tiger reserve where 
they can be assured of good protection. 

ANDAMAN \ND NICOBAR ISLANDS 

The importance of the Andamans for the 
saltwater crocodile lies in the following con- 



211 



JOURNAL. BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY. Vol. 77 



siderations: 

a. there may still be good populations in 
less accessible areas of the Group 

/». if these areas are located quickly it 
should be possible to gazette sanctuaries 
in virgin mangrove forests, prior to en- 
croachment. Clearly, it is much easier 
to manage a sanctuary without human 
settlement within it 

c. the Andamans is the home of the most 
isolated population of saltwater croco- 
diles in the Indian region. North Anda- 
man lies at a distance of 896 km south- 
east of the mouth of the Hoogly and 
J300 km East of the nearest area of the 
mainland. In the case of the Andamans, 
urgent action is essential because of 
rapid rate of settlement and consequent 
encroachment. It is important to gazette 
at least one large sanctuary and prefer- 
ably two, for the species in this Union 
Territory. 

B. Commercial Utilisation 

The saltwater crocodile is an ideal species 
for economic management. Exploitation, pro- 
vided it is on sustained yield basis or from 
farms in which all products are produced 
from eggs laid in the farm, in no way con- 
flicts with conservation. On the contrary this 
can provide an important tool for the con- 
servation of the species resulting in a good 
level of management in the sanctuaries. If the 
sanctuaries and associate rearing farms can 
give good revenue to government then the 
integrity of the sanctuary areas is assured and 
with that the saltwater crocodile. 

C. Staff training 

The Government of India Project, Croco- 
dile Breeding and Managment, under techni- 
cal assistance from RAO TIN DP. has establish- 



ed a Central Institute — the Crocodile Breeding 
and Management Training Institute — charged 
with the training of Forest Department per- 
sonnel. The training programme covers not 
only all aspects of crocodile husbandry and 
management but also sanctuary and wildlife 
management. This Institute was created be- 
cause of the obvious need for a cadre of well- 
trained management personnel without which 
even the best planned sanctuary programme 
of government could not hope to succeed. 

The senior author has also been providing 
highly technical training of seven Ph.D Re- 
search Scholars recruited at post-M.Sc. level. 
Their contribution to the Project has been 
substantial and the junior author of this paper 
is one of them. 

Species World-wide Survival prospects 

Neill (1971) concluded his account on this 
species with these words: "In the 1950's and 
1960's with the price of crocodilian leather 
skyrocketing, hundreds of thousands of estu- 
arine crocodiles, were killed annually and its 
disappearance from all parts of its ranges is 
to be expected within a very few years." 

It is our task to ensure that this gloomy 
prognosis does not prove accurate — at least 
for India. Neill considers that probably all 
the living crocodilians are doomed to extinc- 
tion. The Crocodile Breeding and Manage- 
ment Project of the Government of India has 
shown that this need not be the case. The 
gharial is well on the way to being saved and 
if proper decisions are taken now the salt- 
water crocodile can look forward to a secure 
future within India, even if it is doomed to 
extinction throughout most of its range. 

Major Recommendations 

The following recommendations arc sug- 



212 



CONSERVATION OF THE SALTWATER CROCODILE 



gested in order to implement the proposed 
Master Plan: 

1 . Bhitar Kanika Sanctuary, Orissa should 
become a National sanctuary ( 100 per 
cent Central funding for both capital and 
recurrent costs). 

2. The Government of India, FAO/UNDP 
assisted Project, Crocodile Breeding and 
Management should be extended to the 
Union Territory of the Andaman and 
Nicobar Islands v/ith immediate effect. 
Once again this will have to be on the 
basis of 100 per cent Central financing. 
The reason a scheme has not been initiat- 
ed already is lack of staff in the Wildlife 
Wing of the Andamans Forest Depart- 
ment. This Department faces special diffi- 
culties not being a service department. 

3. Every effort should be made by the Gov- 



ernment of India Project to encourage 
State schemes (under the Central assist- 
ance programmes to National Parks and 
Sanctuaries) in order to rehabilitate the 
saltwater crocodile elsewhere. It may not 
now be possible to do anything in Kerala, 
but Andhra Pradesh should be encourag- 
ed and possibilities in Tamil Nadu should 
be investigated. 

Acknowledgements 

Both of us acknowledge the co-operation of 
our respective organisations — The Food and 
Agriculture Organisation of the United 
Nations and the Andhra Pradesh State Forest 
Department — and assistance from the Orissa 
Forest Department, especially, Mr. Sudhakar 
Kar, and the Andamans Forest Department. 



References 



Annon. (1931): Census report for Andaman & 
Nicobar Islands. Govt, of India. New Delhi. 

Biddulph, C. H. (1936): A Mugger (Crocodylus 
porosus) with a broken jaw. /. Bombay nat. Hisi. 
Soc. 29 (2): 421. 

Blasco, F. (1977): Outlines of Ecology. Botany 
and Forestry of the Mangals of the Indian Sub- 
continent. In Ecosystems of the World. J. Wet 
Coastal Ecosystems. V. J. Chapman (Ed.) Elsevier 
Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam. 

Bustard, H. R. (1967): Report on the Crocodile 
Skin Trade in the Territory of Papua and New 
Guinea with Recommendations for the Future De- 
velopment of the Industry. Unpublished confidential 
report to Minister. 

(1969a): The Future of Austra- 
lian Crocodiles. Wildlife of Australia. 6 (2): 40-43. 

(1969b): A Future for Crocodiles. 

Oryx 10 (4): 249-255. 

(1969c): Crocodilians of the 

World — Summary of the present position. W.W.E. 
Yearbook. Morges. Switzerland. 



(1970): Report on the current 

status of crocodiles in Western Australia. Dept. 
Fish Fauna. West. Aust. Rept. No. 6. 

(1971): National Parks. Refuges, 

etc. as tools in Crocodile Conservation. /;/ Croco- 
diles. I.U.C.N. Publ. N. S. Suppl. Pap. No. 32: 
145-8. 

(1978): Crocodile Population Eco- 
logy and Management. Zool. Surv. hid. Symp. 
Anim. Ecol. 

(in press, a): General Status of 

Crocodilians in India. In Indian Crocodiles — Con- 
servation & Research. Occ. Publ. 1 : Cent. Croc. 
Br. Mgt. Trg. Inst. Hyderabad. India. 

(7/7 press, b) : The Saltwater Cro- 
codile Conservation Programme in India. In Indian 
Crocodiles — Conservation & Research. Occ. Publ. 
/. Cent. Croc. Br. Mgt. Trg. Inst. Hyderabad. 
India. 

(in press, c) : Record size salt- 
water crocodile (Crocodylus porosus, Schneider). 
Orissa. India. Br. J. Herpet. 



213 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



& Choudhury, IB. C. {in press) : 

Parental care in the Saltwater Crocodile {Crocody- 
lus porosus, Schneider). //; Indian Crocodiles — Con- 
servation & Research. Occ. Publ. J. Cent. Croc. 
Br. Mgt. Trg. Inst. Hyderabad. India. 

Chaterjee, S. K. (1977): Wildlife in the Anda- 
man and Nicobar Islands. Tigerpaper. 4 (1): 2-5. 
FAO. Bangkok. 

Choudhury, B. C. {in press) : Status, Conserva- 
tion and Future of Saltwater Crocodile in North 
Andaman Island. In Indian Crocodiles — Conserva- 
tion & Research. Occ. Publ. 1. Cent. Croc. Br. Mgt. 
Trg. Inst. Hyderabad. India. 

& Bustard, H. R. (1980): Pre- 

dation on natural nests of the Saltwater Crocodile 
{Crocodylus porosus, Schneider) on North Anda- 
man Island with notes on the crocodile populations. 
J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 76(2): 311-323. 

Daniel, J. C. & Hussain, S. A. (1974): The 
record (?) Saltwater Crocodile {Crocodylus poro- 
sus Schneider). /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 71 (2): 
309-12. 

Deraniyagala, P. E. P. (1939): The Tetrapod 
Reptiles of Ceylon. 7. Testudinates and crocodilians. 
Colombo Museum. Ceylon. 

FAO (1974) : India. A preliminary Survey of the 
Prospects of Crocodile Farming (based on the work 
of H. R. Bustard) FAO. Rome (FO:IND/71/ 
033) Oct. 1974. 

• (1975): India. Gharial and Croco- 
dile Conservation Management in Orissa (based on 
the work of H. R. Bustard) FAO. Rome (FO: 
IND/71/033) Dec. 1975. 

Gunther, A. C. L. G. (1864) : The Reptiles of 
British India. Roy. Soc. London. 



Hon eggar, R. E. (1975) (Ed.): Red Data Book 
3. Amphibia and Reptilia. IUCN Morges. Switzer- 
land. 

Kanungo, B. C. (1976): An Integrated Scheme 
for Conservation of Crocodiles in Orissa with 
Management Plan for Satkosia Gorge and Bhitar 
Kanika Sanctuaries. Forest Dept. Cuttack. Orissa. 
India. 

Kar, S. & Bustard H. R. {in press) : The Salt- 
water Crocodile {Crocodylus porosus, Schneider) 
Population of Bhitar Kanika Sanctuary. Orissa. 
India. In Indian Crocodiles — Conservation & Re- 
search. Occ. Publ. 1. Cent. Croc. Br. Mgt. Trg. Inst. 
Hyderabad. India. 

Messel, H., Burbidge, A. A., Wells, A. G. & 
Green, W. J. (1977): The status of the Saltwater 
Crocodile in some River Systems of the North- 
West Kimberly, Western Australia. Rept. No. 24. 
Dept. of Fish. & Wildlife. West. Australia. 

— , Wells, A. G. & Green, W. J. 

(1978): Status of Crocodylus porosus in tidal River 
Systems of Northern Australia. Fourth Working 
Meeting. IUCN Crocodile Specialist Group. Mad- 
ras. India. 

Neill, W. T. (1971): The Last of Ruling Rep- 
tiles. Columbia Univ. Press. New York. 

Waard, J. M. de (1975): India. Economic Poten- 
tial of Gharial and Saltwater Crocodile Schemes in 
Orissa with Notes on the Sea Turtle Industry. FAO. 
Rome (FO:IND/71/033). 

Whitaker, R. & Whitaker, Z. (1978) : A pre- 
liminary Survey of the Saltwater Crocodile {Croco- 
dylus porosus) in the Andaman Islands. /. Bombay, 
nat. Hist. Soc. 75 (1) : 43-49. 



214 



FRESHWATER SNAILS OF GWALIOR (M.P.) 



H. C. GOEL 2 AND 

{With nine text- 

Introduction 

With few exceptions molluscs serve as the 
only or as one of the intermediate hosts of 
digenetic trematodes and thereby acquire a 
significant importance from the point of view 
of public and veterinary health. While work- 
ing on the secondary host of schistosomiasis it 
was deemed necessary to study the freshwater 
snail fauna of Gwalior city and its neighbour- 
hood. 

Few references are available on the occur- 
rence of freshwater snails of various places in 
India [Annandale et al. 1921 (a); Annandale 
& Srinivas Rao 1925; Tonapi & Mulherkar 
1963; Annandale et al. 1921 (b)] but no record 
is available about the commonly occurring 
snails of Gwalior. The present paper is a brief 
account of various aquatic snails together with 
their habitat and a list of trematode larvae 
parasitising these snails in India (Table 1). 

Materials and methods 

The specimens were collected regularly once 
a fortnight from different aquatic habitats with 
the help of various snail collecting devices such 
as long handled kitchen sieve, Dipnet, Drag 
Scoop etc, (Anon. 1965) from various places 

1 Accepted August 1978. 

2 , Institute of Nuclear Medicine & Allied Sciences, 
Probyn Road, Delhi-110 007. 

3 Defence Research & Development Establishment. 
Gwalior-2. 



C. P. Srivastava 3 
figures & a map) 

in and around Gwalior city as shown in the 
Map. The specimens were brought to the 
laboratory and kept under observation to find 
out the release of trematode larvae so as to 
confirm them as positive vectors. 

The snails were then preserved in seventy 
per cent alcohol and were identified in con- 
sultation with Zoological Survey of India, Cal- 
cutta. The collections were made at different 
sites uniformly in terms of man-hours. This 
gave a fairly good idea about the relative oc- 
currence of various snails species. 

Measurements of the specimens have been 
taken as per standard expressions (Ward & 
Whipple 1918, Barth 1958). 

All measurements given here (Table 2) re- 
present the commonly available size of the 
adult members of the species. The place of oc- 
currence of different snail species has been ex- 
pressed by number in Table 2 and has been 
correspondingly shown on the map 

Family: Viviparidae 

Vivipaia bengalensis f. typica (Lamarck) 
There are 5\ to 6\ rather inflated whorls 
with well marked suture. Shell ovate, sharply 
acuminate with a mouth angularly pointed 
above and rounded below. Umbilicus narrow- 
ly perforate. Outer lip almost semi-circular 
joining columellar margin by thin glassy de- 
posit. Shell sculpture of fine longitudinal ridges 
forming fine irregular ribs or varias on the 
body whorl. 
Colour olive green with alternating and 



215 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 




216 



FRESHWATER SNAILS OF GWALIOR (M.P.) 



Table 1 

Snail hosts and their trematode parasites 





Snail 




Parasite 


1. 


lndoplanorbis exustus 


i) 


Schistosoma indicum 




ii) 


S. nasate 








Cerecaria anuri n. sp. 






iv) 


C. sppericauda n. sp. 






v) 


C. Kotal n. sp. 






vi) 


C. rajai n. sp. 






vii) 


Furcocercous cercariae 






viii) 


Clinostome Group 








(Cercaria develops into the radiae which infest 








the liver of snail). 


2. 


Vivipara bengalensis 


U 


The cercaria resembles to Azygia tereticola, A. 






sehago and A. acuminata 






ii) 


C. shikarii n. sp. 


3. 


Lymnaea luteola 


i) 


Schistosoma incognitum 




iil 


Schistosoma nasalc 






iii) 


Echinostome cercaria & its meta cercaria 






iv) 


Cercaria quadradena 






v) 


Orientolulherzia dattae 






vi) 


Cercariae leotai n. sp., C. rajai n. sp., 








C. mathurenensis n. sp. 


4. 


Lymnaea acuminata 


i) 


Schistosoma nasale 






ii) 


Fascial a gigantica 



Note: — The information is compiled from the following publications: — 



1. Emile A. Malek & Thomas C. Cheng, 1974, Medical & Economic Malacology. Academic Press, New 
York & London pp. 398 

2. Zoological Abstracts Helminthology Vol— II Pt— II 

Section: prepared under the auspices of the Madhya Pradesh Zoological Society, Bhopal. (1973). 



2 



217 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY. Vol. 77 




FRESHWATER SNAILS OF GWAL10R (Af.P.) 




| 



Fig. 1. Vivipara bengalensis f. typica (Lamarck) x - 

narrow dark brown spiral bands. V. bengalen- 
sis is abundant in the fresh water canals or 
ponds etc. throughout Gwalior. Snails remain 
attached to stones etc. on the banks of canal 
or ponds. 

Vivipara dissimiles (Muller) 

This species closely resembles V. bengalen- 
sis but the shell is broader and the body 
whorl marked with prominent spiral ridge that 
subsequently makes the aperture more rhom- 
boidal than V. bengalensis. Sculpture consists 
of close-set, delicate, spiral striae, and oblique 
transpiral growth striae, which are prominent 




Fig. 2. Vivipara dissimilis (Muller) x 3 



and well marked in the peripheral region of 
the body whorl. Umbilicus narrower than in 
Vivipara bengalensis. Shell dirty olive green in 
colour, the interior being dull bluish white 
tint. 

Family Amnicolidae 

Digoniostoma ceranieponia (Benson) 
The species is rare in Gwalior and only two 
specimens could be collected during the Sur- 
vey work from water logged area near Morar 
Dam. It closely resembles young forms of Vi- 
vipara sp. but is comparatively very small in 
size. 




Fig. 3. Digoniostoma ceramcpoina (Benson) x 4. 

There are about 5 rapidly increasing in- 
flated whorls with well marked suture and 
varix. Shell oblong, ovate, and obsoletely 
sculptured, with week growth lines. Umbilicus 
narrow and deep. Shell cinereous, shading to 
yellowish white. Aperture ovate, and a little 
oblique. Operculum, shelly, slightly concave, 
having about seven convolutions. 

Family Mi i.aniidal 

IVlelanoides (Melanoides) tuberculatum 

(Muller) 

Shell elongated with acuminate apex, 
whorls increase gradually from the apex to 



219 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY. Vol. 77 



the mouth, and are moderately convex. Aper- 
ture oval, but narrowed above, and broad be- 
low. Mouth small, considerably less than one 
third the total length of the shell. Sculpture 




Fig. 4. Melanoides tuberculata (Muller) x 3.5. 

of transpiral, tuberculated, ridges with rais- 
ed spiral striae. Body whorl normally devoid 
of transverse tuberculated ridges. Colour of 
the shell dark brown with distinct longitudinal 
wavy reddish marking. Interior of the shell is 
glossy with external marks faintly visible. 

It is found in slow flowing or stagnant 
water. Specimens are found attached to some 
substratum. 

Melanoides (Plotia) scabra (Muller) 

Shell markedly thick with acutely conical 
shape. Whorls have well developed angular 
shoulders provided with spinous projections. 
Aperture small, oval sinuous above and round- 
ed below. Colour variable between pale 
brown to sandy brown with fine reddish tran- 
spiral wavy elegant marks. 

It is found in abundance in slow flowing 




Fig. 5. Melanoides {Plotia) Scabra (Muller) x 3 
water to stagnant water usually attached to 
some substratum or lying free at the bottom. 
Family Lymnaeidae 
Lymnaea (Pseudosuccinea) acuminata f. ru- 
fescens (Gray) 

The length of the suture at the base of the 
spire is not appreciable or is hardly longer 




I __J 

Fig. 6. Lymnaea (Pseudosuccinea) acuminata f. 
rufescens (Gray) x 2.5. 



220 



FRESHWATER SNAILS OF GWALIOR (M.P.) 



than the height of the spire. Anterior margins 
of the mouth of shell broadly rounded, or sub- 
truncate. Outer lip of the shell dilated. 

Shell ovately oblong, smooth, thin, and semi- 
transluscent. Body whorl shortly angular above 
and inflated below the middle. 

Apex pointed, spire short, narrow; aperture 
wide and columellar lip, twisted. Fine, close- 
set, transpiral striations exist on the surface 
of the shell. Colour of shell variable with a 
yellowish brown tinge. The body whorl is 
clearly demonstrated from the spire with an 
abruptly narrowed base. 

The species is frequently available in clear 
water as well as in turbid, muddy water as 
compared to L. luteola. 

Lymnaea (Pseudosuccinea) luteola f. impura 

Troschel 

Spire as a rule about 1/3 as high as the 
shell and consists of 4 to 5 gradually increas- 
ing transverse whorls which are never appre- 
ciably convex. Suture always more or less 
transverse. Length of suture never less than 
the height of the spire. Mouth of shell ovate, 

r— 




i 

I 



Fig. 7. Lymnaea (Pseudosuccinea) luteola f. 
impura Troschel x 3. 



evenly rounded anteriorly gradually narrow- 
ing towards its posterior extremity. The outer 
lip is never so extended or so convex in out- 
line as that of Lymnaea acuminata. The col- 
umellar gallery is thin and broad; opaque 
white in colour. Shell smooth, glossy, with a 
pale yellow horny tinge. Shell sculpture 
consists of close-set fine transpiral striations. 

The snail commonly inhabits clean clear 
water as compared to L. acuminata. 

Family : Pla norbidae 

Gyraulus convexiusculus (Hutton) 
Shell dextral having four to five whorls with 
deep sutures, very much depressed with the 
sunken spire giving the appearance of a flat- 
tened disc. Aperture oblique and lunately oval; 
outer margin smooth and much elevated, um- 
bilicus wide. Surface smooth and pale horny 
in colour, bearing close-set oblique transpiral 
striae. 




Fig. 8. Gyraulus convexiusculus (Hutton) x 5 

G. convexiusculus inhabits clean fresh water 
of stagnant or slow running nature and even 
muddy polluted water. 
Indoplanorbis exustus (Deshayes) 
Shell discoidal, suture deeply impressed but 

221 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



the whorls are convex. Aperture ear shaped, 
when the shell is held with mouth on left. Shell 
sinistral; foot feebly sharp, relatively broad 
and short broadly rounded in front and point- 
ed behind. Shell moderately thick, transpiral- 
ly and finely striated throughout the body. 
Body-whorl has more distinct ridges and um- 
bilicus is wide. Colour varies from locality to 
locality and varies from dull grey brown to 
reddish brown. 




Fig. 9. Tndoplanorbis exustus (Deshayes) x 3. 



This snail is available in slow running water 
or small water bodies commonly available in 
the fields or on sides or road during rainy 
season. Remains attached to submerged stones 
or other objects. 



AC K N O WLEDGE M E N TS 

We wish to express our sincere thanks to 
Shri S. L. Perti, Assistant Director, Vector 
Control Division, Defence Research & Deve- 
lopment Establishment, Gwalior, for his en- 
couragement and guidance and to Dr. S. C. 
Goel, Reader, Dept. of Zoology, University of 
Pune, Pune, for his help in preparing the ma- 
nuscript. Thanks are also due to Director, 
DRDE, Gwalior for interest and to Dr. N. V. 
Subba Rao of Zoological Survey of India, 
Calcutta for identifying the snail species. 



References 



Anonymous (1965): Snail control in the pre- 
vention of Bilharziasis, WHO, Geneva, pp. 255 

Annandale, N., Sewell & Seymour, R. B. 
(1921a): The Banded Pond Snail of India. (Vivi- 
para bengalcnsis) . Records of Indian Museum 22: 
217-278. 

Annandale. N.. Prasad, B. & Amin-uddin 
(1921b): The aquatic and amphibious Mollusca. 
Manipur. Records of Indian Museum. 22: 530. 

A.NNANDAI.E, N. (1922): Material for a generic 
revision of the freshwater Gastropod. Molluscs of 
the Indian Empire No. 5. Indian Planorhidae. Re- 
cords of Indian Museum 24: 357-363. 



Annandale, N. & Rao. S. (1925): Material for 
a revision of the recent Indian Limnaedae (Mollus- 
ca. Pulmonara). Records of the Indian Museum, 
27: 137-190. 

Mandahl Barth. G. (1958): Intermediate hosts 
of Schistosoma (African Biomphalaria and Bulinus). 

WHO Monograph series No. 37 WHO Geneva, pp. 

132. 

Tonapi. G. T. & Mulherkar, L. (1963): On the 
freshwater Molluscs of Poona. /. Bombay nat. 
Hist. Soc. 60 (1): 104-120. 

Ward, H. B. & Whipple, G. C. (1918): Fresh- 
water Biology. Edited by Edmondson W. T. John. 
Wiley and Sons Inc.. USA., pp. 248. 



222 



A CONTRIBUTION OF THE VEGETATION OF CHAIBASA 
(SOUTH), SINGHBHUM DIST. (SOUTH BIHAR) 1 



D. K. Biswas and J. K. Maheswari 2 



Introduction 

Chaibasa situated between 22°5' and 22°35'N 
and 85°20' and 85°55'E is on the southern 
fringe of Chotanagpur plateau and composed 
of steep rocky hills, hillocks and intervening 
valleys, beside same areas which are plain. 
Geologically Chaibasa is one of the most im- 
portant areas in the Singhbhum dist. of Bihar 
because of its mineral deposits. The soil in 
this locality is characteristically of the red soil 
type (Sandy loam to clay) formed on parent 
rocks occurring in these areas. They are acidic 
with pH varying from 5.0 to 6.5. The climate 
of the area is more or less similar to that of 
the district in particular and to Bihar in ge- 
neral with rainfall mostly being confined to 
monsoonic months, i.e. July-September. The 
average annual rainfall is about 142 cm with 
maximum fall during July-August. The hot- 
test months in the year are May-June with 
mean maximum temperature of 43 °C and cold- 
est months are December-January with mini- 
mum temperature of 12°C. 

Enumeration 

In the following enumeration the system of 
Bentham and Hooker with some delimitations 
of families has been followed. Nomenclature 

1 Accepted November 1977. 

2 Botanical Survey of India. Sibpur. How- 
rah-711 103. 



has been, as far as possible, brought up to date. 
It may be noted that the following species 
were collected during the months of June- 
July 1975. The field number mentioned against 
the place of collection is indicative of the 
author's own contribution. The enumerated 
taxa have been deposited in the Central Na- 
tional herbarium, Shibpur, Howrah-3. 

DICOTYLEDONS 

Annonaceae 

Annona squamosa Linn. Biswas 112. 

Miliusa velutina Hook.f and Thorns. 

Biswas 201, 181. 

Papaveraceae 
Argemone mexicana Linn. Biswas 113. 

POLYGAI ACEAE 

Polygala chinensis Linn. Biswas 141, 144. 

DlPTEROCARPACEAE 

Shorea robusta Gaertn. Biswas 182. 

Meliaceae 

Heynea trijuga Roxb. Biswas 171. 

Olacaceae 

Olax scandens Roxb. Biswas 124. 



223 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Celastraceae 
Celastrus paniculata Willd. Biswas 214, 131. 

VlTACEAE 

Ampelocissus lati folia (Roxb.) Planch. Vitis 
lati folia Roxb. Biswas 165. 



Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz. W. floribunda 
Salisb. Biswas 114. 

Onagraceae 

Ludwigia adscendens (L.) Hara. Jussiaea re- 
pens L. Biswas 161. 



Sapindaceae 



Samydaceae 



Schleicher a oleosa (Lour.) Oken, S. trijuga 
Willd. Biswas 163. 



Casearia elliptica Willd. C. 



tomentosa Roxb. 
Biswas 111, 177. 



Anacardiaceae 

Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Biswas 151. 
Spondias pinnata (Linn, f.) Kurz. S. mangifera 
Willd. Biswas 108. 

Papilionaceae 

Crotalaria prostrata Roxb. Biswas 129. 

C. mucronata Desv. C. striata DC. 

Biswas 184. 

Caesalpiniaceae 

Cassia fistula Linn. Biswas 163. 

Delonix regia (Boj) Raf Poinciana regia Boj 
Biswas 118. 

MlMOSACEAE 

Acacia leucophloea Willd. Biswas 131. 

COMBRETACEAE 

Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wt. & Arn. 

Biswas 183, 131. 
T. crenulata Roth T. tomentosa var. crenulata 
Clarke Biswas 189. 

T. hellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Biswas 179. 

Lythraceae 
Lagerstroemia parvi flora Roxb. Biswas 175. 



MOLLUGINACEAE 

Glinus oppositifolius (Linn.) A. DC. Mollugo 
spergula Linn. Biswas 154. 

RlJBIACEAE 

Mitragyna parvi folia (Roxb.) Korth Stephe- 
gyne parvi folia Korth. Biswas 213. 

Oldenlandia paniculata Linn. Biswas 218. 
Pavetta crassicaulis (Bremek.) P. indica auct. 
non Linn. Biswas 137. 

Wendlandia tinctoria DC. Biswas 136. 

Xeromphis spinosa (Thunb.) Keay Randia 
dumetorum Lamk. Biswas 221, 164. 

X. uliginosa (Retz.) Mahesh. Randia uliginosa 
DC Biswas 204. 

Compositae 

Emilia sonchifolia (Linn.) DC. Biswas 156. 
Eclipta prostrata (Linn.) Linn. E. alba (Linn.) 

Hasak. Biswas 130. 

Glossogyne pinnatifida DC. Biswas 139. 

Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. Biswas 196. 

Sapotaceae 

Madhuca indica Gmel. Bassia latifolia Roxb. 

Biswas 102. 



224 



VEGETATION OF CHAIBASA (SOUTH), SINGHBHUM D1ST. 



Ebenaceae 

Diospyros exsculpta Buch.-Ham. D. tomen- 
tosa Roxb. Biswas 219, 176. 

D. cor di folia Roxb. D. montana Clarke 

Biswas 199. 



ACANTHACEAE 



Andrographis paniculata (Burm.) f. Wall, ex 



Nees 

Barleria eristata Linn. 
Ruellia tuberosa Linn. 



Biswas 207. 
Biswas 193. 
Biswas 202. 



Oleaceae 
Jasminum arborescens Roxb. 

Apocynaceae 



Biswas 210. 



Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roth.) A. DC. 

Biswas 126, 171. 
Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum. T. nerii- 
folia Juss. Biswas 110., 

Gentianaceae 

Canscora decussata Roem. and Sch. 

Biswas 155. 



Verbenaceae 

Callicarpa arbor ea Roxb. 
Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene. 
Vitex negundo Linn. 

Labiatae 



Biswas 126. 
Biswas 135. 
Biswas 116. 



Biswas 145. 



Leucas rnollissima Wall. 
Pogostemon benghalense (Burm. f.) Ktze. 

Biswas 206, 147. 

Polygonaceae 

Polygonum barbatum Linn. Biswas 131. 

P. plebejum R. Br. Biswas 115, 192. 



Boraginaceae 

Cordia myxa Linn. Biswas 107. 

Heliotr opium indicum Linn. Biswas 197. 
H. ovalifolium Forsk. Biswas 140. 

CONVOLVULACEAE 

Volvulopsis nummularia (Linn.) Roberty 
Evolvulus nummularius Linn. Biswas 205. 

SOLANACEAE 

Solanum surattense Burm. f. S. xanthocarpum 
Schrad. and Wendl. Biswas 117. 

SCROP H U LARIACEAE 

Lindernia verbenaejolia (Colsm.) Pennell 
Bonnaya veronicaefolia var. verbenaejolia 
Hook. Biswas 160. 



ElJPHORBIACEAE 

Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Phyllanthus embli- 
ca Linn. Biswas 150. 

Jatropha curcas Linn. Biswas 105. 

MONOCOTYLEDONS 

DlOSCOREACEAE 

Dioscorea glabra Roxb. Biswas 182. 

COMMELINACEAE 

Commelina hasskarlii Clarke Biswas 183. 
Cyperaceae 

Cyperus rotundus Linn. Biswas 184. 

C. difformis Linn. Biswas 83. 

Carex indica Linn. Biswas 85. 

Fimbristylis dichotoma (Linn.) Vahl 

Biswas 87. 



225 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



F. junciformis Kunth Biswas 91. 

Fuirena ciliaris (L.) Roxb. syn. F. glomerata 

Lamk. Biswas 88 1 

Scripus articulalus Linn. Biswas 108, 89. 
Scleria levis Retz. syn. 5. hebecarpa Nees ex 

Wight Biswas 2. 

POACEAE 

Dichanthiwn arisiatum (Poir) C. E. Hubb. 

Biswas 1. 

Eragrostis tcnella (Linn.) Beauv. ex Boem. 

and Schult. Biswas 95. 

E. pilosa (L.) Beauv. Biswas 75. 

Heteropogon contortus (L.) Beauv. 

Biswas 96. 

Imperata cylinclrica (L.) Beauv. var. major 



(Nees) Hubb. ex Hubb. and Vaughan 

Biswas 79. 

Phragmites karka Trin. Biswas 101. 

Pogonalherum paniceum (Lamk.) Hack. 

Biswas 3. 

Polypogon mcmspeliensis (Linn.) Desf. 

Biswas 78. 

Saccharwu spontaneum Linn. Biswas 76. 
Themeda quadrivalvis (L.). O. Ktze. 

Biswas 78, 79. 

Acknowledgement 

We are thankful to Dr. M. N. Sanyal, Head 
of the Dept. of Botany, Ramananda College 
for providing necessary facilities, valuable sug- 
gestions and encouragement. 



226 



BREEDING HABITS AND ASSOCIATED PHENOMENA 
IN SOME INDIAN BATS 

Part Vf — Scotophilus heathi (Horseneld) — Vespertilionidae 1 
A. Madhavan- 

Scotophilus heathi (Horsefield) from Trichur, Kerala State, has an annual reproductive 
cycle. Copulation occurs during the second week of November and ovulation ana 
fertilization by the stored spermatozoa occur in the last week of December. Every 
female in the colony conceives in December and young ones are delivered during the 
following April and the first week of May. Lactation continues until August. Animals 
are sexually quiescent during the rest of the year. The two uterine cornua are normally 
functional and carry an embryo each during each cycle. The gestation period varies 
in different animals from 100 to 130 days. The females far outnumber the males in 
the adult stage although at birth the sex ratio is even. 



Introduction 

Scotophilus heathi is one of the species 
chosen for detailed study under the project of 
studies on the breeding habits of Indian bats. 
This species has been chosen not only as a 
representative from an area from which the 
breeding habits of no bat has been so far re- 
ported but also because this species presents 
unusual features of reproduction. Detailed re- 
views of earlier literature on bat reproduction 
have been given (Gopalakrishna, 1947, 1948. 
1949, 1955: Madhavan, 1971; Gopalakrishna 
and Choudhari, 1977; Gopalakrishna and Rao, 
1977). 

Material and Methods 
Most of the specimens of Scotophilus heathi 

1 Accepted February 1978. 

2 Department of Zoology. Institute of Science, 
Nagpur. Present address: Professor of Zoology. 
Bharat Mata College. Cochin 21. Kerala. 



examined for the present study were collected 
from under the tiles of roofs of houses. A few 
specimens were also collected from under the 
leaves of palmyra trees, from the belfry of 
churches and on one occasion from a well. All 
specimens were collected in and around Tri- 
chur, Kerala (approximately 10°N., 76.3°E.). 
The animals were collected at frequent inter- 
vals commencing from April 4, 1971 and until 
February 5, 1978 except during the year 1974. 
Altogether 957 specimens were studied for the 
present report. 

Scotophilus heathi is a large bat for a mi- 
crochiropteran with an adult body weight of 
36 to 39 g (the females attaining a higher 
weight than the males, a wing-span of c. 40.0 
cm, forearm length of c. 6.5 cm, head length 
of c. 2.5 cm and ear pinna length of c. 1.5 
cm. The specimens were collected from their 
roosts with the help of a pair of long forceps 
and after killing with chloroform they were 
weighed in a sensitive spring balance. Obser- 
vations on the disposition of the external geni 
talia, mammary teats in the females, and po- 



227 



JOURNAL. BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY. Vol. 77 



sition of the testes in the males were recorded. 
The genital organs and the accessory struc- 
tures were dissected out and fixed in different 
fixatives. After fixation for 24 hours the tissues 
were preserved in 70% alcohol. The tissues 
were dehydrated by passing through graded 
series of ethanol, embedded in paraffin and 
sectioned at thickness of 6 to 10 The testes 
were uniformly cut at 10 ix. The sections were 
stained with Ehrlich's haematoxylin, countei- 
stained with eosin and mounted in DPX. 

The character of a group of specimens col- 
lected on a given calendar date is almost the 
same during the different years when the col- 
lections were made. Hence, in the following 
descriptions only the date and month are men- 
tioned where pertinent except where the men- 
tion of the year has a special significance. A 
detailed collection diary was maintained wilh 
descriptions of individual specimens. Table 1 
gives the summary of the collection diary and 
Table 2 gives the monthwise distribution of 
collections. 

Observations and Discussion 

1. general notes on Scotophilus heat hi 
This species occurs in small groups of 5 to 
15 specimens which lie huddled together. 
There may be several clusters of specimens 
occupying different locations in the same house. 
During April, May, June and July the males 
were sometimes found 'sitting' away from the 
females although in the same house. The ani- 
mals emerge from their roosts a little before 
sunset and take a dive almost to the ground 
level before they take to the sky. They fly 
about near the roosting place for a consider- 
able time before flying out to distant places. 
The roost is empty by about 7 o'clock in the 
evening. The suckling mothers leave the young 
ones in the roosts before flying out in the even- 



ing for foraging. The mother vigorously shakes 
her body and actively pushes the young from 
its hold to the mammary nipple. Several times 
during the night the adult specimens visit the 
roosts where the young ones are left behind. 
They finally return to the roosts a little before 
sunrise. The mothers carry away the young 
ones if the roost is disturbed and roost in some 
other place, often returning with the young 
ones to the old roost two or three days later. 
Day light is not an impediment for them to 
roost because they are found roosting in well- 
lit areas in the roofs of the houses. The young 
ones assume an oblique posture with the head 
towards the mother's head while sucking. The 
young ones with body weights of 24 g and be- 
low are not able to execute sustained flights, 
but fall to the ground after flying a few yards. 

The adult specimen has brown fur on the 
dorsal surface and bright yellow fur on the 
ventral surface of the body. The juveniles have 
dark brown fur on the dorsal surface and yel- 
lowish grey fur on the ventral surface of the 
body. Several parous adults have brick red- 
yellow fur on the ventral surface of the body. 
Scotophilus heathi does not tolerate the pre- 
sence of other species of bats in the roost. On 
a few occasions a specimen of Pipistrellus 
mimus mimus was introduced into a cage in 
which Scotophilus heathi specimens were pre- 
sent. But it was immediately attacked and 
killed by an adult Scotophilus heathi. No other 
species of bats could be found in the houses 
occupied by Scotophilus heathi. The specimens 
remain in partial torpidity during daytime 
throughout the year. 

Although normally two young ones are de- 
livered each time, there were a few instances 
when only one was produced. The newly born 
young is reddish in colour with naked skin 
and adherent eyelids. A pair of pectoral mam- 
mary glands are present, one on either side, 



228 



BREEDING HABITS OF SOME INDIAN BATS— VI 



Table 1 

Summary of collection diary 



Date 



Females 



Immature Adult 



Immature 



Adult 



Attached Free 



Attached Free Non-preg- Pi eg- Lacta- 
nant nant ting 
6 7 8 9 10 



Grand 
- Total 



Total 



4-1-76 
















1 




1 


1 


7-1-78 
9-1-77 






1 

3 


1 

3 








5 




5 


1 

8 


12-1-77 






2 


2 








9 




9 


11 


16-1-77 






2 


2 








4 




4 


6 


17-1-77 
















9 




9 


9 


18-1-73 






1 


1 








3 




3 


4 


19-1-77 






3 


3 












2 


5 


20-1-72 




















6 


6 


22-1-77 
















7 




7 


7 


24-1-76 
















4 




4 


4 


26-1-77 
















7 




7 


7 


29-1-72 






3 


3 








3 




3 


g 


30-1-77 






1 


1 








7 




7 


3 


4-2-77 






3 


3 








10 




10 


13 


5-2-78 






2 


2 








7 




7 


9 


6-2-77 






3 


3 








4 




4 


7 


9-2-77 






2 


2 














g 


12-2-77 






2 


2 












2 


4 


16-2-77 






5 


5 








6 




6 


11 


19-2-77 






1 


1 








7 




7 


8 


24-2-77 






1 


1 








3 




3 


4 


26-2-72 






2 










4 




4 


6 


27-2-77 






1 


1 








6 




6 


7 


3-3-77 






1 


1 








2 




2 


3 


4-3-73 
















2 




2 


2 


5-3-77 
















10 




10 


10 


6-3-76 
















2 






2 


10-3-73 
















1 




1 


1 


11-3-72 






3 


3 








2 




2 


5 


13-3-77 






1 


1 








3 




3 


4 


14-3-76 
















3 




3 


3 


19-3-72 






8 


8 








7 




7 


15 


23-3-77 
















3 




3 


3 


28-3-77 






1 


1 








2 




2 


3 


29-3-77 






2 


2 








10 




10 


12 


31-3-72 






5 


5 








3 




3 


8 



229 





JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL 


///Sr. SOCIETY, Vol. 7 


7 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 




7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


31-3-73 


— 
— 


— 
— 


— 
1 


— 
1 


— 
— 


— 
— 


— 

— 


1 

2 




1 
2 


1 
3 


4 4 7^ 


2 


— 


— 


2 


1 


— 


— 


— 




3 


5 


4-4-77 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


_ 


2 


2 


5-4-72 


— 


— 


4 


4 


— 


— 


— 


9 




9 


13 


5-4-77 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4 




4 


4 


7-4-72 


1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


3 


1 


4 


5 


7-4-77 


— 


— 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


2 




2 


3 


8-4-77 
















^ 




5 


5 




3 








3 


1 










I 


2 


5 


11-4-76 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 




2 


2 


13-4-72 


— 


— 


5 


5 


— 


— 


— 


— 






5 


1 3-4-77 


— 


— 


2 


2 


— 


— 


— 


6 






g 




1 


— 


— 


1 


1 


— 


— 


3 


1 


5 


6 


] 5-4-7'' 
] 7-4-77 
19-4-73 


4 


— 


— 


4 


5 


— 


— 


1 

8 


6 


12 
8 


16 
8 


— 
_ 


— 
_ 


— 
— 


— 
— 


— 
— 


— 
— 


— 

— 


1 




1 


1 


20-4-72 


5 


_ 


— 


5 


3 


— 


— 


1 


5 


9 


14 




3 


— 


— 


3 


1 


— 


— 


1 


2 


4 


7 


21-4-75 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 






2 


25-4-76 


1 


— 


— 


1 


3 


— 


— 


1 


3 


7 


8 


T5-4-77 


6 


— 


— 


6 


4 


— 


— 


2 


4 


10 


16 


1-5-7'' 


4 


2 


1 


7 


4 


— 


— 


— 


4 


8 


15 




2 


1 


— 


3 


2 


1 


— 


— 


2 


5 


8 


3-5-77 


5 


— 


— 


5 


3 


— 


— 


— 


4 


7 


12 


10-5-7'' 


— 


2 


3 


5 


3 


— 


— 


— 


2 


5 


10 


10-5-76 


2 


— 


— 


2 


4 


— 


1 


— 


2 


7 


9 


17-5-76 


2 


1 


— 


3 


5 


— 


1 


— 


3 


9 


12 




— 


— 


3 


3 


— 


1 


3 


— 


2 


t, 


9 


21-5-75 


— 


— 


2 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 








22-5-77 


1 


11 


— 


12 


3 


1 


— 


— 


2 


6 


18 


2 4-5-77 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 




1 


1 


26-5-77 


— 


5 


2 


7 


— 


1 


2 


— 


4 


7 


14 


30-5-72 


— 


2 


3 


5 


— 


— 


3 


— 


3 


6 


11 


30-5-76 


1 


2 


1 


4 


— 


1 


1 


— 


3 


5 


9 


31-5-75 


- 


1 


2 


3 


— 


1 


— 


— 




1 


4 


5-6-77 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3 


1 


— 


5 


9 


9 


10-6-72 


— 


— 


6 


6 


— 


— 


— 


— 






6 


1 3-6-76 


— 


— 


4 


4 


— 


— 


1 


— 


1 


2 


6 


15-6-72 














1 




1 


2 


2 


90-6-7'? 






1 


1 






1 






2 


3 


''6-6-77 




2 




2 






1 




4 


7 


9 


27-6-76 




















1 


1 


28-6-72 






-i 


2 






1 






1 


3 


30-6-72 






2 


2 






2 




1 


3 


5 


3-7-77 






4 


4 




1 


1 






4 


8 



230 



BREEDING HABITS OF SOME INDIAN BATS— VI 



9-7-77 
11-7-72 

14- 7-72 
17-7-76 

17- 7-77 

20- 7-75 
24-7-77 

6- 8-77 

15- 8-72 

15- 8-76 

18- 8-73 

21- 8-72 
21-8-75 
21-8-76 

23- 8-77 

24- 8-75 

7- 9-76 
10-9-76 

10- 9-77 

1 3- 9-75 

14- 9-73 

19- 9-76 

25- 9-76 
25-9-77 

28- 9-75 

29- 9-71 

2- 10-76 

3- 10-71 

8- 10-77 

9- 10-76 

11- 10-75 

12- 10-75 

14- 10-75 

16- 10-71 
18-10-75 
18-10-76 
23-10-76 
23-10-77 
28-10-73 

30- 10-76 

6- 11-71 

7- 11-76 

10- 11-73 

12- 11-77 

13- 11-76 

15- 11-75 



231 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 



1 



18-11-73 





3 


3 — 


20-11-76 


- 


5 


5 — 


22-11-75 







1 


23-11-75 





2 


2 — 


26-11-77 





7 


7 — 


27-11-76 





4 


4 — 


1-12-73 





3 


3 — 


4-12-77 





5 


5 — 


5-12-75 











5-12-76 





2 


2 — 


8-12-73 





3 


3 — 


10-12-77 





2 


2 — 


11-12-76 





6 


6 — 


11-12-77 





3 


3 — 


12-12-76 





8 


8 — 


13-12-77 





9 


9 


15-12-75 





1 


1 — 


15-12-77 





1 


1 — 


16-12-77 





4 


4 — 


18-12-76 





1 


1 — 


18-12-77 


— — 


8 


8 — 


23-12-73 


— 


1 


1 — 


23-12-76 




3 


3 — 


24-12-76 




2 


2 — 


27-12-76 




2 


2 — 


28-12-76 




1 


1 — 


29-12-71 




2 


2 — 


31-12-76 




5 


5 — 


31-12-77 




4 


4 — 




Table 


2 




MONTHWISE COLLECTION 


OF THE SPECIMENS 


Month 


Males 


Females 


Total 


January 


16 


67 


83 


February 


22 


55 


77 


March 


21 


51 


72 


April 


39 


99 


138 


May 


61 


73 


134 


June 


17 


27 


44 


July 


17 


43 


60 


September 


25 


27 


52 


August 


13 


22 


35 


October 


24 


30 


54 


November 


39 


38 


77 


December 


76 


55 


131 


Total 


370 


587 


957 



3 — — 3 6 

1 1 6 

3 — — 3 4 

16 — — 16 23 

1 — — 1 5 

1 — — 1 4 

3 — — 3 8 

1 — — 1 1 

3 — — 3 5 

1 — — 1 3 

4 — — 4 10 

3 — — 3 11 

3 — — 3 12 

1 — — 1 2 

1 — — 1 2 

6 — — 6 10 

1 — — 1 2 

6 — — 6 14 

— — — — 3 
1 — — 1 3 

— 4—46 

— 2—24 

— 13 — 13 18 

— 1—15 



and the mammary nipples are visible only 
after the first lactation. 

2. BREEDING HABITS 

The examination of table 1 shows that preg- 
nancies as evidenced by the occurrence of bul- 
bous uterine cornua are present only from 
about the first week of January to about the 
fourth week of April. The one female collect- 
ed on January 4 showed unmistakable sign of 
pregnancy since there was a swelling in both 
the uterine cornua. Between January 4 and 
January 12 progressively there was a greater 
proportion of females with bulbous uterine 
cornua among the specimens collected on each 



232 



BREEDING HABITS OF SOME INDIAN BATS— VI 



date. All females collected between January 12 
and April 4 had noticeably large conceptus 
in the uterine cornua and carried progressively 
advanced stages of development of the foetus. 

Microscopic examination of the females re- 
vealed some interesting features. Some of the 
female specimens collected on November 12 
had undergone copulation as evidenced by the 
fact that sperms were present in the uterus 
and the uterine end of the fallopian tubes. 
Their ovaries had follicles in the multilaminar 
condition, and one or two follicles showed the 
beginning of the formation of antral spaces. 
Sperms were present in the uterus and the 
uterine end of the fallopian tubes of all fema- 
les collected on and after November 12 and 
up to December 27, thereby indicating thai 
copulation had taken place in all the females. 
One female collected on December 27 had a 
four-celled egg in the uterus. Free early emb- 
ryos in progressively advanced stages of cleav- 
age were present in every female collected bet- 
ween December 27 and January 4. 

These facts indicate that although copula- 
tion occurs as early as November 12, ovula- 
tion does not take place until about the last 
week of December (Gopalakrishna and Ma- 
dhavan, 1978). Secondly, ovulation occurs 
in all the specimens within a sharply defined 
period in the last week of December and ferti- 
lization and pregnancy follow immediately. 

Although every female collected during Ja- 
nuary, February and March was pregnant, 
and although progressively advanced stages of 
development of the embryos were present dur- 
ing the successive weeks after December 27 it 
was noticed that the size of the conceptus 
carried by different females collected on any 
given date during February to April varied. 
This indicates that the rate of embryonic de- 
velopment may not be the same in all the 
specimens. 



The last batch of pregnant females could be 
collected on April 25 although pregnant fe- 
males probably occur until May 3 as evidenc- 
ed by the fact that newly delivered young 
ones were available until May 3. After this 
dale there was not a single female which could 
be assigned to having delivered recently al- 
though vigorous efforts were made to collect 
specimens at frequent intervals. Evidently all 
females in the roost had delivered their young 
by May 3. Pregnancy was not found to occur 
in any other month of the year. The above 
facts show that Scotophilia heathi has an an- 
nual reproductive cycle confined to a sharply 
restricted period. 

The first batch of postpartum mothers and 
newly born young ones was collected on April 
4. The young ones weighed 5.5 to 6.0 g, and 
in each case the umbilical cord was still at- 
tached to the body, the eyelids were adherent 
and the body was devoid of hair. These char- 
acters taken along with the fact that the high- 
est weight of the foetus was 5.0 g, indicates 
that they might have been born less than a day 
before. It was interesting to note that although 
all females undergo ovulation and become 
pregnant during the last week of December 
(and not a single non-pregnant female was col- 
lected after December 27 until April 4 during 
the six years when collections were made dur- 
ing these months) all deliveries in the colony 
do not occur at about the same time. After 
April 4, when the first batch of postpartum 
mothers were obtained in the year, progressi- 
vely more females in a collection had deliver- 
ed their young during the following days until 
April 25. It is very likely that a few deliveries 
occur after April 25 until May 3 as mention- 
ed earlier. This fact is an additional evidence 
to indicate that the rate of embryonic deve- 
lopment varies in the different specimens as 
otherwise all females should deliver within a 

233 



3 



JOURNAL, BOM HAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



short span of time since all females become 
pregnant in a sharply defined period in the 
last week of December. Evidently the duration 
of pregnancy varies between 100 to 130 days, 
calculating the minimum period of gestation 
as 100 days from the first day when early 
cleavage stage of the egg was noticed (Decem- 
ber 27) to the date on which the first deliver- 
ed young are collected (April 4) and 130 
days as being the maximum period as calculat- 
ed until May 3, when the last deliveries prob- 
ably occurred, and allowing a margin of a 
couple of days on either side. 

The sucklings are carried by their mothers 
at their breasts while they are in the roost or 
when they are disturbed when they fly away 
with the young attached to the breast. The first 
batch of weaned free young ones was collect- 
ed on May 1. Assuming that these were the 
young ones delivered in the first batch (that 
is around April 4) it is evident that the young 
are suckled for about 24 to 28 days allowing 
a margin of a couple of days. All the mothers 
in the colony are free of their young by the 
end of May. However, the females continue 
to be in lactation until the first week of Au- 
gust. 

From the foregoing account of the breeding 
habits of Scotophilus heathi the annual life of 
the adult female of this species can be re- 
cognized into the following periods: (1) pe- 
riod of sexual quiescence from about the se- 
cond week of August until the first week of 
November; (2) period of copulation from the 
second week of November until the last week 
of December; (3) ovulation and fertilization 
during the last week of December; (4) preg- 
nancy from the last week of December until 
about the first week of May; (5) lactation 
from about the first week of April until about 
the first week of August. 

On comparing the breeding habits of this 



bat with those of other Indian bats, it is in- 
teresting to note that Scotophilus heathi re- 
sembles Pipistrellus ceylonicus chrysothrix 
(Gopalakrishna and Madhavan, 1971) in that 
the inseminated sperms remain viable and suc- 
cessfully fertilize the ova released several weeks 
later. It was earlier known that survival of 
inseminated spermatozoa is a characteristic 
feature present only in the bats living in cold 
and temperate climates (Gates, 1936; Folk, 
1940; Wimsatt, 1942, 1944; Hiraiwa and Uchi- 
da, 1956). It is now evident that this pheno- 
menon is also prevalent in several tropical 
bats (Medway, 1972; Gopalakrishna and Ma- 
dhavan, 1978). Scotophilus heathi resembles 
most Indian bats in having a sharply 
restricted annual breeding cycle (Gopala- 
krishna, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950; Ramakrishna, 
1951; Ramaswamy, 1961; Madhavan, 1971; 
Gopalakrishna and Rao, 1977; Madhavan et 
al, 1978; Gopalakrishna and Madhavan, 
1978). Only a few Indian bats have been 
known to breed more than once a year (Go- 
palakrishna, 1954, 1955; Gopalakrishna et al, 
1975; Madhavan, 1978). 

3. NUMBER OF YOUNG AND SYMMETRY OF THE 
FEMALE GENITALIA 

Unquestionable indication of pregnancy as 
evidenced by the occurrence of bulbous uterine 
cornua was noticed in the females collected 
between January 4 and April 25. During this 
period altogether 245 pregnant females were 
collected. Out of these 219 had an embryo 
in each uterine cornu. There were 25 females 
having a single embryo each — 15 of these 
had the foetus in the right cornu and 10 in 
the left. One female carried two embryos in 
the right cornu of the uterus and the left had 
none. Examination of the ovary of the preg- 
nant females revealed that a single corpus 



234 



BREEDING HABITS OF SOME INDIAN BATS— VI 



luteum was present in each ovary in the spe- 
cimens having a single foetus in each uterine 
cornu. In the case of the specimen which had 
two embryos in the right cornu the right 
ovary had two corpora lutea and none in the 
left. Evidently, the two sides of the genitalia 
are symmetrical morphologically and physio- 
logically, and each side is equally functional 
during each reproductive cycle. 

4. GROWTH AND MATURITY 

The growth of the body of the young one 
is rapid during the early life and the young 
animals weigh almost as much as the adults 
when they are about 5 months of age so that 
young ones cannot be distinguished from the 
adults on the basis of the size of the body 
after this age. Until the middle of September, 
that is up to the age of 4 to 5 months, the 
young ones of the year can be distinguished 
from the adults by their having dark brown 
fur on the back and grey fur on the belly. 
Older adults have invariably bright yellow fur 
on the ventral side in both sexes. Sexual ma- 
turity is attained by specimens of both sexes 
at the body weight of about 28 g. The young 
ones are attached to the mother's breasts for 
about 24 to 28 days. The highest weight of 
an attached young one was 23 g and the low- 
est weight of a naturally weaned free young 
one was 24 g. It is evident that the young ones 
become free from their mothers when they 
reach about this weight. The young ones grow 
rapidly and increase in their weight by well 
over four times (from 5.5 g to 24.0 g) 
during the sucking period. Several juve- 
nile specimens were collected from the 
first week of June until the middle of Sep- 
tember. Since the examination of the stomach 
contents of these animals revealed the absence 
of curdled milk it is evident that the juveniles 



do not visit the laclating females after May. 
The growth of the young one is not rapid 
through the months of August and September, 
but they gain weight during October, Nov- 
ember and December. Hence, October on- 
wards it is not possible to distinguish the ani- 
mals born in the year from the adults on the 
basis of the size of the body. However, in the 
case of females the animals of the year can 
be recognized as they do not have well-deve- 
loped nipples. Microscopic examination of the 
testes of specimens collected during October, 
November and December revealed that all the 
males exhibited spermatogenetic activity. All 
the females become pregnant during the last 
week of December. This indicates that sexual 
maturity is attained in both sexes in the year 
of their birth and when they are 5 to 6 
months of age. 

5. SEX RATIO 

Out of a total of 957 specimens collected 
at random and at frequent intervals for over 
6 years, there were 370 males and 587 fe- 
males giving a sex ratio of 630 males per 1000 
females. This should reflect the natural sex 
ratio in this species in the total population 
since there is no segregation on the basis of 
sex, age or season in this species. There were 
equal number of males and females among 86 
young ones found attached to their mother's 
breasts. Evidently, there is a balanced sex 
ratio during early juvenile life, and the diffe- 
rence in the proportion of males to females 
in the adult period is due to larger mortality 
of the males during the adolescent period. 

ACK NOWLEDGEM E NTS 

I wish to express my gratitude to Prof. Dr. 
A. Gopalakrishna, Director, Institute of Sci- 



235 



JOURNAL. BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY. Vol. 77 



ence, Nagpur, for constant guidance, help and 
encouragement during the progress of this 
work. I also thank Dr. Thakur, Dr. Bhal- 
chandra, Miss Deepa Bhatia and Miss M. S. 
Khan for assisting me in various ways in the 
laboratory. My thanks are also due to Dr. 



V. B. Marathe, Head of the Zoology Depart- 
ment. Institute of Science, Nagpur, for giving 
me laboratory facdities. I acknowledge with 
gratitude the financial assistance granted by 
the University Grants Commission, New Delhi. 



References 



Folk, G. E. (1940) : The longivity of sperms 
in the female bat. Anat. Rec. 76: 103-109. 

Gates, W. H. (1936): Keeping bats in captivity. 
J. Mammal. 17: 268-273. 

Gopalakrishna, A. (1947) : Studies on the em- 
bryology of Microchiroptera. Part I — Reproduc- 
tion and breeding seasons in the south Indian ves- 
pertilidnid bat, Scotophilus wroughtoni (Thomas). 
Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 26: 219-232. 

(1948) : ■ Part II. Re- 
production in the male vespertilionid bat, Scoto- 
philus wroughtoni (Thomas), ibid. 27: 137-151. 

(1949): . Part III. 

Histological changes in the genital organs and the 
accessory reproductive structures during the sex- 
cycle of the vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus wrough- 
toni (Thomas), ibid.; 30: 17-46. 

— (1950): . Part VI. 

Structure of the placenta in the Indian vampire bat, 
Lyroderma lyra lyra (Geoffroy). Proc. Nat. Inst. 
Sci. India. 16: 93-98. 

(1954): Breeding habits of the In- 
dian sheath-tailed bat, Taphozous longimaims 
(Hardwicke). Curr. Sci. 23: 60-61. 

(1955): Observations on the breed- 
ing habits and ovarian cycle in the Indian sheath- 
tailed bat, Taphozous longimanus (Hardwicke). 
Proc. Nat. Inst. Sci. India. 21: 29-41. 

& Choudhari, P. N. (1977) : Breed- 
ing habits and associated phenomena in some In- 
dian bats. Part I — Rousettus leschenaulti (Des- 
marest) — Megachiroptera. /. Bombay nal. Hist. 
Soc. 74 (1) : 1-16. 

& Madhavan, A. (1971): Survival 

of spermatozoa in the female genital tract of the 
Indian vespertilionid bat, Pipistrellus ceylonicus 
chrysothrix (Wroughton). Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 



75(1): 43-49. 

DO 

(1977) : Breeding habits and associated phenomena 
in some Indian bats. Part HI — Hipposideros ater 
ater (Templeton) — Hipposideridae. /. Bombay, 
not. Hist. Soc. 74: (3): 511-517. 



(1978) : Viability of inseminated spermatozoa in 
the Indian vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi 
(Horsefield). Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 16: 851-854. 
& Rao, K. V. B. 

(1977) : Breeding habits and associated phenomena 
in some Indian bats. Part II — Rhinolophus rouxi 
(Temminck) — Rhinolophidae. ibid. 74 (2): 213- 
219. 

, Thakur, R. S. & Madhavan, A. 

(1975) : Breeding biology of the southern dwarf 
pipistrelle, Pipistrellus mimus inimus (Wroughton) 
from Maharashtra, India. Dr. B. S. Chauhan Com- 
memoration volume : 225-240. 

Hiraiwa, Y. K. & Uchida, T. (1956): Fertiliza- 
tion in the bats, Pipistrellus abramus abramus (Tem- 
minck). in. Fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa 
stored in the uterus after copulation in the fall. 
Sci. Bull. Fac. Sci. Kyushu Univ. 15: 255-266. 

Madhavan, A. (1971): Breeding habits of the In- 
dian vespertilionid bat, Pipistrellus ceylonicus chry- 
sothrix (Wroughton). Mammalia 35(2): 283-306. 

(1978): Breeding habits and asso- 
ciated phenomena in some Indian bats. Part V. 
Pipistrellus dormeri (Dobson) — ■ Vespertilionides. 
/. Bombay not. Hist. Soc. 75 (2) : 426-433. 

, Patil, D. R. & Gopalakrishna, A. 

(1978) : — Part TV — Hippohidcros fulvus fulvus 
(Gray) — Hipposideridae. ibid. 75 (1) : 96-103. 

Medway, Lord. (1972): Reproductive cycles in 
the flat-headed bats, Tylonycteris pachypus and T. 



236 



BREEDING HABITS OF SOME INDIAN BATS— VI 



robustula (Chiroptera — Vespertilioninae) in a hu- 
mid equatorial environment. Tool. J. Linn. Soc. 57 : 
33-61. 

Ramakrishna, P. A. (1951): Studies on repro- 
duction in bats — I. Some aspects of reproduction 
in the oriental vampires. Lyroderma lyra lyra 
(Geoffroy) and Megaderma spasma (Linn). /. Mys. 
Univ. 7: 1-41. 

Ramaswamy, K. R. (1961): Studies on the sex- 



cycle of the Indian vampire bat, Megaderma lyra 
lyra (Geoffroy). Proc. Nat. Inst. Sci. India 27: 287- 
307. 

Wimsatt, W. A. (1942) : Survival of spermatozoa 
in the female reproductive tract of the bat. Anat. 
Rec. 83: 299-307. 

— - — (1944): Further studies on the sur- 
vival of spermatozoa in the female reproductive 
tract of the bat. ibid. 88: 193-204. 



237 



STUDIES ON THE INTRASPECIFIC VARIATIONS IN 
TRITHEMIS F ESTIVA (RAMBUR) (ODONATA: 
LIBELLULIDAE) 1 

Mahabir Prasad 2 and Arun Kumar" 
(With six text-figures) 



Introduction 

Like many other insects, variations within 
the species is common in order Odonata. 
These variation have been briefly studied and 
reported from time to time in different species 
of dragonfiies. Asahina (1952-53), while 
studying the Odonata material collected from 
Nepal by Japanese Himalayan expedition has 
noted the variations within the different spe- 
cies, similarly Singh & Baijal (1954) in Wes- 
tern Himalaya dragonfiies; Baijal & Agarwal 
(1955) in Madhya Pradesh dragonfiies; Sahni 
(1965a, 1965b) in the Odonata of Kumaon 
hills; Raychaudhari et a\. and Lahiri et al. 
(1970) in Brachythemis contaminata (Fabri- 
cius), Diplacodes trivialis (Rambur) and Cro- 
cothemis servilia servilia (Drury); Varshney 
& Guha (1972) in Rhyothemis variegata varie- 
gata (Linn.); Lahiri & Mitra (1972) in 
Acanthagyna dravida (Lief.); Kumar & Pra- 
sad (1976) in Orthetrum garhwcdicum Singh 
& Baijal; Singh & Prasad (1976, 1977) and 
Prasad & Singh (1976, 1977) in Doon Valley 
and Gorbett National Park dragonfiies; Pra- 
sad (1976a. 1976b and in press) in Western 

' Accepted May 1978. 

-Zoological Survey of India. Calcutta-700012. 
5 Zoological Survey of India. Northern Regional 
Station. Dehra Dun-248 001. 



Himalaya and Eastern Uttar Pradesh Odonata; 
Bose & Mitra (1977) in Rajasthan dragonfiies 
and Lahiri (1977) in Manipur dragonfiies 
studied and have made brief remarks on in- 
traspecific variations. However, these records 
are only occasional variations in small num- 
ber of specimens, no attempt has so far been 
made for detailed biometrical study of intra- 
specific variations in Indian dragonfiies. Dur- 
ing the course of Odonata collection over 
many years in Western Himalaya, we noted 
distinct pattern of intraspecific variation 
in Trithemis f estiva (Rambur), a species 
fairly common throughout lesser Himalayan 
range. We noticed the occurrence of two 
distinct group of specimens large sized and 
small sized. Kiauta (1969) also reported the 
occurrence of small size specimen ( 9 ) from 
Nepal and states that "its abdominal length 
amounts scarcely to 21 mm. and that of the 
hind wing to 27 mm." Keeping the above in 
view we made a detailed study of intraspecific 
variations in Trithemis f estiva (Rambur) on 
the basis of material collected from various 
localities in Western Himalaya. The species is 
widely and commonly distributed throughout 
Indian sub-continent (Kiauta 1969). Adults 
are common on the wing from March-April 
to November; larvae occur in slow running 
marshy streams and near the weedy banks 
of rivers (Kumar 1972). 



238 



INTRASPECIFIC VARIATIONS IN TRITHEMIS FESTIVA (RAMBUR) 




Figs. 1-3. Male accessory genital structures of large sized specimens of Trilhemis 
i estiva (Rambur) : 1. Ventral view. 2. Lateral view. 3. Enlarged view of Prophallus 
and Vesicula spermalis. 

Figs. 4-6. Male accessory genital structures of small sized specimens of Trithemis 
festiva (Rambur) : 4. Ventral view. 5. Lateral view, 6. Enlarged view of Prophallus. 
and Vesicula spermalis. 



JOURNAL. BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Observations 

Male : (Refer Tables II, III & VI for various 
measurements) 

Both large and small dragonflies, present 
at same localities, are violaceous black in 
colour. Head small in size, eyes contiguous, 
labium blackish brown in large size specimens 
while small size specimens it is black, some 
times yellowish brown. Labrum and mandi- 
bles black, anteclypeus black to yellowish 
brown, postclypeus dark olivacious brown to 
black, occiput dark brown to black. Eyes 
brown above and black beneath. 

Prothorax dark blue to black, small poste- 
rior lobe is black, not fringed with hairs. 
Thorax narrow, black and coated with thin 
purplish pruinecence. Legs. long, black but 
hind femora with small closely set spines, 
and with a single set of long spines present 
on its distal end. 

Wing hyaline, a dark opaque brown mark- 
ing present only in hind wing of large size 
specimens, but in small size it is found both 
in fore and hind wings. The brown marking 
in the hind wing extends upto the subcosta, 
cubital space, beyond the cubital nervure and 
posteriorly beyond the membrane. In fore 
wing of small size specimens it extends upto 
the cubital space and posterior border of the 
wing. Reticulation close, and are situated be- 
tween the 1st and 2nd antenodal nervurer. cu- 
bital nervure one, pterostigma black and cover 
2 cells. Node nearer to pterostigma than base 
in both wings. Nodal index varies from 

6-9h I 9i-5 9-114I12J-8 . , 

— — — - — to ~—~ in large sized 

8-7 ! 7-8 10-81 8-9 6 

6-10||l(H-6 9-1HHH-9 
specimens, while —|— to — ^ 

in small sized specimens. Discoidal cell in the 
fore wing narrow, its costal side just half 



of proximal side and traversed only once. 
Subtrigone 3 -celled, sector of arc with a large 
fusion at its origin. Distal antenodal nervures 
incomplete, discoidal field begins with 3 rows 
of cells and is convergent at wing border. In 
hind wing discoidal cell entire, CUII arising 
from the posterior angle of discoidal cell. Dis- 
coidal field begins with 2 rows of cells. 2 rows 
of cells present in between IRIII & RSPL. 
Membrane dark brown and triangular in 
shape. 

Abdomen 20.0-25.5 mm in length, black; 
anal appendages black. 

Female : (Refer Tables IV. V & VI for various 
body measurements) 

Labium yellowish-brown, its middle lobe 
black, labrum yellow and sides black. Ante 
and postclypeus yellow, face and frons yel- 
lowish brown, but some portion of upper sides 
of frons metallic blue. Upper portion of eyes 
brown and lower portion black, occiput black. 
Prothorax black, thorax yellow and marked 
with black, mid-dorsal carinal suture present 
upto the anterior sinus. Hamular stripe very 
thick, an inverted Y-shaped stripe present on 
the mesepimeron. The posterio — lateral suture 
short but oblique stripe ends across the meta- 
pimeron. Lower portion of the thorax yellow 
and marked with black stripe. Legs black, 
inner side of the anterior femora yellow, coxae 
and trochanter yellow. 

Wings similar to the male, except the base 
of the hind wing which is marked with opaque 
brown marking upto the costal area, costal 
space and upto the cubital nervures and near 
the membrane. Nodal index varies from 
8-10|UU-7 9-124)101-8 
8-7 I 8-9 t0 9-8 I 8-9 
Abdomen (20-23 mm in length) black and 
marked by yellow, dorsally, laterally and ven- 
trally but its last three segments (8th. 9th and 



240 



INTRASPEC1FIC VARIATIONS IN TRITHEMIS FESTIVA (RAMBUR) 

10th) are totally black on the dorsum, marked And appendages black, long and acutely 
with yellow and the lateral and ventral sides, pointed at the tips. 

Table I 



Showing the frequency of specimens with both small and large sized specimens of Trithemis 
festiva (Rambur) from different localities in Western Himalaya. 



SI. 


Locality 


District 


Large 


sized specimens 


Small 


sized specimens 


No. 






Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


1 . 


Asarori 


Dehra Dun 


9 


2 


- 






Barkot 




4 








3. 


Dehra Dun 




1 








4. 


Donga 




15 


6 


2 




5. 


Herbertpur 




7 








6. 


Jaintanwala 




9 


3 


3 




7. 


Jhajra 












8. 


Mianwala . 




2 


3 






9. 


Motichur 




12 


2 


4 




10. 


Rajpur 




23 


1 


4 


3 


11. 


Rishikesh 




4 










Sahastra Dhera 




60 


3 


9 


2 


13. 


Boxar (Corbett 
National Park) 


Pauri 
Garhwal 


8 


2 


4 


1 


14. 


Dhikala (Corbett 
National Park) 




6 


1 


3 


1 


15. 


Pauri 




10 


3 


2 


1 


16. 


Deoprayag 


Tchri Garhwal 










17. 


Tehri 


Tchri Garhwal 


10 








18. 


Chamoli 


Chamoli 


8 








19. 


Uttar Kashi 


Uttar Kashi 


3 


1 






20. 


Bij Rani (Corbett 
National Park) 


Nainital 


20 


4 


3 




21 






3 








22. 


Kathgodam 




4 


1 


1 




23. 


Sultan (Corbett 
National Park) 




15 




4 




24. 


Dhobighat 
(Ranikhet) 


Almora 


2 








25. 


Dwarson 




2 




1 




26. 


Garli 


Kangra 








1 


27. 


Jhankaur 






2 






28. 


.lawalamukhi 




12 


4 






29. 


Kangra 






4 


4 


2 


30. 


Mataur 




4 


3 






31 . 


Maranda 








2 




32. 


Ranital 




15 


6 


i 





241 



JOURNAL. BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY. Vol. 77 



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242 



INTRASPECIFIC VARIATIONS IN TRITHEMIS FESTIVA (RAM BUR) 



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243 



JOURNAL. BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY. Vol. 77 



Showing variation 


!N NODAL INDEX WITHIN 


the large and small 
(Rambur) 


sized specimens OF Trithemis festi 


Large Sized 


Small Sized 


6-9* 1 9|-5 , 
8-7 1 7 -8 


7-10J hOl-7 t 
9-8 J 8-8 




6-1 0i| 101-6 
8-7 ] 8-7 


s 7-10^|10*-8 , 
8-8 j 7-8 


8-9J m-i , 


7-1 U 11-1-7 




7-12*11 If 8 


, 7-10*110^-7 ? 


10-7 1 7-7 


8-8 | 7-8 




9-8 1 8-9 


8-8 | 8-8 


8-10* 110^-9 s 


9-10*)9*-8 




8-101,111-7 


8-10*1 11 *-8 , 


10-7 1 8-10 


9-7 1 7-9 




8-7 1 8-9 


8-7 1 7-8 


9-12*110^-8 , 


8-1041101-8 , 




8-10* 1 1^-8 


, 8-11*1111-9 . 


9-8 | 8-9 


8-8 1 7-9 




9-8 1 8-10 


10-7 j 7-10 


9-ll*|lJJ-9 , 
9-8 1 8-10 


9- 11*1121-8 . 

10- 8 | 8-9 




9-lI*|ll*-9. 
8-8| 9-11 





Table VII 

Showing variation in body marking of both large and small sized Trithemis festiva (Rambur) 
compared with the published description of the species 



SI. 
No. 



Different parts 
of body 



Anteclypeus 
Postclypeus 

Occiput 

Prolhorax 

Wing marking 
in male 

Nodal index 



Large sized 
Specimen 



Blackish brown 



Black 

Dark olivaceous 

Dark brown 

Dark blue 

Brown marking at 
the base of fore 
wing in male absent 

6-9* I 9|-S, 

8- 7 I 7-8 
9-12*| 10*-8, 

9- 8 8-9 



Small sized 
specimen 



Published descrip- 
tion of the species 



Black, sometimes 
yellowish brown 
Yellowish brow n 

Black 

Black 



hrowi 



Black 

Some times 

marking at the base 
of fore wing in male 
present 

6-10*1101-6, 
8-7 I 8-7 
8-10*11 1*.-8, 



Black 



Black 

Dark olivaceous 
brown 

Black 

Black 

Brown marking at 
the base of fore 
wing in male absent 

^91-1 10H, 9-ll* l ll*-9 
8-8 I 7-8 10-8 I 8-10 



9-8 



■10 



244 



INTRASPECIFIC VARIATIONS //V TRITHEMIS FESTIVA ( RAM BUR ) 



Discussion 

Both large and small sized specimens of 
Trithemis festiva occur at same localities in 
Western Himalaya. The abdomen (along with 
anal appendages) of 272 examples of large 
sized male specimens varies from 23.00 mm to 
23.5 mm, forewing 31.5 mm to 32.5 mm, 
hindwing 30.5 mm to 31.5 mm and pterostig- 
ma 2.5 mm to 3.00 mm. For detail of the 
other body measurements in male refer to 
Table II. 52 examples of large sized female 
specimens were studied, their abdomen (along- 
with anal appendages) varies from 22.5 mm 
to 23.00 mm, forewing 31.00 mm to 32.00 mm, 
hindwing 29.5 mm to 31.00 mm, pterostigma 
3.00 mm (for other body measurements kind- 
ly refer Table IV). Only 48 male specimens 
of small size were studied, and their abdomen 
(along with anal appendages) varies in between 
20.00 mm to 22.00 mm, forewing 28.00 mm 
to 29.5 mm, hindwing 26.00 mm to 29.00 mm, 
pterostigma 2.5 mm to 3.00 mm. The 12 
female specimens of small size have their 
abdomen (alongwith anal appendages) 20.00 
mm to 20.5 mm, forewing 28.00 mm to 29.5 
mm, hindwing 26.5 mm to 28.00 mm and 

Re fe i 

Asahina, S. (1952-1953): Fauna and flora of 
Nepal Himalaya Scientific results of the Japanese 
expeditions to Nepal Himalaya 1952-1953, Edited 
by H. Kihara. Fauna and flora Res. Soc. Kyoto. 
291-300. (In Japanese) 

Baijal, H. N. and Agarwal, J. P. (1955): Opu- 
scula Libellulogica. Agra Univ. J. Res. (5c/.), 4 
(2): 453-470. 

Bose, G. and Mitra, T. R. (1977): The Odonata 
fauna of Rajasthan. Rec. zool. Snrv. India. 71 
(1-4): 1-11. 

Fraser, F. C. (1936): The Fauna of British 
India including Ceylon and Burma (Odonata) 3: 
XI-461. Taylor and Francis, Ltd., London. 



pterostigma 3.00 mm (For other body mea- 
surements in male and female refer Tables 
III and V). 

The large and small sized Trithemis festiva 
male and female are quite distinct from each 
other and can be easily separated from each 
other on the basis of their body measure- 
ments [the two type of specimens also have 
some differences in body colour and nodal 
index (refer Tables VI & VII)]. However, it 
is noticeable that large and small sized speci- 
mens are very close and similar to each other 
in their wing venation, body colour and male 
accessory genital structures (refer figs. 1-6). 
Thus the variations found in large and small 
sized male and female in their body measure- 
ments, wing venation, body colour are treated 
as inlraspecific variations in Trithemis festiva. 

Acknowledgements 

We are thankful to the Director, Zoological 
Survey of India, Calcutta, for permission to 
carry out the present study. Our thanks are 
also due to Dr. B. S. Lamba, Deputy Director, 
Northern Regional Station, Zoological Survey 
of India, Dehra Dun, for various facilities. 

E N C E S 

Kiauta, B. (1969): Scientific results of the 
Yugoslav 1969 Himalaya expedition. Bioloski vesti- 
nik, 20: 109-119. 

Kumar, A. (1972): Studies on the life history 
of Trithemis festiva (Rambur, 1842) (Odonata: 
Libellulidae). Odonatologica. J (2): 103-112. 

Kumar. A. and Prasad, M. (1976): On the oc- 
currence of Orthetrum garhwalicum Singh & Bai- 
jal (Odonata: Libellulidae) in Kinnaur (Western 
Himalaya: Himachal Pradesh). Newsl zool. Surv. 
India, 2 (3) : 94. 

Lahiri, A. R., Mitra, T. R. and Raychaudhuri, 
D. N. (1970): A note on Crocothemis servilia ser- 
vilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae: Sympetrinae) , 



245 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Sci. Cult., 36: 334. 

and Mitra, T. R. (1972): A note 

on Acanthagyna dravida (Lieftinck) (Insecta: Odo- 
nata: Aeshnidae). J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc, 69 
(2): 438-439. 

(1977): On a collection of Odonala 

from Manipur with new records. Rec. tool. Surv. 
India, 72 (1-4): 409-418. 

Mitra, T. R. (1975): A review of Indian species 
of Agriocnemis Selys (Insecta: Odonata: Zygop- 
tera: Coenagrionidae) with a note on Agriocnemis 
nainitalensis Sahni. Dr. B. S. Chauhan Comm. Vol., 
403-409. 

Prasad, M. (1976a): On the occurrence of Uro- 
themis signata signata (Rambur) (Odonata: Mac- 
rodiplactidae) from Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. 
Newsl. zool. Surv. India, 2 (4) : 142. 

(1976b): Odonata of district Kan- 

gra (Himachal Pradesh). Rec. zool. Surv. India 
71 (1-4): 105-119. 

(in press) : Studies on the Odonata 

of Garhwal Hills, hid. J. Ent. 

and Singh, A. (1976): Odonata 

of Doon Valley 2. Zygoptera. Rec. zool. Surv. India, 



70 (1-4): 121-131. 

Raychaudhury, D. N., Lahiri, A. R. and Mitra, 
T. R. (1969): A note on the distal antenodal ner- 
vure of Brachythemis contaminata (Fabricius) and 
Diplacodes trivialis (Rambur) (Insecta: Odonata: 
Libellulidae). Sci. Cull., 35: 220. 

Sahni, D. N. (1965a) : Studies on the Odonata 
(Zygoptera) of Nainital. Ind. J. Ent., 27: 205-216. 

(1965b): Studies on the Odonata 

(Anisoptera) of Nainital. Ind. J. Ent., 27: 277-289. 

Singh, A. and Prasad, M. (1976): Odonata of 
Doon Valley I. Anisoptera. Rec. zool. Surv. India, 
70 (1-4): 21-38. 

(1977): Odonata (Insecta) of Cor- 

bett National Park (Uttar Pradesh, India). J. Bom- 
bay nat. Hist. Soc. 73 (2) [1976]: 419-421. 

Singh, S. and Baijal, H. N. (1954): Entomolo- 
gical Survey of the Himalaya II — on a collection of 
Odonata. Agra Univ. J. Res. (Sci.), 3 (2): 385- 
400. 

Varshney, R. K. and Guha, M. (1972) : A note 
on the wing marking of dragonfly Rhyothemis varie- 
gata variegata (L.) (Odonata: Libellulidae). Patna 
Univ. J., 27: 1-4. 



246 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISATION OF THE SONG OF 
THE KOEL EUDYNAMIS SCO LOP ACE A' 



M. V. V. Su BRAHMAN YAM 
AND 

R. V. Krishnamoorthy 2 
{With jour text -figures) 

The koel Eudynamis scolopacea sings both in the morning and the evening. The 
morning song consists of 15 notes and the evening song 9 notes. As the note number 
increases, the frequency as well as the loudness of the song increases. Evening song 
usually contains high frequency notes. The frequencies range from 976 to 1818 Hz, 
which probably may be the reason for the mellowness of the song. When a recorded 
song was played to a singing koel, the latter stopped singing and sometimes quit its 
position. This suggests that the song reflects territoriality. 



Introduction 

Bird song usually refers to the loud and 
persistent vocalisations delivered seasonally by 
males in possession of a breeding or courting 
territory (Brockway 1969). The song probably 
stimulates the female's breeding behaviour and 
also aids in spacing breeding males ( Marie r 
1956). The same song may unleash an attack 
by others when it is broadcast within the bird's 
territory (Weeds and Falls 1959, Falls 1969). 
The ontogeny of bird song and its seasonal 
effect has been worked out for many species 
(Allard 1930, Thorpe 1956, Nottebohm 1970, 
Panov et al. 1978). For the Indian Koel, the 
breeding season lasts from March to July 
(Lamba 1963); its habitat and parasitic nature 
has been well documented (Ali 1977, Hume 
1890, Lamba 1969). However, no attempt has 
been made to characterise its song, although it 
is considered by some to be the pleasantest 
among the songs of common Indian birds. In 

1 Accepted June 1980. 

2 Department of Zoology, GKVK Campus, Uni- 
versity of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore 560 065. 



the present study an attempt has been made 
to characterise the acoustic parameters of the 
daily song of the koel. 

Methods 

Two Sennheiser MKH 805 directional mic- 
rophones were placed 15' (about 4.6 m) 
apart, on a tree top, which was identified ear- 
lier as being visited by the koel. The micro- 
phones were connected to a 5310 National 
Panasonic tape recorder, placed on the ground 
and 100' away (30.5 m) from the tree. With 
such a set-up the song of the koel both in the 
morning (6-8 a.m.) and in the evening (4- 
5.30 p.m.) were recorded during the months 
April- June, 1979. Pre-recorded tapes were 
analysed for quality of notes of the songs using 
a Fourier Analyzer System (Hewlett-Packard). 
Note frequencies and song timings were ob- 
tained from the converter. 

Results 

The morning song consists of 15 notes with 
a total duration of 40.96 s, and each note in 



247 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



A 



Fig. I. Spectrograms of morning and evening songs of the koel. Horizontal axis 
denotes time in s and vertical axis represents loudness in millivolts. 
Scale: M- x axis 1 cm 2.48 s; y axis 1 cm 2.1 mV 
E- x axis 1 cm 1.2 s; y axis 1 cm 5 mV 



the song is of 0.5 s duration. The evening song 
consists of 9 notes with a total duration of 
20.48 s and a note duration of 0.6 s. Some- 
times there were 14 notes in the morning song 
and 8 in the evening song. The internote period 
in both songs is not constant (Fig. 1). The 
song starts with low "kuoo", the loudness of 
which rises in scale gradually in both morn- 
ing and evening songs (Fig. 1). The frequency 
of the sound at which the notes are delivered 
also varies as the notes proceed. In the morn- 
ing song, as the note number increases the 
frequency gradually increases non-linearly. In 
the evening song there is linearity in the in- 
crease of frequencies as the notes are delivered 
(Fig. 2). The evening song invariably consists 
of higher frequencies (Fig. 2). The morning 
song starts with a frequency of 976-1218 Hz 
and ends with 1381-1818 Hz in the fifteenth 
note (Fig. 3). The evening song starts with 
1200 Hz- 1393 Hz and ends with 1243-1787 
Hz. (Fig. 4). When the song reaches the final 
frequency the koel stops singing for some time 
and again resumes the song in the same fre- 
quencies. When a recorded song was played 
to a singing koel, it often stopped singing and 



sometimes quit its position. 

Discussion 

The koel breeds during March- June in 
southern parts of India (Lamba 1969). The 
song of the koel can be heard in the same 
months and therefore, the coincidence of the 
song with season could be related to the breed- 
ing activity and the reproductive behaviour of 
the bird. It is also known that only the male 
koel sings till it mates (Lamba 1969). There 
is evidence that testosterone stimulates the 
mating behaviour of birds (Andrews 1964, 
Hamilton 1938, Hutchinson 1970). However, 
no correlations were made that the same hor- 
mone induced singing in birds. We tried in 
vain to check whether there were any behaviou- 
ral responses in other koels of the surroundings 
when the tapes were played back, but the song 
has impact on the singing of a conspecific. 
When' the recorded tape is played before a 
singing bird, the latter stops singing and flies 
away. This suggested that the song is purely 
territorial. Similar such territorial songs were 
noted in male chaffinches (Thorpe 1956). 



248 



SONG OF THE KOEL (EUDYNAMIS SCOLOPACEA) 



7.5 



1.0 



0.5 



Morning song 



5 6 7 8 9 
Note number 



10 11 12 13 14 15 



1.4 



10 



Evening song 



1 234567Q9 
Note number 

Fig. 2. Changes in frequencies in relation to the note number in morning and evening 
songs of the Koel. 



4 



249 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



lit 



\ 

lV;.|A,kife\.,.„ r .,..1 ,. ,.,■„....,„.. 




^jLvudiik 



Fig. 3. Spectrograms of the notes of morning song of the Koel. Horizontal 

denotes the frequency in Hz and vertical axis represents loudness. 

Scale: x axis 1 cm 62.5 Hz with 625 Hz as starting y axis 1 cm 2 X 10" 2 V 



SONG OF THE KOEL (EUDYNAMIS SCOLOPACEA) 



Fig. 4. Spectrograms of the notes of the evening song of the Koel Horizontal axis 
denotes frequency in kHz and vertical axis represents loudness. 
Scale: x axis 1 cm 62.5 Hz with 625 Hz as starting point frequency 
y axis 1 cm 2 x 10" 2 V 



25 i 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Brockway (1969) suggested that the strength 
of the song and its persistence may be a 
measure of metabolism of the bird and climatic 
conditions at any particular place. This may 
be true for the difference in the number of 
notes observed in the morning and evening 
songs. Changes due to climatic conditions 
may be over ruled as there were not much 
variations in air temperatures between morn- 
ing and evening in the present context. Cor- 
relations between climate and song (Allard 
1930) was possible in the case of the dove 
which inhabits temperate lands. Probably the 
metabolism of the koel determines the short- 
ness of the song in the evenings. 
It is interesting to note that after the 9th 



note in morning song, the frequencies of the 
notes remained constant. Decrease in the note 
number in the evening song can be attributed 
to the physiological status of the bird. Exhaus- 
tion after a day's activity may decrease the 
note number. 

Acknowledgements 

We are thankful to Dr. D. Anand and Mr. 
H. S. Srinivas Chakravorthi, Department of 
Electronic Communications, Indian Institute 
of Science for their help in spectrographic 
analysis of the song; and Dr. R. Narayana for 
encouragement. 



References 



Ali, S. (1977) : The Book of Indian Birds. Bom- 
bay Natural History Society, Bombay. 

Allard, H. A. (1930): The first morning song 
of some birds of Washington, D.C., its relation to 
light. Am. Naturalist, 64: 436-439. 

Andrews, R. J. (1969): The effect of testoste- 
rone on avian vocalizations. In R. A. Hinde (ed.) : 
Bird Vocalizations, Cambridge University Press. 

Brockway, B. F. (1969): Roles of budgerigar 
vocalisations in integration of breeding behaviour. 
In R. A. Hinde (ed.) : Bird Vocalizations, Cam- 
bridge University Press. 

Falls, J. B. (1969) : 'Function of the white 
throated sparrow', in R. A. Hinde (ed.) : Bird 
Vocalizations, Cambridge University Press. 

Hamilton, J. B. (1938) : Precocious masculine 
behaviour following administration of synthetic 
male hormone substance, Endocrinology. 23: 53-7. 

Hume, A. O. (1890): Nests and eggs of Indian 
birds. Vol. 1, (Ed. R. H. Porter, London). 

Hutchinson, J. B. (1970): Influence of gonadal 
hormones on the hypothalamic integration of court- 



ship behaviour in barbary dove. J. Rep. Fert. 
Suppl. 11: 15-41. 

Lamba, B. S. (1963): The nidification of some 
common Indian birds. J. Bombay nai. Hist. Soc. 
60: 121-123. 

(1969) : The nidification of some 

common Indian birds. /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 
66: 72-80. 

Marler, P. (1956) : Behaviour of chaffinch. Fring- 
illa coelebs. Behaviour sup. vol. 5. 

Nottebohm, F. (1970) : Ontogeny of bird song. 
Science. 167: 950-956. 

Panov, E. NT. Kostina, G. N. and Galichenka, 
M. V. (1978): Song organisation in southern 
nightingale. Zool.. 57(4): 568-581. 

Thorpe, W. H. (1956): The language of birds. 
Scientific American, 195(4): 128-138. 

Weeds, I. S. and Falls, I. B. (1959): Differen- 
tial responses of male oven birds to recorded songs 
of neighbouring and more distinct individuals. 
Auk. 76: 343-351. 



252 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR 
OF THE TIGER, PANTHERA TIGRIS TIGRIS LINN. 
IN CAPTIVITY 1 

Adhir Kumar Das 2 
(With a chart) 



Introduction 

In view of the importance of tiger as one of 
the major endangered species in India a study 
of its reproductive behaviour is worth noting. 
This study was undertaken to provide informa- 
tion (i) on the reproductive behaviour of tiger, 

(ii) to ascertain the duration of oestrus. 

(iii) breeding season, (iv) gestation period, 
(v) percentage of pregnancies, (vi) litter size, 
(vii) sex ratio and (viii) the ratio of white 
and coloured cubs produced through crossing 
among coloured hybirds and between colour- 
ed hybrids and pure white tigers. This paper 
is based on data collected at the Calcutta 
Zoological Garden from 1965 to 1977. 

Materials and methods 

The Calcutta Zoological Garden has a good 
record of breeding of tigers in captivity. The 
first birth of tiger cubs at this Zoo took place 
in May, 1880 when three cubs were born. 
Two cubs were born in May, 1886 and two 
more cubs in April, 1889 (Sanyal 1892). 
Since then many tiger cubs have been born 
in this Zoo during the last several decades. 
Moreover, the acquisition of 3 white tigers 
(two pure white males from Maharaja of 
Rewa and one coloured female carrying gene 
for white, from Delhi Zoological Park) of the 

1 Accepted May 1978. 

- Zoological Garden. Alipore. Calcutta-700 027. 



same litter in 1963 has improved much of its 
breeding potential. The tigers at Calcutta Zoo 
are kept in spacious enclosures and cages hav- 
ing sufficient space for exercise. Each cage 
or enclosure has a small den at the back where 
the tiger is shut in at night. 

Tigers at Calcutta Zoo are fed six days in 
a week on beef and on Thursday no food is 
given. On average an adult tiger is given 12 
kg of raw beef with and without bones daily. 
The ration of beef given to tigers ranges from 
7 to 15 kg depending on the age, size, sex 
and general condition of the animals. 

For the purpose of this study, data have 
been collected from my own observations from 
1968 onward, supported by the records main- 
tained at Calcutta Zoo in the form of daily 
report, birth and mortality registers etc. Mat- 
ing behaviour of tigers have been recorded by 
me with assistance from some of my staff. 

Breeding season 

The tiger in India breeds all the year round 
and the cubs are born in any month of the 
year (Asdell 1946, Crandall 1964, Prater 1964, 
Schaller 1967, Ewer 1973). 

At Calcutta Zoo the tigresses came in oes- 
trus during all the months of the year. From 
1965 to 1977, 48 oestruses or heat periods 
of seven tigresses had been recorded, and the 
females produced 61 cubs in 22 litters. This 
data is presented in Table 1. 



253 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Table 1 

Breeding season of Tiger, Panthera tigris tigris 

IN CAPTIVITY 



Months Number of 


Percent- 


Number of 


Percent- 






age 


litters born 


age 


January 


5 


10.4 


1 (2) 


4.5 


February- 


5 


10.4 








7 


14.5 




13.6 


April 


4 


8.3 


3 (9) 


13.6 


May 


3 


6.4 


4 (12) 


18.1 


June 


5 


10.4 


3 (8) 


13.6 


July 


4 


8.3 


3 (10) 


13.6 


August 


3 


6.4 






September 


2 


4.1 


3 (8) 


13.6 


October 


5 


10.4 


1 (1) 


4.5 


November 


2 


4.1 


1 (2) 


4.5 


December 


3 


6.4 








48 


100 


22 (61) 


100 



The figures in the bracket indicate number of cubs. 



tioned behaviours of a tigress were recorded 
and when she permitted mounting and copu- 
lation by the male. 
The data of oestrus periods as recorded in 

7 tigresses in Calcutta Zoological Garden are 
shown in Table 2. The minimum interval be- 
tween two consecutive oestruses was 26 days. 
Last oestrus phase was observed upto the age 
of 16 years in a tigress (Malini). 

Sexual maturity: 

Crandall (1964) reports that a tigress in 
New York Zoo reached maturity at 3 yrs. 

8 months. Sankhala (1967) reports that tiger 
cubs attain maturity at an age between 3^ and 
6 years. In captivity female lions become 
cyclic at 36 months of age (Crandall 1964). 
According to Stracey (1968) tigresses start 



Table 2 

Breeding records of Tiger, Panthera tigris tigris in Calcutta Zoo 



Specimens 


Number of 
oestrus 
periods 


Range of 
oestrus 
periods 
(days) 


Average 
oestrus 
periods 
(days) 


Average of 
last day of 
oestrus to 
birth (days) 
Gestation 
period. 


Average 
number of 
cubs/Litter 


Malini 


16 


4—7 


5.1 


103 


2 (7) 


Chandni 


14 


3—7 


5 


104 


3.2 (7) 


Shashi 


7 


4—6 


4.8 


103 


3.8 (5) 


Sona 


4 


4—7 


5.3 






Rupa 


3 


6—9 


7.3 






Bharati 


3 


6—9 


7.2 


102 


1.5 (2) 


Moti 


1 


5 


7 


103 


2 (5) 



The figures in the bracket indicate number of litter. 
Duration of oestrus: 

The tigress in oestrus becomes restless and 
moves about very frequently and sometimes 
does not feed. Schaller (1967) reports that 
the tigress in oestrus squirts scent, sniffs, 
moans and roars in a low voice. The duration 
of oestrus was calculated on the basis of the 
total number of davs for which the above men- 



to breed at the age of about three years. Tig- 
resses in the wild reach sexual maturity at 
about four years of age, but in the abnormal 
conditions of captivity copulation has been 
observed as early as two and a half years 
(Mountfort 1973). Sexual maturity and birth 
of 1st litter in the case of six tigresses are 
shown in Table 3. 



254 



REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR OF THE TIGER 



Table 3 

Observation of sexual maturity of Tiger, Panthera tigris tigris, at Calcutta Zoo 



Specimens 



Date 
of 

birth 



Date of 

first 
oestrus 



Age at 
onset of 
oestrus 



Date of 
birth of 
first 
litter 



Age when 
first 

litter born 



Malini 

Chandni 

Shashi 

Rupa 

Sona 

Bharati 



18.6.60 
12.6.65 
8.9.67 
25.9.70 
25.9.70 
10.6.66 



25. 2.65 
2. 3.69 

21. 7.72 
12. 3.75 

22. 3.74 
10.10.70 



4 yrs. 8 months 

3 „ 8 „ 

4 ., 10 ., 

4 „ 5 „ 
3 „ 11 „ 
3 „ 6 „ 



12. 6.65 
14. 7.69 
24.11.72 



4 yrs. 11 months 

4 „ 1 „ 

5 „ 2 „ 



Mating behaviour: 

Tigers and tigresses which are kept together, 
except at night, from very early age, breed 
freely in captivity but attempts to introduce 
new specimens to each other are not without 
risk of injury. 

When a tigress comes in oestrus at Calcutta 
Zoo, a male tiger is put in the adjacent cage 
from where the two can see each other. At the 
advent of oestrus the tigress becomes restless, 
walks and sits frequently. While walking it 
moans and roars in low voice and squirts scent 
from its anal gland. She sits repeatedly in front 
of the wire-netted door of the adjacent cage 
where the male is confined. She sniffs at dif- 
ferent places of the floor and wall and on 
seeing the male in the adjacent cage she pro- 
duces a purring sound. 
Courtship : 

When the door of the adjacent cage is open- 
ed, the tigress hurriedly rushes into the ad- 
jacent cage and proceeds to the male very 
cautiously, sniffs the male producing puffing 
sound. If the male is in mood for mating he 
responds with a purring noise. Tf the male is 
not in a mood for mating a fight may occur 
and the couple have to be separated. It is seen 
that after fighting on the first day of oestrus, 
the male may accept the female the next day. 



When mutual confidence is established, the 
female approaches the male, purrs, rolls on 
her back on the ground in front of the male 
and pats at him playfully. The male sniffs the 
genitalia of" the female, purrs and squirts scent 
frequently. He follows the female when she 
walks with lashing tail and starts playing with 
her. Mountfort (1973) states that the prelude 
to mating is accompanied by periods of play 
and harmless sparring which help to reduce 
the normal antagonism between sexes. 
Copulation : 

The tigress sometimes comes very close to 
the male and rubs her head, body and mouth 
to the head, body and mouth of the male. She 
sometimes lies on her belly stretching her fore- 
limbs fully on the ground and her hind limbs 
remaining half bent. The male approaches 
from behind the female and arches his back, 
bringing his penis in contact with the genital 
region of the female. At this time the female 
begins to tread by pushing against the floor 
with her hind legs and when vaginal contact 
is made she bends her tail sharply to one side 
exposing her genital region and at the same 
time she turns her hind end in the direction of 
the stimulus. The male then holding the scruff 
of the neck of female by his teeth begins a 
series of vigorous pelvic thrusts at the female's 



255 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



urinogenital sinus. Intromission of penis is sig- 
nalled by a loud copulatory cry from the 
female and a tremendous roar is produced by 
the male as he presses his genital region tightly 
against that of female. Ejaculation occurs dur- 
ing this interval. The actual time of coition 
varies from 7 to 10 seconds. The female then 
pulls forward, turns abruptly on the male, 
hisses and paws him and throws him off her 
back. Sometimes fighting takes place between 
the sexes inflicting scratch wounds. There 
may be unsuccessful attempts at mounting 
prior to successful mating. 
Post copulatory behaviours: 

After each copulation the male moves away 
from the female and walks about in the en- 
closure or usually lies on the ground. Some- 
times he passes stool and urine and in some 
cases drinks water. The female tigress after 
copulation rolls on the ground and sometimes 
goes to the water for bathing. It is seen that 
the female goes to water at 3 to 5 times a 
day during her heat period. 



After a short interval, the female again ap- 
proaches the male and the whole process of 
courtship and copulation is repeated. With re- 
peated copulations, initiative and eagerness of 
mating are seen more in the female than the 
male. The tigress proceeds to the male, rubs 
her head, body with the male and makes pur- 
ring sound and sits in front of the male in the 
mating posture inviting him to mount. The 
entire process of copulation lasts for 1 to 3 
minutes. 

In Calcutta Zoo tigers are allowed to mate 
from 7 a.m. to 10-30 a.m. in the morning and 
again at 2.30 p.m. to 5 p.m. in the afternoon, 
i.e. for 6 hours per day. The duration of mat- 
ing period as observed during 48 heat periods 
was from 3 to 9 days and average heat period 
was 5 — 9 days. The range of mating was from 
2 to 52 times per day and the averags per day 
was 22.2 times. The minimum interval be- 
tween two consecutive matings was 1 minute 
and maximum was 90 minutes and the average 
interval was 7.1 minutes. The highest number 



Table 4 

Observation of matings of Tiger, Panthera tigris tigris at Calcutta Zoo 



Number Duration Average Range Average Average Highest Lowest 

of heat of heat heat of matings interval number number 

Matings betweeu period period period matings per day between of of 

(days) (days) per day in 6 two matings matings 

(in 6 hours consecu- in a in a 

hrs) tive single single 

matings heat heat 

(in period period 
minutes) 



Malini x Neeladri 


16 


4—7 


5.1 


5—52 


25.1 


7.3 


235 


66 


Chandni x Himadri 


12 


3—6 


4.9 


2—45 


20.4 


4.9 


171 


20 


Chandni x Bhanu 


2 


4—7 


5.5 


4—44 


23.9 


5.3 


174 


89 


Rupa x Barun* 




7—9 


8 


3—25 


17.1 


. 12.9 


152 


122 


Shashi X Rabi 


7 


4—6 


5 


7—49 


25.8 


6.9 


167 


27 


Rupa x Arun* 


1 


6 


6 


12—26 


19.5 


6.9 


117 




Sona x Bhanu* 


4 


6—8 


6.4 


10—48 


25.1 


7.8 


206 


126 


Bharati x Johny* 


3 


6—9 


7.3 


1(7 — 47 


26 


5.6 


247 


170 


Moti x Bhanu 


1 


5 




9—35 


18.4 


6.7 


92 





Indicates the pair of tigers which lived together except at night. 



256 



REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR OF THE TIGER 



of matings observed in a single heat period 
was 235 times and the lowest was 20 times 
(Table 4). 
Gestation period: 

The gestation period of tiger is given as 105 
to 109 days by Asdell (1946). Crandall (1964) 
records the gestation period as 100 to 108 
days. Stracey (1968) records the gestation pe- 
riod as 15 to 16 weeks. Schaller (1967) re- 
ports the gestation period of tiger as 95 to 
107 days. Ewer (1973) shows the gestation 
period of Indian tiger as 95 to 109 days. It 



Percentage of pregnancies: 

The tigress does not become pregnant after 
matings in each heat period. In Calcutta Zoo, 
7 tigresses mated with the males in 48 heat 
periods from 1965 to 1977. Out of 48 mating 
or heat periods pregnancy occurred in 22 cases 
and did not occur in 26 cases. The percentage 
of pregnancy is therefore 45.8% only and non- 
pregnancy is 54.2%. (Table 5). It was ob- 
served that the number of heat periods and 
percentage of pregnancy were less when both 
sexes lived together except at night. 



Table 5 

Records of the percentage of pregnancy and non-pregnancy of Tiger, Panthera tigris tigris, in 

Calcutta Zoo 



Mating between 


Number 


Number 


Percentage 


Number 


Percentage 


(specimens) 


of 


of 




of 






mating 


pregnancy 




non- 






or heat 






pregnancy 






period. 








Malini x Neeladri 


16 


7 


43.7 


9 


56.3 


Chandni x Himadri 


12 


6 


50 


6 


50 


Chandni x Bhanu 


2 


1 


50 


1 


50 


Shashi x Rabi 


7 


5 


71.4 




28.6 


Bharati x Johny* 


3 




66.6 


1 


33.4 


Moti x Bhanu 


1 


1 


100 






Rupa x Arun* 


I 








100 


Rupa x Barun* 










100 


Sona x Bhanu* 


4 






4 


100 



* Indicates the pair of tigers which lived together except at night. 



is difficult to compare the above data, as in 
rtaost cases the date of conception is defined 
differently. Crandall (1964) shows the gesta- 
tion period of a tigress from the last observ- 
ed mating as 100 to 108 days. 

The duration of gestation period in the pre- 
sent observation has been estimated as the 
period from last day of mating to birth and 
the mean period was 103 days and the maxi- 
mum and minimum were 107 and 101 days 
respectively. 



Litter size: 

Asdell (1946) records that the size of the 
litters varies from one to six but usually two 
to three cubs are produced. Schaller ( 1967) 
shows that the size of the litters varies from 
1 to 7. Ewer (1973) reports that range of lit- 
ter size is from 1 to 4 but 2 to 3 cubs are 
usually produced. Schaller (1967) shows the 
average size of 79 litters of tiger cubs born 
in Zoos as 2.8. 

Data of 22 litters of tiger cubs at Calcutta 



257 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Zoo indicate that one cub per litter was on 
three occasions, two on nine occasions, four 
on eight occasions, three on one occasion and 
five cubs were born on one occasion. Average 
number of cubs per litter was 2.6 and the 
range of cubs per litter was 1 to 5 (Table 6 
and Genealogical chart of white tigers). 



Litter size and sex ratio of tiger, Panthera tigi 
tigris, in Calcutta Zoo 



Specimens Litter Size 


Sex Ratio 


Total Number of 


Average Male Female 


number cubs in 


number 


of litter 


of cubs 


litters 


in litter 



Malini 


7 


1—4 


2.0 


8 


6 


Chandni 


7 


2—4 


3.2 


8 


15 


Shashi 


5 


2 — 5 


3.8 


7 


12 


Bharati 


2 




1.5 


1 


2 


Moti 


1 


2 


2 


1 


1 










25 


36 












J 



Sex ratio: 

Thirty two tiger cubs were born in eleven 
litters to one tigress from 1948 to 1959 at New 
York Zoological Park, the divisions of sexes 
being nineteen males and thirteen females 
(Crandall 1964). According to Schaller (1967) 
the sex ratio of 196 tiger cubs at birth in va- 
rious Zoological Gardens was 100 males and 
100 females. Acharjyo and Mohapatra (1977) 
reported that 18 tiger cubs were born from 
1960 to 1975 in Nandan Kanan Biological 
Park, Orissa of which 6 were males and 12 
were females with a sex ratio of 50 : 100. 

In Calcutta Zoo five tigresses gave birth to 
61 cubs from 1965 to 1977 in 22 litters, the 
divisions of sexes being 25 males and 36 fe- 
males. The ratio of male and female cubs was 
100 : 144 (Table 6). 
Ratio of white and coloured cubs: 

In Calcutta Zoo 56 cubs were born out of 
crossing between pure white tigers with co- 
loured hybrids, among pure whites, among co- 
loured hybrids and between pure white and 
pure coloured tigers. Fourteen cubs were born 



q WHITE KHALI 

0 COLOUftEV MALI 
^ COLOUKBt FiNALE 




Genealogy of white tiger Panthera tigris tigris. at Calcutta zoo. 



258 



REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR OF THE TIGER 



to Malini (coloured hybrid female) being cros- 
sed with Neeladri (pure white male). The 
ratio of white and coloured cubs was 7 : 7. 
Twenty cubs were born to Chandni (pure 
white female) being crossed with Himadri 
(pure white male). All cubs were white. But 
Chandni when crossed with Bhanu (pure co- 
loured Burmese male tiger) produced 3 co- 
loured cubs. Nineteen cubs were born to Sha- 
shi (coloured hybrid female) being crossed 
with Rabi (coloured hybrid male). The ratio 
of white and coloured cubs was 1 : 18 (Ge- 
nealogical chart of white tiger). 

Discussion and conclusion 

Tigers mate throughout the year and cubs 
are produced during all seasons in captivity 
although there are peak periods of matings 
and births. High percentage of mating took 
place in the month of January, February. 
March, April, June and October and mating 
percentage is low in other months of the year. 
High percentage of birth occurred in March, 
April, May, June, July and September. These 
correspond to the high breeding activities in 
the month of January, February, March, April, 
June and October. In the month of February, 
August and December not a single cub was 
born. These correspond with low breeding acti- 
vities in the month of November, September 
and May. 

The variations in the peak period of birth 
and mating may be due to climatic condition 
and other conditions in captivity. 

All Felidae appear to be polyoestrus in 
tropics (Asdell 1946, Crandall 1964, Prater 
1964). Crandall (1964) shows that the recep- 
tivity of tigress lasts about 5 days on aver- 
age. Sankhala (1967) states that the mating 
period of the tiger ranges from 3 to 23 days. 
Schaller (1967) reports the average length of 



receptivity of 14 oestrus periods as 7.1 days. 
At Calcutta Zoo the duration of 48 oestrus 
periods of 7 tigresses ranged from 3 to 9 
days and the average length of oestrus was 
5.9 days. The variations in oestrus periods 
may be due to age, physical condition and 
frequency of copulation. Last oestrus phase 
was observed in a tigress (Malini) upto the 
age of 16 yrs. This suggests that menopause 
starts in a tigress after 16 years. It needs fur- 
ther verification. 

There is much individual variations in the 
age at which the tigresses become sexually 
mature. It appears that tigresses attain sexual 
maturity at ages between 3 V to 5 years. But 
no clear conclusion can be drawn from these 
small examples. 

The compatible pair of tigers mate freely 
in captivity but there is a chance of serious 
injury in first meeting. It can be seen from 
the Table 4 that the range of mating period 
is greater in case of tigresses which live to- 
gether with the males in captivity. It may 
be due to the fact that the females are with 
the males at the vary beginning of oestrus 
or heat period. The average heat period of 
tigress in captivity is 5.9 days and the average 
matings per day is 22.2 times. 

The range of gestation period of four ti- 
gresses in 22 litters was from 101 to 107 days 
with an average of 103 days. These data com- 
pare well with the gestation period given by 
other authors (Asdell 1946. Crandall 1964 
and Ewer 1973). 

The tigress does not become pregnant after 
matings in each heat period in captivity. The 
data of pregnancy show that out of matings 
in 48 heat periods, pregnancy occurred in 22 
cases and did not occur in 26 cases. The per- 
centage of pregnancy was 45.8% and non- 
pregnancy was 54.2%. It is not known whe- 
ther the age, physical condition, range of mat- 



259 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



ing period and number of matings in each 
heat period of a tigress have any role in preg- 
nancy. 

Crandall (1964) reported that the average 
number at birth of tiger cubs at London Zoo 
in 17 litters was 2.3 per litter. Tn Calcutta 
Zoo, the range of tiger cubs per litter was 
from 1 to 5 with an average of 2.6 cubs per 
litter. Usually 2 or 4 cubs were born in Cal- 
cutta Zoo. it seems probable that condition 
of health, availability of food, and stress and 
strain in Zoo condition have some role in litter 
size of a tigress. 

The sex ratio of tiger cubs at birth varies 
widely. The ratio of male and female cubs 
born in Calcutta Zoo from 1965 to 1977 was 
100: 144. 

Genealogical chart (if white tigers shows 
that the ratio of white and coloured cubs pro- 
duced in a crossing between pure white male 
with coloured hybrid^female is 7 : 7. The pure 




Refer 

Asdell, S. A. (1946): Patterns of Mammalian 
Reproduction. Ithaca. New York. Comstock Pub- 
lishing Co. Inc. 

Acharjyo, L. N. & Mohapatra, S. (1977) : Sex 
ratio at birth in some captive wild mammals. /. 
Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 74: 167-169. 

Crandall,, L. S. (1964) : Management of Wild 
animals in Captivity. London & Chicago. The Uni- 
versity of Chicago Press. The University of Toronto 
Press, Toionto-5, Canada. 

Ewer, R. F. (1973): The Carnivores. Weiden- 
felcl & Nicolson, London Wl. 

Mount fort, G. (1973): Tigers. David & Charles 
(Holdings) Ltd.. South Devon House. Newton 
Abbot. Devon. 



while female when crossed with pure white 
male produces all white cubs and pure white 
female when crossed with pure coloured male 
produces all coloured cubs. All these data 
are in conformity with the laws of inheritance. 
The data of crossing between coloured hybrid 
female with coloured hybrid male are yet to 
be observed. 

The tigers' adaptibility, wide range in choice 
of habitat and above all its remarkably short 
gestation period suggest that under favour- 
able condition it can survive well. 

Ac K N OW LEDGE ME NTS 

1 am grateful to Dr. D. K. Nanda, Depart- 
ment of Zoology, University of Calcutta for 
kindly going through the manuscript and sug- 
gesting some improvements. T am also grate- 
ful to Shri R. P. Banerjee, a lover of wild life 
for kindly making available some important 
reference books and his encouragement. 

E N CES 

Prater, S. H. (1964): The Book of Indian Ani- 
mals. Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay. 

Sanyal, R. B. (1892): A Hand Book of the 
Management of Animals in Captivity in Lower 
Bengal. Bengal Secretariat Press, Calcutta. 

Schaller, G. B. (1967): The Deer and the Tiger. 
The University of Chicago Press. Chicago & London. 
The University of Toronto Press. Toronlo-5. Ca- 
nada. 

Sankhala, K. S. (1967): Breeding behaviour of 
Tiger in Rajasthan. Int. Zoo Yb. 7: 133-147. 

Stracey, P. D. (1968): Tigers. Arthur Barker 
Limited. 5, Winsley Street. London Wl & Golden 
Press, New York. 



260 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS ON THE STATUS OF 
SILVER CARP IN RELATION TO CATLA IN THE 
CULTURE FISHERY OF KULGARHI RESERVOIR 1 

S. J. Karamchandani- and D. N. Mishra 3 
(With two text -figures) 



Introduction 

The Chinese carp, Hypophthalmichthys 
molitrix (C.&V.), popularly known as silver 
carp, is an exotic fish introduced into India 
from Japan in September 1959. It is native 
to Chinese rivers, but has been introduced into 
almost all the South-east Asian countries. The 
work carried out at the Pond Culture Divi- 
sion of Central Inland Fisheries Research In- 
stitute, Cuttack has shown that silver carp is 
a fast growing fish, growing faster than catla 
and that its growth in Indian waters is faster 
than in its native waters. The observations 
further indicated that though the production 
of silver carp alone in a pond is over double 
that of catla, the presence of both in a pond 
seems to affect the growth of either adversely 
(Aiikunhi and Sukumaran 1964). With this 
background, a small consignment of silver 
carp fingerlings was stocked in Kulgarhi re- 
servoir on experimental basis on 11-2-1969. 
Based on the recovery of 8 specimens of silver 
carp (size range: 575-794 mm) from Kulgarhi 
reservoir during the period 2.12.69 to 4.6.71, 
Rao and Dwivedi (1972) have reported ex- 
cellent growth of this exotic fish, thus indicat- 

1 Accepted February 1979. 

2 Small Reservoirs Unit, Central Inland Fisheries 
Research Institute, Rewa (M.P.). Present address: 
Central Inland Fisheries Research Sub-station, Alla- 
habad, (U.P.). 



ing a great promise for the increased fish pro- 
duction from the reservoir. However, in a 
separate study, the comparison of growth rates 
of silver carp and catla from Kulgarhi reser- 
voir has indicated that the culture of silver 
carp with catla in the reservoir adversely 
affects the growth of the latter. It is well known 
that the food habits of a fish have a direct 
bearing on its growth and survival. With a 
view to evaluate the status of silver carp in 
culture fishery of the reservoir with particular 
reference to catla, the observations were made 
on the food habits and the growth of silver 
carp and catla from Kulgarhi reservoir during 
the period 2.12.1969 to 22.12.1972 and the re- 
sults thereof are reported in this communica- 
lion. 

Kulgarhi Reservoir : 

It is situated about 85 km from Rewa in 
Nagod Tahsil, Satna District, Madhya Pradesh 
near Kulgarhi village, its geographical loca- 
tion being 80° 44' 0"E longitude and 24° 28' 
50"N latitude. 

The work on the construction of the reser- 
voir was started in the year 1959 and com- 
pleted in the year 1966. On the north of it, 
an earthen dam having a length of 1450 m and 
maximum height of 18.6 m has been con- 
structed across a seasonal stream called Durha 

3 Central Inland Fisheries Research Sub-centre, 
Jaunpur (U.P.). 



261 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



nalah (Ganga river basin), which originates 
from hills surrounding the reservoir on east, 
south and west sides and drains rain water 
from the catchment area of 10.69 sq. miles 
into the reservoir from south-west corner. The 
waste weir is located on the north-east side 
of the reservoir. The maximum water spread 
area is 193.5 hectres which was attained for 
the first time during 1971 monsoon season. 
The live storage capacity of the reservoir is 
306 mc ft., whereas its dead storage capacity 
is only 26 mc ft. 

Material and method 

The construction work of Kulgarhi reser- 
voir was completed in the year 1966. The 
fingerlings of major carps including catla 
were stocked for the first time in Kulgarhi re- 
-ser^oairin_the year 1966 and again in the year 
1968. The fry ot silver carp (size range: 15- 
17 mm), which were obtained from Cuttack 
Sub-station of this Institute in September 1968, 
were reared in a nursery pond at Satna (M.P. ) 
till the beginning of February 1969 and 229 
fingerlings (size range: 121-216 mm) recover- 
ed from this nursery pond were stocked in 
the reservoir on 11.2.1969. 

For comparing the growth patterns of catla 
and silver carp, 137 specimens of the former 
belonging to 1966 brood and captured from 
the reservoir from February 1968 to June 
1972 and 12 specimens of the latter belonging 
to 1968 brood and captured from December 
1969 to December 1972 have been utilized. 
The age of the individual specimen of catla 
and silver carp in terms of months has been 
determined on the basis of date of their re- 
covery from the reservoir, assuming period 
of their hatching as August 1966 and August 
1968 respectively. 

For food studies, the guts of 11 specimens 



of silver carp and 11 specimens of catla ob- 
tained in the months of December 1969, Sep- 
tember 1970, February 1971, June 1971, July 
1971, March 1972 and June 1972 were exa- 
mined and their gut-contents compared. 

Observations 

Food and feeding habits: 

The observations on the gut-contents of 
silver carp and catla by Alikunhi and Sukuma- 
ran (1964) have shown that both are plankton 
feeders and the differences in feeding habits 
are only structurally indicated. Singh (1972) 
has stated that silver carp competes for food 
with catla, both being surface feeders. Accord- 
ing to Chakraborty (1972), silver carp and 
catla are both dwellers of the same strata of 
water in ponds and there is some overlapping 
in the food spectrum of these two species. 
Laxshmanan el al. (1971) have observed keen 
competition for the same type of food be- 
tween catla and silver carp. 

Like catla, silver carp has a terminal mouth 
indicating surface feeding habits. The presence 
of insignificant quantities of decayed organic 
matter and sand mixed with mud in the guts 
of the two species in most of the months* in 
Kulgarhi reservoir has also indicated that the 
two species rarely feed at bottom. 

The gut length in young silver carp (size 
range; 52-367 mm) is 3.0 to 7.8 times the 
total length of the fish (Inaba and Nomura 
1956). In the present study, the ratio of fish 
length to gut-length in adult silver carp (size 
range: 575-795 mm) has been found to vary 
from 1:4.36 to 1:8.6 (Av.-1:6.25) and is al- 

4 Only in the month of June when the water level 
in the reservoir was low, the guts of the two species 
were found to contain sufficient quantities of sand 
mixed with mud and the bottom debris. 



262 



SILVER CARP AND CAT LA IN CULTURE FISHERY 



most comparable to that of catla (Range— 
1:5.5 to 1:9.58; Av.- 1:7.39). This seems to 
indicate that the food and feeding habits of 
the two species are almost the same, as the 
length of the gut depends on the nature of 
the food taken by the fish (Mookerjee and 
Das 1945). 

The foregoing observations seem to give 
clue to the fact that when silver carp and catla 
are cultured together, they mutually compete 
for the same type of food. With a view to 
elucidate this point, the guts of the two species 
obtained during the corresponding months 
were examined for their contents. The overall 
composition of the gut-contents of silver carp 
and catla, as determined in the present study, 
has been compared and given in Table 1. 

Table 1 



Comparison of gut-contents of silver carp and 
catla from kulgarhi reservoir 



Items of gut-contents 


Silver carp 


Catla 


Sand mixed with mud 


13.29% 


5.75% 


Decayed organic matter 


7.14 


7.19 


Digested matter 


40.29 


67.95 


Blue-green algae 


4.32 


12.96 


Green algae 


9.09 


0.43 


Diatoms 


3.76 


1.79 


Dinoflagellates 


1.07 


0.06 


Rotifers 


20.81 


2.31 


Copepods 


0.23 


1.30 


Cladocerans 




0.26 



According to Inaba and Nomura (1956), 
silver carp has specialised structure of the gill 
rakers adapted to micro-plankton feeding and 
is predominantly phytoplankton feeder. Ali- 
kunhi and Sukumaran (1964) have observed 
that silver carp feeds predominantly on phy- 
toplankton and it is an efficient converter of 
basic food, whereas catla is predominantly 
zooplankton feeder. 



In the present case (vide Table 1), silver 
carp and catla have been found to subsist on 
almost equal quantities of phytoplankton 
(18.24% and 15.24% respectively). Among 
phytoplankton, the green algae was the most 
dominant (9.09%) in the diet of silver carp, 
followed by blue-green algae (4.32%), diatoms 
(3.76%) and dinoflagellates (1.07%), where- 
as catla was found to feed predominantly on 
blue-green algae (12.96%) and insignificantly 
on diatoms (1.79%), green algae (0.43%) and 
dinoflagellates (0.06%). Melosira, Eunotia, 
Cyclolella and Navicula among diatoms; Chlo- 
rella, Gloeocystis, Scenedesmus, Coelasirwn 
and Tetraedron among green-algae; Microcystis 
and Merismopedia among blue-green algae; 
Peridinium and Ceratium among dinoflagella- 
tes were the most dominant in the diet of sil- 
ver carp. Melosira and Cyclotella among dia- 
toms: Gloeocystis and Scenedesmus among 
green algae: Microcystis among blue-green 
algae; and Peridinium and Ceratium among 
dinoflagellates were likewise the most domi- 
nant in the diet of catla. In the guts of silver 
carp, the zooplankton (21.04%) was made up 
almost entirely of rotifers (20.81%), the only 
other component insignificantly represented 
being copepods (0.23%). Catla is known 
to be mainly zooplankton feeder. As the 
foregut in catla has a rudimentary stomach 
in the form of slightly dilated bulb, most of 
the crustaceans (copepods and cladocerans) 
get digested. As such the bulk of this group 
is encountered in digested condition (67.95%) 
and very little of it is in identifiable condition 
(copepods: 1.3% and cladocerans: 0.26%). 
In the diet of silver carp, Keratella among roti- 
fers and Cyclops among copepods were the 
most common forms, whereas in the diet of 
catla, Keratella among rotifers; Cyclops, Nau- 
plius and Diaptomus among copepods; and 
Bosmina and Daphnia among cladocerans were 



263 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



the most common forms. 

The observations on the feeding intensity of 
silver carp and catla have indicated that the 
former is more voracious feeder than the lat- 
ter. 50% of the guts of silver carp were full, 



the gastrosomatic index being 20.05. In com- 
parison to silver carp, catla appears to be a 
moderate feeder (9.1% of the guts full and 
the gastrosomatic index— 7.4). As catla feeds 
on crustaceans (nutritiously rich food), it 




20 30 
A G 



40 50 60 

E (MONTHS) 



Fig. 1. Growth pattern, by length and weight, of catla (l%6 brood). 



264 



SILVER CARP AND CA TLA IN CULTURE FISHERY 





5 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



requires comparatively little quantity of food 
for its normal fast growth. On the other hand, 
silver carp feeds abundantly on rotifers and 
sparingly on copepods. The two species sub- 
sist on almost equal quantities of phytoplank- 
ton. The food of silver carp is therefore not 
so nutritiously rich as that of catla. Hence, it 
is imperative that in order to attain fast 
growth, silver carp consume food at faster 
rates than catla. 
Growth : 

As already stated, the fingerlings of catla 
were stocked in the reservoir for the first time 
in the year 1966 and again in the year 1968. 
From the fact that the reservoir was not stock- 
ed with catla in the year 1967, it has been pos- 
sible to separate catla specimens belonging 



terms of months of 12 silver carp captured 
from the reservoir has also been determined 
from the date of their recovery (vide Appen- 
dix I). Based on the data on growth by length 
and weight of catla and silver carp, the growth 
curves for the two species have been drawn 
in figs. 1 and 2, and the growth in terms of 
months, as has been read off from the curves, 
is presented in Table 2. 

From the analysis of growth data on silver 
carp and catla, the following facts emerged: 

(i) The growth of silver carp was fast in 
the early period, i.e. upto 25 months (fig. 2), 
when the plankton was abundant and silver 
carp could feed voraciously on rotifers. But 
the growth of silver carp showed decline in the 
later period, i.e. in following 25 to 50 months, 



Table 2 



Growth of silver carp and catla in Kulgarhi reservoir 



Date 



Age 
(in months) 



Total length 
(mm) 



Growth 
rate (mm) 



Weight 
(kg) 



Growth rate 
(kg) 



March '70 
January '71 
November '71 
September '72 

March '68 
* January '69 
November '69 
September '70 
July '71 
May '72 



SILVER CARP 
650 
760 



830 

< 

610 
760 
825 
850 
855 
855 



CATLA 



110 
40 
30 



150 
65 
25 
5 
0 



3.00 
5.25 
6.00 
6.50 

4.50 
8.25 
9.75 
10.00 
10.25 
10.25 



2.25 
0.75 
0.50 



3.75 
1.50 
0.25 
0.25 
0.00 



* Silver carp was introduced in the reservoir in February 1969. 



to 1966 and 1968 broods captured from Feb- 
ruary 1968 to June 1972 and assign age to 
the individual fish in terms of months on the 
basis of date of their capture. As the finger- 
lings of silver carp were stocked in the reser- 
voir only once in February 1969, the age in 



when rotifers were poorly represented in 
plankton (vide Table 3). 

(ii) Catla belonging to 1966 brood showed 
normal growth up to the time silver carp was 
absent in the reservoir, but with the introduc- 
tion of silver carp in February 1969, catla 



266 



SILVER CARP AND CA TLA IN CULTURE FISHERY 



showed retarded growth thereafter (fig. 1). 
Catla belonging to 1968 brood showed 
extremely poor growth from the very begin- 
ning. 

From the above observations, it is evident 
that the culture of silver carp in Kulgarhi re- 
servoir has adversely affected the growth of 
catla. 

Remarks 

It is evident from the data presented that 
the growth of catla has greatly suffered since 
the time silver carp was introduced in Kul- 
garhi reservoir. Alikunhi and Sukumaran 
(1964) and Sukumaran et al. (1969) have 
stated that catla adversely suffers in competi- 
tion for food in presence of silver carp. Ac- 
cording to Singh (1972), silver carp competes 
for food with catla, both being surface feeders 
and the former grows much faster than the 
latter. Laxshmanan et al. (1971) have observ- 
ed that the Indian carps and the Chinese carps 



compete to some extent for the same type 
of food and this competition is more pro- 
nounced between catla and silver carp. Cha- 
kraborty (1972) has also observed that catla 
and silver carp are both dwellers of the same 
strata of water in ponds and thougli the for- 
mer feeds predominantly on zooplankton and 
the latter predominantly on phytoplankton, 
there appears to be some overlapping in the 
food spectrum of these two species. The obser- 
vations on the feeding habits of silver carp 
in Kulgarhi reservoir have, however, indicated 
that it is a more voracious feeder than catla and 
it feeds predominantly on rotifers. These ob- 
servations are amply confirmed when the data 
on the yearly fluctuations in plankton popu- 
lation of Kulgarhi reservoir from 1968-69 to 
1971-72, presented in Table 3, is critically 
examined. As is seen from this table, the popu- 
lation of rotifers and in turn that of zooplank- 
ton has suffered sharp decline immediately 
after the introduction of silver carp in the re- 
servoir and the lower level of rotifers and con- 



Table 3 

Yearly fluctuations in plankton count (Units per litre) in the surface collection samples of 
Kulgarhi reservoir from 1968-69 to 1971-72. 



Plankton 


1968-69 


1969-70 


1970-71 


1971-72 


Diatoms 


53.0 


106.2 


32.6 


6,0 


Green algae 


1.5 


8.1 


18.8 


11.5 


Blue-green algae 


14.8 


17.7 


31.1 


19.3 


Dinoflagellates 


123.3 


184.2 


150.9 


5.0 


PHYTOPLANKTON 


192.6 


316.2 


233.4 


41.8 


Protozoans 


13.7 


15.9 


36.6 


0.9 


Rotifers 


155.6 


45.4 


63.6 


7.1 


Copepods 


34.7 


28.0 


15.0 


8.6 


Cladocerans 


6.7 


1.9 


6.6 


2.6 


ZOOPLANKTON 


210.7 


91.2 


121.8 


19.2 


TOTAL PLANKTON 


403.3 


407.4 


355.2 


61.0 



267 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



sequently that of zooplankton concentrations 
has continued to prevail during subsequent 
years (1969-70 to 1971-72). This phenomenon 
cannot be considered merely a coincidence, as 
rotifers in large quantities have been encoun- 
tered in the guts of silver carp. Moreover, the 
depletion in rotifer population in Kulgarhi re- 
servoir, which has been recently constructed, 
cannot be attributed to trophic depression (re- 
ferred to by Jhingran 1965), as in that case 
the entire plankton population would have 
suffered depletion, which does not happen to 
be the case here. The total plankton, on the 
contrary continued to maintain almost the 
same level (355.2 to 407.4 u/1) during the first 
three years (1968-69 to 1970-71). 

Since catla does not feed exclusively or even 
abundantly on rotifers, silver carp by feeding 
on rotifer^do^iriioT~se«m~4o compete directly 
withT catla in food. The overwhelming prefer- 
ence for rotifers (mostly Keratella) by silver 
carp has probably created imbalance in plank- 
ton production cycle, greatly affecting the pro- 
duction of zooplankton, which constitutes the 
main food of catla. Thus, it is probable that 
catla indirectly suffers in the presence of silver 
carp. Furthermore, silver carp is known to 
grow faster than catla (Alikunhi and Suku- 
maran 1964, and Singh 1972). It is therefore 
imperative that in order to maintain Easter 
growth, silver carp devours plankton at faster 
rate. Singh (1972) also stated that silver carp 
has the capacity to utilize the natural food 
(phyto-and zoo-plankton) efficiently. As such, 
it is not difficult to visualize that in any body 
of water populated with silver carp, if the rate 
of plankton production does not keep pace 
with that of plankton consumption by silver 
carp, such waters would soon result in poor 
productivity and affect the normal growth of 
major carps, particularly catla, cultured along 
with it. It may therefore be surmised that it 



would not be a profitable proposition to cul- 
ture silver carp along with catla in the reser- 
voir. In view of these considerations, it is 
deemed proper to undertake further detailed 
biological studies on silver carp before its in- 
troduction in Indian reservoirs for large scale 
cultivation. In this context, Alikunhi and 
Sukumaran (1964) have expressed the view 
that 'further detailed observations are neces- 
sary before decision is taken about large-scale 
introduction of silver carp for cultivation in 
ponds in India'. Singh (1972) has also ex- 
pressed the opinion that 'the question of re- 
lease of silver carp in open waters where it 
could exercise some adverse effect on major 
carps fishery, particularly of catla, may await 
further investigations', as 'hasty transplanta- 
tions for hobby or trade are likely to prove 
hazardous'. 

Silver carp is reported to have more or less 
similar breeding habits as those of Indian 
major carps (Chaudhuri 1969) and it has been 
found to breed naturally in Tone river of 
Japan (Konradt 1968) and in Ah Kung Tian 
reservoir of Taiwan (Tang 1963). Instances 
of breeding of major carps in Indian reservoirs 
under suitable conditions are not rare. If silver 
carp is stocked in Indian reservoirs on large 
scale and it starts breeding in them naturally, 
it may prove to be a menace to the culture 
fishery of these waters. 

Acknowledgements 

We are grateful to Dr. V. G. Jhingran, 
Director and Dr. Y. R. Tripathi former De- 
puty Director, of this Institute for their keen 
interest in this work and to Dr. A. V. Nata- 
rajan, Scientist S-3 and to Shri J. C. Malho- 
tra, Scientist S-3 for going through the manus- 
cript critically. Thanks are due to Shri G. K. 



268 



SILVER CARP AND CATLA IN CULTURE FISHERY 



Bhatnagar, Scientist S-2 and Shri P. N. Jait- plankton data of Kulgarhi reservoir at our 
ley, Senior Research Assistant, for placing the disposal. 



References 



Alikunhi, K. H. and Sukumaran, K. K. 
(1964): Preliminary observations on Chinese carps 
in India. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (B) 60 (3): 171- 
188. 

Chakraborty, R. D. (1972): Composite culture 
of Indian and exotic fishes. Silver Jubilee Souvenir, 
Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Barrack- 
pore. December 1972. 25: 29. 

Chaudhuri, H. (1969): Breeding habits of cul- 
tivated fishes. F AO I UNDP Regional Seminar on 
induced breeding of cultivated fishes, Calcutta, Cut- 
tack, Bombay: 1-13. 

*Inaba, D. and Nomura, M. (1956): On the 
digestive system and feeding habits of young Chi- 
nese carps collected from Tone river. /. Tokyo 
Univ. Fish, 42 (1) : 17-24. 

Ihingran, V. G. (1965): Report on Inland 
Fisheries Research and management and fish cul- 
ture in the USSR., Misc. Contri. No. 5. Central 
Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Barrackpore 
1-27. 

♦Konradt. A. G. (1968): Methods of breeding 
the grass carp. Ctenopharyngodon idella and silver 
carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. FAO Fish Rep.. 
(44), 4: 195-204. 

Laxshmanan, M. A. V., Sukumaran, K. K., 
Murty, D. S., Chakraborty. D. P. and Philipose. 



M. T. (1971): Preliminary observations on inten- 
sive fish farming in fresh-water ponds by the com- 
posite culture of Indian and exotic species., /. Inland 
Fish. Soc. India, 3: 1-21. 

Mookerjee, H. K. and Das, B. K. (1945) : Gut 
of carnivorous and herbivorous fishes in relation 
to their food at different stages of their life. Proc. 
32nd Indian Science Congress, Part ///, Abstracts.: 
109. 

Rao, J. B. and Dwivedi, R. K. (1972): On the 
recovery and growth of silver carp (Hypophthal- 
michthys molitrix) from Kulgarhi reservoir (M.P.). 
/. Inland. Fish. Soc. India., 4: 214-215. 

Singh, S. B. (1972): Role of exotic fish on pis- 
ciculture in India. Silver Jubilee, Souvenir, Central 
Inland Fisheries Research Institute. Barrackpore, 
30-33. 

Sukumaran, K. K., Singh, S. B., Murty, D. S. 
and Chakraborty, P. C. (1969): Studies on com- 
patibility and competition between Silver carp, 
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Val.) and Catla, 
Catla catla (Ham.). Proc. Indo-Pacif. Fish Coun., 
13 (2): 185-194. 

*Tang, Y. A. (1963): Report on the investigation 
of spawning of Chinese carps in Ah Kung Tian 
reservoir. Bull. Taiwan Fish. Res. Inst., (8) : 30 p. 

* Not referred in original. 



269 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 

APPENDIX I 



Details 


Or RECOVERY 


OF SILVER CARP FROM KULGARHI 


RESERVOIR DURING 


the period 3.12.1969 to 22.12.72. 


SI. No. 


Date of 
recovery 


*Age (in months) 


Total length 


Weight 
(kg) 


Sex 


1 


3.12.69 


16 


575 


2.00 


M 


2 


5.9.70 


25 


755 


5.00 


F 


3 


5.2.71 


30 


728 


5.00 


M 


4 


15.2.71 


30 


727 


4.50 


M 


5 


15.2.71 


30 


795 


5.00 


M 


6 


15.2.71 


30 


744 


5.00 


M 


7 


17.2.71 


30 


777 


5.00 


M 


8 


4.4.71 


34 


768 


5.00 


M 




23.7.71 


36 


800 


6.00 


F 


10 


28.3.72 


44 


835 


7.00 


F 


11 


28.6.72 


47 


790 


5.75 


M 


12 


22.12.72 


53 


850 


6.50 


M 



* Counted from August 1968. 



270 



NOTES ON THE FERNS AND FERN-ALLIES IN THE 
BOTANY OF ORISSA 1 



N. C. Nair 2 and R. K. Ghosh 3 

Psilotum nudum (Linn.) Griseb., Helminthostachys zeylanka (Linn.) Maxon, 
Actiniopteris radiata (Sw.) Link, Pteris biaurita Linn., Pteris quadriaurha (sensu 
lato). Doryopteris concolor (Langsd. et Fisch.) Kuhn, Diplazium lasioptcris Kunze, 
Sphenomeris chinensis (Linn.) Maxon, Asplenium inacquilaterale Willd., Asplenium 
unitaterale Lamk. var. majus (C. Chr.) Sledge, Asplenium various Hook, ex Grev., 
Colysis hemionitidea (Wall.) Presl, Pyrrosia mollis (Kze.) Ching and Pyrrosia naya- 
rittna Ching et Chandra are reported from Orissa with notes of interest. 



Introduction 

In an earlier paper (Nair and Ghosh 1975) 
notes on eleven new distributional records to 
the Botany of Orissa have been given. Further 
critical study of our collections as well as 
those of earlier collectors from Orissa particu- 
larly from Koraput and Kalahandi Districts 
have enabled us to discover more interesting 
taxa of ferns and fern-allies several of which 
are found to be additions to the flora of 
Orissa. Notes on these taxa are presented here 
along with certain noteworthy features of other 
ferns collected from the area. With the present 
account the total number of ferns recorded so 
far from Orissa goes up to 116 (cf. Haines 
1924, Mooney 1950, Panigrahi et al. 1964, 
Nair and Ghosh 1975, 1978). 

The specimens mentioned are deposited in 
the herbarium of the Botanical Survey of 
India, Howrah (CAL). The arrangement of 
homosporous ferns are after Nayar (1974). 

1 Accepted December 1978. We are thankful to 
Sreemathy C. K. Vijayam for typing the manuscript. 

- Botanical Survey of India, Southern Circle, 
Coimbatore-641 003. 

3 Botanical Survey of India. Indian Botanic Gar- 
den. Sibpore. Howrah. 



I. PSILOTACEAE 

Psilotum nudum (Linn.) Griseb. in Abh. 
Ges. Wiss. Gotting. 7: 278, 1857; Clarke in 
Trans. Linn. Soc. London 2, Bot. 1: 589, 1880; 
Engl. Pflanzenw. Afr. 2: 76. fig. 75, 1908. 
Lycopodium nudum Linn. Sp. PI. 2: 1100, 
1753. Psilotum triquetrum Sw. Syn. Fil. 187, 
1806; Baker, Fern Allies 30, 1887; Adams et 
Alston in Bull. Brit. Mus. 1: 185, 1955. 

This is predominantly a tropical and sub- 
tropical taxon and is common along the 
coastland of India particularly among the ad- 
ventitious roots of coconut trees. Sometimes it 
grows on mossy moist rocks in shade. The 
present specimens were collected from steep 
mossy rocks along the banks of Karandy river. 
The species has an altitudinal range from sea 
level up to 1250 m. 

Material examined. Dodari, Koraput Dist., 
1200 m, TV. C. Nair 53258 (6-2-1976), 53297 
(9-2-1976). 

II. Ophioglossaceae 

Helminthostachys zeylanica (Linn.) Hook. 
Gen. t. 47, 1840; Bedd. Handb. Ferns. 
Brit. India 467, 1883; C. Chr. Ind. Fil. 



271 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



344, 1906; Haines, Bot. Bihar, Orissa, 3: 
1268, 1924. Osmunda zeylanica Linn. Sp. 
PI. 1063, 1753. 
Haines (1924) states that he could not find 
any specimen from Bihar or Orissa. But, he 
did see specimens from Bengal. This appears 
to be a rare taxon in Orissa. Although we 
made extensive exploration in Koraput and 
Kalahandi districts we could not come across 
this species. The present record is based on 
the collections of Shri D. C. S. Raju. We are 
thankful to him for placing his collection at 
our disposal. 

Material examined: Dharmagod Reserve 
forest near Govindapally (Koraput Dist.), D. 
C. S. Raju 1242 (19-11-1963), 2403 (10-8-65). 
On southern slopes in sal forest. 

III. Pteridaceae 

1 . Actiniopteris radiata (Sw.) Link, Fil. Sp. 
Hort. Reg. Bot. Beroi. Cult. 80, 1841; 
Bedd. Ferns. South India t. 124, 1865; 
Pichisermolli in Webbia, 17: 318, 
1963. Aspleniwn radiatum Sw. in 
Schrad. Journ. Bot. 1800: 50, 1801. 
Actiniopteris dichotoma Forsk. Fl. 
Aeg.-Arb. 184, 1775 (non Linn. 
1753)); Bedd. Handb. Ferns. Brit. 
India 197, t. 98, 1883. Actiniopteris 
australis auct. (non Link, 1841). 
Mooney (1950) states that "it seems very 
doubtful if this fern occurs within the boun- 
daries of our province". We have seen several 
collections from the area. This appears to be 
a rare species in Orissa. 

Material examined: Sunki, D. C. S. Raju 
2090 (24-7-1965), D. C. S. Raju 9655; Kora- 
put Dist. D. C. S. Raju s.n. 
2. Pteris biaurita Linn. Sp. PI. 1076, 1753; 
Haines, Bot. Bihar, Orissa 1203, 1924. 
Mooney, Suppl. Bot. Bihar, Orissa 222, 



1950. Campteria biaurita (Linn.) Hook. 

Gen. Fil. t. 65A, 1841; Bedd. Handb. 

Ferns. Brit. India 116, 1883. 
This pantropic species has been collected 
from several localities in Orissa. It has a lik- 
ing for lightly shady moist places particularly 
near streams and springs. This has 5 to 9 pairs 
of opposite pinnae with an apical pinna hav- 
ing the same shape like all the others. The 
lowest pair of pinnae are the longest of the 
lot and are again branched near the base. This 
being the usual condition we have come across 
a large plant of (over 2 m) the taxon near 
a stream on Devi hill, Jeypore (Koraput 
Dist.), in which each of the lowest pair of 
pinnae had four secondary pinnae each, on 
the basiscopic side. Each of the branches had 
20-26 falcate and widely spaced segments. 

Material examined. Devi Hill, Jeypore 
(Koraput Dist.), N. C. Nair 51312 (25-10-73). 
3. Pteris quadriaurita Retz. in Obs. Bot. 6: 

38, 1791 (?) 
It has been shown earlier (Nair and S. R. 
Ghosh 1975) that Pteris quadriaurita Retz. 
is strictly a Ceylonese and South Indian species 
and that the reports of the taxon from other 
parts of the subcontinent of India need con- 
firmation. Typical Pteris quadriaurita Retz. has 
segments with rounded and serrated apex, 
sinus reaching nearly to the costa and the 
lower branch of the lowest vein reaching 
above sinus (Hieronymus 1914). In the pre- 
sent study we have come across a plant with 
venation similar to that of P. quadriaurita 
Retz., but the apex of the segments was not 
serrated. The costa and costules of this plant 
were sparsely white hairy on the lower surface. 
There are very few hairs on the upper sur- 
face of the segments as well as on the costa. 
On the lower surface of some of the pinnules 
there were adventitious buds on the costa deve- 
loping into plantlets. Generally leaves sprouting 



272 



FERNS & FERN-ALLIES IN ORISSA 



from bulbils have the same form as leaves of 
the parent plant. But here, fronds arising from 
the adventitious buds are very different from 
the ordinary parent frond. Similar heteromor- 
phy in leaves of the genus has been earlier re- 
ported by Masters (1868). 

On an examination of specimens belonging 
to Pteris from the Central National Herbar- 
ium, Sibpur, we have come across a specimen 
collected from Manipur, Naga Hills, by S. K. 
Mukerjee 3477 and determined by G. Pani- 
grahi as Pteris biaurita Linn, "showing adven- 
titious buds on the lower side of the frond. 
It is certainly not Pteris biaurita since the 
lowest veins of segments are not arching. This 
specimen also has segments with non-serrated 
apex and the basal branch of the lowest vein 
of the segment reaches above the sinus. But 
the specimens differ from our plant in having 
(1) purplish costa and costule and (2) glabr- 
ous costa and costule. 

While it is certain that the Orissa specimens 
do not belong to Pteris quadriaurita Retz. 
{sensu stricto) their taxonomic status will re- 
main open to question till further materials 
are at hand. 

Material examined. Devmali (Koraput 
Dist.), 1500 m, N. C. Near 53289 (7-2-1976) 
under deep shade near stream. 

IV Ceieilanthaceae 

1 . Doryopteris concolor (Langsd, et Fisch.) 
Kuhn, V. Decken Reis. 3, Bot. 19, 1789; 
C. Christens. Ind. Fil. 243. 1906; Nayar 
et Kaur Companion Bedd. Handb. Ferns 
Brit. India 28, 1974. Pteris concolor 
Langsd. et Fisch. Ic. Fil. 19, t. 21, 1810 
Pteris geraniifolia Bedd. Ferns. South 
India t. 37, 1863. Pellaea geraniifolia 
Hook, et Bak. Syn. Fil. 146. 1865. Pel- 
laea concolor (Langsd. et Fisch.) Bedd. 



Handb. Fern. Brit. India 100, 1883. 

In India this fern has been previously re- 
ported only from the Western Ghats of the 
former Presidency of Madras, at an altitude 
above 1000 m. In these places it is reported 
to be a common species. 

We have collected the species from areas 
adjoining Orissa, such as Anantagiri and San- 
kermata in Andhra Pradesh from altitudes be- 
tween 1000-1500 m, N. C. Nair 53518. From 
this it can be safely concluded that it is a spe- 
cies common to both Eastern Ghats and 
Western Ghats at higher elevations. 

Material examined. Dodari (Karandi river 
bank), Koraput Dist. 1 1 10 m, ,V. C. Nair 53294 
(Feb. 9, 1976) in crevices of rocks, common. 

V Dfnnstaedtiaceae 

Microlepia platyphylla (D. Don) J. Sm., in 
Jour. Bot. 1: 427, 1842; Bedd. Ferns. 
South. India t. 13, 1863 et Handb. Ferns. 
India 66, t. 33, 1883; Nayar et Kaur in 
Bull. Nat. Bot. Gard. 79: 12, 1963 et 
Compan. Bedd. Handb. Ferns Brit. 
India 19, 1974. Devallia platyphylla D. 
Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 10, 1825. 
This is a large elegant fern over 2 m tall. 
The lamina when young is hairy on costa and 
costule, and when mature, glabrous on both 
surfaces or sometimes hairy on the vein above 
in fertile lobes. This is a widely distributed 
taxon in India but has not so far been collect- 
ed from Orissa. 

Material examined. Devmali (Koraput 
Dist.), 1500 m, N. C. Nair 53280 (7-2-1976) 
under deep shade near stream; common in 
this area only. 

VI Dryopteridaceae 

1 Diplazium lasiopteris Kunze in Linnaea 17. 



273 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



568, 1843; Bedd. Ferns. South India, 53, 
t. 160, 1863; Sledge in Bull. Brit. Mus. 
(Nat. Hist.) 2: 296, t. 30, f. 10, 1962. 
Asplenium thwaitesii A. Braun ex Mett. 
in Abhandl. Senekenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 
3: 227, 1859; Hook, et Bak. Synops. Fil. 
235, 1867. Diplazimn thwaitesii (A. 
Braun ex Mett.) Klotzsch ex T. Moore, 
Index Fil. 339, 1862; Bedd. Fern. Brit. 
Ind. t. 291, 1868. Diplazium japonicum 
sensu Bedd. Handb. Ferns. Brit. India 
180, 1883 (Pro parte) non Bedd. (1876) 
nec Asplenium japonicum Thunb. 
This is a common species in South India 
and Ceylon. The taxon appears to be very 
variable as to its robustness. 

Beddome (1883) united this species with 
Diplazium japonicum sensu lato. According 
to Sledge (1962) Diplazium japonicum sensu 
striclo and Diplazium lasiopteris Kunze are 
distinct. Beddome's Diplazium japonicum 
also includes Diplazium polyrhizon (Baker) 
Sledge which is endemic to Ceylon. 

In the distribution of Diplazium japonicum 
(sensu Beddome), Beddome (1883) gives 
Jeypore hills. Although we made extensive 
search for the species in the mountainous re- 
gion in the neighbourhood of Jeypore we 
could not come across even a single specimen 
of Diplazium lasiopteris Kunze in the area. 
The present specimen was collected from 
Devmali (Dodari), the eastern most region 
of Koraput District, which is continuous with 
the mountain ranges of Visakhapatnam Dis- 
trict. In the Indian subcontinent this species 
is usually found above an altitude of 1000 m 
in deep forests. 

Material examined. Devmali (Dodari, 
Koraput Dist.), 1500 m, N. C. Nair 53274 
(7-2-1976) — under deep shade in rocky place 
near spring. 

2. Sphenomeris chinensis (Linn.) Maxon in 



Wash. Acad. Sci. Jour. 3: 114, 1913; 
Nair in Bull. Bot. Surv. India 11: 187, 
1969; Trichomanes chinensis Linn. Sp. 
PI. 2: 1099, 1753. Adiantum chusanum 
(Linn.) Bedd. Handb. Ferns Brit. 
chinensis (Linn.) Mett. ex Kuhn Fil. 
Afr. 67, 1868. Stenoloma chinensis 
(Linn.) Bedd. Handb. Ferns. Brit. 
India 70, t. 34, 1883 (excl. Syn. Davallia 
tenui folia Alston et Bonner in Can- 
dollea 15: 198, 1956). Odontosoria chi- 
nensis (Linn.) J. Sm. Bot. Voy. Herald 
430, 1897; Haines Bot. Bihar Orissa 3: 
1248, 1924; Mooney Suppl. Bot. Bihar, 
Orissa 219, 1950. Sphenomeis chusana 
(Linn.) Copel. in Bish. Mus. Publ. 59: 
69, 1929; Holttum, Fl. Malaya 2: 341, 
1954: Tagawa, Col. 111. Jap. Pterid. 257, 
1959. 

Haines (1924) and Mooney (1950) reported 
it only from the border areas of Madhya Pra- 
desh and Bihar and Bihar and Bengal (Singh- 
bhum). In Koraput and Kalahandi districts 
this is not a rare fern. Sometimes it reaches 
a length up to 80 cm. It is generally found on 
moist cuttings along hill-roads in shade. 

Material examined. Along Karandi river, 
Dodari (Koraput Dist.), 1550 m, N. C. Nair 
53252 (Feb. 6, 1976) — along with Nephro- 
lepis. Very common in this area. 

VII. ASPLENIACEAE 

1 . Asplenium inaequilaterale Willd. in Linn. 
Sp. PI. ed. 4, 5: 322, 1810; Hieron in 
Hedwigia 61: 22, 1919; Sledge in Bull. 
Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) 3: 252, 1965, 
Asplenium trapeziforme sensu Bedd. 
Ferns. South India 45, t. 134, 1864 (non 
Roxb.). Asplenium lunulalum var. trape- 
ziforme Bedd. Handb. Ferns. Brit. India 
148, 1883 pro parte (non A. trapezi- 
forme Roxb.) 



274 



FERNS & FERN- ALLIES IN ORISSA 



This is a typical tropical fern of South Ame- 
rica, Africa, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, etc. In 
India this species has been previously reported 
only from Palnis, Nilgiris, Anamalays, and 
Bombay. The present discovery extends its dis- 
tribution further east. Our plants were between 
30-40 cm tall and very membraneous. It loves 
deep shade and grows amidst boulders near 
streams. 

This fern has been confused in the past with 
Asplenium unilaterale. Christensen (1906) 
treated Asplenium inaequilaterale and Asple- 
nium unilaterale as conspecific. Beddome 
(1883) considered Asplenium trapeziforme 
Roxb., from Malaya, also as conspecific. But, 
Roxburgh's species is very distinct from As- 
plenium inaequilaterale in the veins running 
to the extremities of the marginal teeth (cf. 
Sledge 1965) and in the shape of the pinnae 

This species grows side by side with Asple- 
nium unilaterale Lamk. to which it has super- 
ficial similarity. 

Material examined. Saput, Padwa, (Kora- 
put Dist.) N. C. Nair 53215 (28-1-1976). 
2. Asplenium unilaterale Lamk. var. ma jus 
(C. Chr.) Sledge in Bull. Brit. Mus. 
(Nat. Hist.) 3: 246, 1965. Asplenium uni- 
laterale forma majus. C. Chr. in Bernice 
P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 177: 67, 1943. 

According to Sledge (loc. cit.) this taxon 
is found in northern and southern India. But 
so far no one has collected it from Orissa. 
This appears to be a variable species as far 
as the size of the plant is concerned. 

It is a shade-loving fern often growing on 
wet mossy rocks by streams. 

Material examined. Devmali, Koraput Dist. 
(1500 m) N. C. Nair 53275, 53287 (7-2-1976) 
common; Rastaguda forest, Kasipore, Kora- 
put Dist. (900 m) N. C. Nair 51418 (8-11- 
1973). 



3. Asplenium varians Hook. & Grev. Ic. Fil. 

2: t. 172, 1829; Hook. Sp. Fil. 3, 192, 

1810; Bedd. Ferns South. India 44, t. 

129, 1864; Handb. Ferns Brit. India 158. 

1883; Flope in J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 

13: 667, t. 20, 1901; Sledge in Bull. Brit. 

Mus. (Nat. Hist.) 3: 272, 1965. 
This is a small shade-loving fern with her- 
baceous and delicate fronds. It is very rare in 
Orissa and has been collected only from one 
locality. 

Material examined. Rastaguda forest, Ka- 
sipore (Koraput Dist.) 900 m, N. C. Nair 
51427 (Nov. 8, 1973). 

VIII POLYPODIACEAE 

1 . Colysis hemionitidea (Wall.) Presl. Epim. 
147. 1849; Nayar et Kaur Companion 
Handb. Bedd. Ferns. Brit. India 87. 
1974. Polypodium hemionitideum Wall 
(Cat. 284, 1828 nomen nudum) ex Mett. 
Farngatt. 1 : 215, 1857; Clarke in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. Ser. 2. 1: 561, 1880. Pleopel- 
lis hemionitidea (Wall.) Bedd. Handb. 
Ferns. Brit. India 359, 1883. 
This fern has been previously reported from 
the western mountains of southern India, Hi- 
malayas and Khasia hills. This has a single 
row of rounded or elongated (oblong) sori 
between adjacent main veins which separate 
the two rows of areoles. In Central National 
Herbarium (CAL) there are several sheets 
identified by C. B. Clarke and others as Co- 
lysis hemionitidea (Polypodium hemioniti- 
deum, Pelopeltis hemionitidea) which have 
two rows of sori between the main veins which 
separate the two rows of areoles. We have also 
seen several sheets of this kind from Sri Lanka. 
In general they have similarity with specimens 
of Microsomia zippelii (Bl.) Ching but to 
determine whether both are identical or 
not needs further intensive study. Holttum 

275 



/ 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY. Vol. 77 



(1954) remarked that Colysis hemionitidea 
and Colysis acuminata (Bak.) Holttum 
"should perhaps be united". Although both 
the species have general similarity we could 
not arrive at a definite decision with the limn- 
ed material at our hand. If both turn out to 
be conspecific in future, Colysis hemionitidea 
(Wall.) Presl alone can be the correct name 
for the species. 

In India this generally grows above an alti- 
tude of 400 m in deep shade near streams and 
springs. In Orissa it appears to be a rare spe- 
cies having been collected only from two 
places. 

Material examined. Devmali, Near Dodari, 
Koraput Dist., 1500 m, N. C. Nair 53281 (Feb. 
7, 1976); Dodari (on the bank of Karandi 
river), Koraput Dist., 1100 m, N. C. Nair 
53267 (Feb. 2, 1976). 

2. Pyrrosia mollis (Kze.) Ching in Bull. Chin. 
Bot. Soc. 1: 53, 1935; Nayar et Chandra. 
Bull. Nat. Bot. Gard. No. 117: 67, 1965; 
Nayar et Kaur, Companion Bedd. Handb. 

R F F F R 

Beddome, R. H. (1864): Ferns of Southern India, 
Madras. 

(1883): Handbook to the ferns of 

British India, Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula, 
Thacker Spink & Co.. Calcutta. 

Christfnsen, C. (1906): Index Filicum. Hafniae. 

Clarke, C. B. (1880): A review of the Ferns of 
the Northern India. Trans. Linn. Soc. London. Se- 
ries (Bot.) /: 425-619. 

Haines. H. H. (1924): Botany of Bihar and 
Orissa. London. 

Heironymus. G. (1914): Pteris qiiadriaurita 
Retz. und einige asiastische. malesische und poly- 
nesische Arten aus der Gruppe und Verwandschaft 
dieser Art.: 325-375. 

Holttum. R. E. (1954): A revised flora of Ma- 
laya II. Ferns of Malay. Singapore. 

Masters, M. T. (1868): Vegetable Teretology. 
Ray Society. London. 

Mooney, H. F. (1950): Supplement to the Bo- 
tany of Bihar and Orissa. Ranchi. 



Ferns Brit. India 81, 1974; Bedd. Ferns. 
Brit. India 330, 1883 (pro parte). 
Nayar et Chandr. (Loc. cit.) gives the dis- 
tribution as Western Ghats and Nilgiri Hills, 
hills of Assam, and Central and Eastern Hi- 
malayas at altitude between 1000-3000 m ele- 
vation. In Orissa it has been collected only 
from one place. It was an epiphyte on mango 
trees. 

Material examined. Kasipore (Koraput 
Dist), 1100 m, N. C. Nair 50537 (Sept. 30, 

1972) . 

3 . Pyrrosia nayariana Ching et Chandra in 
Amer. Fern Journ. 54: 62, 1964 et Bull. 
Nat. Bot. Gard. 117: 70, 1965. 
This was considered to be a very rare spe- 
cies confined to Manipur (NE. India). In 
Orissa this epiphyte has been collected only 
from one place. 

Material examined. Kasipore (Koraput 
Dist.) 950 m, N. C. Nair 51396 (Nov. 6, 

1973) . 



ENCES 

Nair, N. C. & Ghosh, R. K. (1975): Additional 
distribution of Ferns to the Botany of Orissa. /. 
Indian Bot. Soc. 54: 45-49. 

(1978): Pteris hetcromor- 

pha Fee — A new record for India. Indian For. 104: 

& Ghosh, S. R. (1977): Pteris 

qiiadriaurita Retz. and its related taxa in Kerala. 
J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 73: 438-443. 

Nayar. B. K. (1974): A classification of homo- 
sporous ferns. In B. K. Nayar and Surjit Kaur, 
Companion to R. H. Beddome's Handbook to the 
Ferns of British India. Ceylon and Malay Peninsula. 
109-201, New Delhi. 

Panigrahi, G. S„ Chowdhury, D. C. Raju, S. 
& Deka. G. K. (1964): Contribution to the botanv 
of Orissa. Bull. hot. Sun: India. 6: 237-266. 

Sledge, W. A. (1962): The Athyrioid Ferns of 
Ceylon. Bull. Brit. Mus. 2 (11): 275-325. 

(1965): The Ceylon species of As- 

plenium. ibid. 6: 235-277. 



276 



DISTRIBUTION RECORDS OF CULICINE MOSQUITOES 
OF BASTAR DISTRICT, MADHYA PRADESH, INDIA 
(D1PTERA: CULICIDAE) 1 



Zakir Husain Husainy- 
(With a text -figure) 



Introduction 

Prakash and Husainy (1974) listed Ano- 
pheles mosquitoes taken in 102 villages of 
Bastar district, Madhya Pradesh between 
October 1968 and September 1974. Outdoor 
collections were made at various sites be- 
tween the larval habitats and the village homes 
in order to determine the outdoor resting 
habits of the anophelines. In these surveys 
culicines were of course encountered along 
with the anophelines. The present paper lists 
the Culicini (Culicidae) collected. 

In all 24 villages were selected for outdoor 
surveys which had the village of Asirguda 
located at 48.5 m a.s.l., as the lowest, and 
the locality Kirandul situated at 1275.5 m 
a.s.l. as the highest altitudes of the district. 
The majority of the villages are located in 
the North Eastern plateau and its sub-division, 
the Indravati plains. The general elevation of 
these physiographic divisions ranges from 457 
to 609 m a.s.l. The climate is in the hot-wet 
to hot-moist range. 

The villages which are sparsely populated, 
consist of several hamlets each with a few 
hutments situated at some distance from each 

1 Accepted August 1978. 

2 Assistant Entomologist, National Malaria Era- 
dication Programme, Jagdalpur, District Bastar 
(M.P.). Present address: C/o. D. S. P. Bungalow. 
In front of Rest House. Jagdalpur, Distt. Bastar 
(M.P.). 



other. Each family of the village essentially 
keeps such domestic animals as cow, goat, 
pig, dog and poultry. Most of these are ac- 
commodated in cattle sheds. 

The larval habitats in the area may be 
streams, ponds, ditches and seasonal pools. 
Large broken earthenwares are generally thrown 
in the backyard of the hutments in which 
sufficient rain water accumulates to provide 
larval breeding sites for aedine mosquitoes. 
In between the hutments and the larval habi- 
tats, grasses and shrubs are commonly found 
apart from the trees. 

Materials and Methods 

Outdoor collections were made in natural 
vegetation, bushes, tree holes, crevices etc., 
located between the larval habitats and nearest 
human dwellings. An outdoor pit shelter (2 
m xl mx2 m) was constructed in one vil- 
lage (Bispur) in this connection. The collec- 
tions were generally attempted in the morning 
between 0600 and 0900 hr. A few man-biting 
rate observations were also taken to detect 
the species preferring human blood meals. 
This was done by placing a man as bait in 
human dwellings and collecting only the mos- 
quitoes actually feeding on this bait since land- 
ing rates do not always indicate biting. 

Results of Observations 
A total of 1,014 specimens representing 14 



277 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 




CULICINE MOSQUITOES OF BASTAR 



culicine species were collected in 24 localities 
of Bastar distirct. The locations of the villages 
surveyed are shown in the map (Fig. 1 ). More 
culicine mosquitoes (1,014 specimens) than 
anopheline (232 examples) were encountered 
in outdoor surveys. In the man-biting rate ob- 
servations a total of 263 culicine and 67 ano- 
pheline females were captured in 80 man- 
hours. Thus more culicine than anopheline 
females had bitten human beings in the given 
time. Among culicines, the highest numbers 
were of C. p. jatigans (76 examples) and 
lowest were of M. uniformis. 

The species wise habitat of all the recorded 
culicine mosquitoes is given below. The classi- 
fication system enumerated by Stone el al. 
(1959) has been followed in this paper. 

Genus: Aedes Meigen 1818 
Aedes (Stegomyia) aihopictus (Skuse), 1895 
Specimens collected: Ban Usri 3 females (fm); Ti- 
rathgarh 1 fm; Mamadpal 9 fm; Jagargunda 3 males 
(m), 2 fm; Kirandul 7 fm; Sat Dhar 3 fm; Darbha 
6 fm; Chitrakot 7 fm; Bijapur 15 fm; Kesaiguda 2 
fm; Hat Kachora 1 m; Adhawal 1 fm; Useli 3 m. 
4 fm; Kotamsar 29 fm; Kamanar 2 m, 8 fm; Ku- 
kalgur 5 m, 2 fm; Aghanpur 1 m. 9 fm; Asna 2 fm. 
Total 15 m and 110 fm. 

Distribution: This species was recorded in the 
North-Eastern plateau, Godavari-Sabri low- 
lands, Bailadila hills, Indravati plains and 
Southern plateau of the Bastar district. 
Altitudes: Encountered between 48.5 and 
1275.5 m a.s.l. 

Seasonal prevalence: Collected in January, 
May, July and November in the hot-moist, 
hot-wet, moderately hot-moist and vey hot- 
moist climatic regions of the district. 
Observations: A. (5.) albopictus is a dominant 
species in the district. A massive attack on 
human being for feeding in the day was no- 
ticed in the forests of the village Kotamsar. 
In the township of Jagdalpur, this mosquito 
is predominantly a day-time feeder. Baisas 



(1974) stated that A. albopictus attacks man 
but in places far away from human dwellings, 
it probably feeds on animals. Specimens of A. 
albopictus were captured on human body while 
collecting and from bushes, tree holes and fen- 
ces. Twenty females were taken inside houses. 
Joshi et al. (1965) collected five females out- 
doors in jungles of Nepal. The breeding in 
Bastar district was noticed in broken earthen 
pots retaining rain water. Baisas (1974) stat- 
ed that A. albopictus breeds mostly in tree 
holes in Subic, seldom in bamboo, rock holes 
and artificial containers. Huang (1972) stated 
that the immature stages of A. albopictus have 
been found mainly in tree holes, bamboo 
stumps and artificial containers in Philippines, 
Ryukyu Island, Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand, 
Malaysia, Burma and India. Peters and Dewar 
(1956) reared A. albopictus and A. w-albus 
from eggs contained in the dried residue in 
holes in mango trees. These eggs had survived 
at least seven months since the last rainy sea- 
son and hatched within a day or two of addi- 
tion of water. 

Aedes (Mucidus) sactophagoides (Theobald), 
1901 

Specimens collected: Mangnar 7 m, 2 fm; Darbha 
4 m, 6 fm; Adhawal 3 m. 2 fm; Ban Usri 3 fm; 
Jagargunda 2 fm; Sat Dhar 1 fm. Total 14 m. 16 fm. 
Distribution: Recorded in the Indravati plains, 
North-Eastern plateau, Godavari-Sabri low- 
lands and Tinkanpalli hills. 
Altitudes: 152 to 761 m a.s.l. 
Seasonal prevalence: Collected in March, May, 
July, September and October in the hot-wet, 
hot-moist and very hot-moist climatic regions. 
Observations: This mosquito was taken in 
bushes near a stream (Darbha); from fence 
crevices (Adhawal), underneath the logs (Ku- 
kalgur) and from a pit shelter (Bispur). Joshi 
et al. (1965) took three females each from a 
mosquito net and inside a house in Nepal. 



279 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Aedes (Stegomyia) w-albus (Theobald), 1905 

Specimens collected: Mangnar 11 m. 3 fm; Darbha 
4 m. 3 fm; Adhawal 2 m; Hat Kachora 2 fm; Ban 
Usri 3 fm, Useli 5 fm: Total 17 m, 16 fm. 
Distribution: Recorded in the Indravati plains, 
North-Eastern plateau of Bastar district. 
Altitudes: Between 457 and 761 m a.s.l. 
Seasonal prevalence: Collected in March, May, 
July and September in the moderately hot- 
moist, hot-moist and the hot-wet climatic re- 
gions. 

Observations: Specimens of A. w-albus were 
secured in a pit-shelter (Bispur); ponds (Ban 
Usri), tree holes (Useli) and from tall grass 
(Mangnar). Joshi et al. (1965) collected two 
females from a jungle in Nepal. 

Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus), 1762 

This species was not encountered anywhere 
in the district although diurnal surveys were 
made in the townships of Jagdalpur, Kirandul 
and Kanker. It requires further study to as- 
certain if this mosquito is prevalent in Bastar 
district, for this is typically a dense forest area. 
However, at present, forests are being cleared 
and the towns are growing in magnitude. 
Baisas (1974) reported the distribution of this 
mosquito in South-East Asia, Indo-Malayan 
region and elsewhere where modern transpor- 
tation distributed this mosquito. 

Aedes (Stegomyia) vittatus (Bigot), 1861 
Specimens collected: Machkot 5 fm; Ban Usri 2 
fm; Kotamsar 17 fm; Tirathgarh 1 fm; Darbha 3 
fm; Mamadpal 2 fm; Mangnar 1 m; Chitrakot 6 
fm; Kesaiguda 3 m, 3 fm; Useli 2 fm; Kukalgur 
7 fm; Bispur 3 m, 2 fm; Aghanpur 2 m, 2 fm; Asna 
2 m, 3 fm. Total 11 m, 55 fm. 
Distribution: Recorded in Indravati plains, 
North-Eastern plateau and Southern plateau. 
Altitudes: Encountered between 48.5 and 761 
m a.s.l. 

Seasonal prevalence: Recorded in May, from 
July to November in the hot-wet and the hot- 



moist climatic regions. 

Observations: Predominant in forests of 
Bastar district. Specimens of A. vittatus were 
caught on human beings and from bushes in 
the forests. Five females were secured in tree 
holes (Machkot) in forests. Joshi et al. (1965) 
collected two examples of this mosquito from 
jungle in Nepal. 

Genus: Culex Linnaeus 1758 
Culex (Culex) bitaeniorhynchus Giles, 1901 

Specimens collected: Kotamsar 2 fm; Mamadpal 1 
fm; Kukalgur 6 fm; Kesaiguda 1 m, 1 fm; Bispur 
3 m, 1 fm; Darbha 3 m. 4 fm, Kamanar 1 m, 4 fm: 
Total 8 m, 19 fm. 

Distribution: Recorded in the Indravati plains; 
North-Eastern plateau, Southern plateau. Bram 
(1967) reported distribution in Thailand, Ethi- 
opia including Madagascar, Australia, New 
Guinea, some islands of the South Pacific and 
the Soviet Far East. 

Altitudes: 152 to 671 m a.s.l. Peters and De- 
war (1956) collected larvae of C. bitaenior- 
hynchus from residual pools in the main river 
beds at Bhimphedi, Nepal at 11,583 m height. 
Seasonal prevalence: Encountered in March, 
May, July, September and November in the 
hot-wet and hot-moist area. 
Biting habits: Twenty one females were cap- 
tured on human bait. In Singapore the origin 
of blood meals in females collected from un- 
biased sources were exclusively from birds 
(Colless 1959 as quoted by Bram 1967). 
Observations: Recorded in forests of Bastar 
district. This mosquito was taken in bamboo 
fences in the courtyards (Darbha); from a pit 
shelter (Bispur), green grass in the vicinity of 
hutments (Tirathgarh). Joshi et al. (1965) 
collected this mosquito inside houses in Nepal. 

Culex (Culex) epidesmus (Theobald), 1910. 

Specimens collected: Ban Usri 1 m; Kukalgur 3 
fm; Jagargunda 5 m, 2 fm; Sat Dhar 1 m, 2 fm, 
Darbha 5 m. 5 fm; Kamanar 3 m. 10 fm; Aghan- 



280 



CULICINE MOSQUITOES OF BASTAR 



pur 32 m, 35 fm; Adhawal 18 m, 27 fm; Asna 16 
m, 13 fm; Hat Kachora 28 m, 22 fm; Useli 6 m, 
11 fm; Kotamsar 3 fm; Kesaiguda 6 m, 2 fm; Bis- 
pur 4 m, 5 fm, Birangpal 2 m, 2 fm: Total 127 m, 
142 fm. 

Distribution: Recorded in the North-Eastern 
plateau; Godavari Sabri lowlands; Tinkanpalli 
hills, Indravati plains and Dantewara plains. 
Altitudes: 48.5 to 761 m a.s.l. 
Seasonal prevalence: Collected all round the 
year in the hot-moist, hot-wet, moderately hot- 
moist and very hot-moist climatic regions. 
Abundant during August in village Hat Ka- 
chora. 

Biting habits: A total of 76 females were se- 
cured from human bait. 
Observations: Predominant species all over 
the district. Collected from bushes near 
the fencing of a farm; from pit shelter, and 
from vegetation in the vicinity of houses. 
Joshi et al. (1965) took females from inside 
houses and one female from pit shelter in 
Nepal. 

Culex (Culex) pipiens fatigans Wiedemann, 
1828 

Specimens collected: Machkot 35 fm; Ban Usri 2 
fm; Kukalgur 1 m, 1 fm; Mamadpal 4 fm; Mangnar 
9 m, 5 fm; Kamanar 1 m, 12 fm; Kirandul 3 m, 5 
fm; Chitra Kot 5 m, 3 fm; Etpal 1 m; Bijapur 1 
fm; Bispur 6 m, 6 fm; Birangpal 1 fm; Asirguda 
8 fm; Useli 9 m, 4 fm; Hat Kachora 5 m, 7 fm; 
Adhawal 3 m, 3 fm; Aghanpur 6 m, 7 fm; Asna 
2 m, 5 fm: Total 51 m, 109 fm. 
Distribution: Recorded in the Indravati plains; 
North-Eastern plateau; Bailadila hills, Goda- 
vari-Sabri lowlands. This mosquito is distri- 
buted throughout the world in tropical and 
sub-tropical areas (Baisas 1974). 
Altitudes: 48.5 to 1275.5 m a.s.l. 
Seasonal prevalence: Collected all round the 
year in the hot-moist, hot-wet, moderately hot- 
moist and very hot-moist climatic regions. 
Biting habits: From human bait 97 females 



were taken. Seven blood meals obtained from 
adult females taken out of doors had two 
smears positive for human and five for bovine 
blood. Baisas (1974) indicates that from its 
large number it constitutes the most annoying 
Culex to human beings. Very seldom taken 
in Carabao-baited traps but numerous in hu- 
man baited traps and in unscreened houses, 
barns and huts (Baisas 1974). 
Observations: Predominant species all over 
the district. Encountered in pit shelter and out 
of doors in a variety of places namely bushes, 
vegetation, bamboo fences, fence crevices and 
underneath logs. It must be recognised that 
the result of investigations in one geographi- 
cal area are not necessarily valid when applied 
to another population of the same subspecies 
in a different geographical area (Bram 1967). 

Culex (Culex) gelidus Theobald, 1901 

Specimens collected: Kotamsar 3 fm; Tirathgarh 4 
fm; Mamadpal 2 m, 3 fm; Darbha 2 m, 6 fm; Bispur 
1 fm; Kukalgur 1 m, 2 fm; Sat Dhar 1 m, 2 fm; 
Aghanpur 3 m, 8 fm; Useli 4 m, 1 fm: Total 13 m, 
30 fm. 

Distribution: Recorded in the North-Eastern 
plateau; Tinkanpalli hills, Indravati plains. 
Baisas (1974) reported distribution from Ma- 
laysia, Singapore, Indonesia, New Guinea, Phi- 
lippines, Taiwan, Japan, China, Vietnam 
(N & S) Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Burma, 
Nepal, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. 
Altitudes: Recorded between 304 and 761 m 
a.s.l. Scanlon and Esah as quoted by Bram 
(1967) collected gelidus females biting man 
from 4,572 to 13,716 m of elevation on a 
mountain in Chiang Mai. 
Seasonal prevalence: Collected in July, Octo- 
ber to December in hot-moist, moderately hot- 
moist and hot-wet climatic regions. 
Biting habits: Eleven females were secured 
from human bait. Baisas (1974) stated this 
mosquito as zoophilic. Bram (1967) reported 

281 



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JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



that adult females are vicious biters but feed 
on man only in the absence of other suitable 
hosts. 

Observations: Collected from bushes near 
stream, in tree holes and in pit shelter. Re- 
corded in forest at higher altitudes. Joshi et al. 
(1965) secured three females from houses and 
three examples from pit shelter. Peters and 
Dewar (1956) found adults in native dwel- 
lings, cattlesheds and in tents in Nepal. 

Culex (Culex) tritaeniorhynchus Giles, 1901 
Specimens collected: Darbha 2 m, 5 fm; Kotamsar 
3 m, 1 fm; Mamadpal 1 m, 2 fm; Mangnar 3 fm; 
Kukalgur 8 m 6 fm; Bispur 1 fm; Kamanar 4 m, 
11 fm: Total 18 m, 29 fm. 
Distribution: Recorded in the North-Eastern 
plateau and Indravati plains of Bastar dis- 
trict. Bram (1967) reported distribution 
throughout Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, Mal- 
dive Islands, Malagasy, Tanzania, Kenya, 
Ubangishari, Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Senegal, 
Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, 
Iran, Turkmen S.S.R., Philippines, Taiwan, 
Ryukyu-Retto, Japan, Korea, China, Indo- 
china, Indonesia, Malaya and Maritime pro- 
vince, U.S.S.R. 

Altitudes: 304 to 761 m a.s.l. Scanlon and 
Esah as quoted by Bram (1967) collected fe- 
males biting man at elevation up to 1,372 m 
in Chiang Mai. 

Seasonal prevalence: Collected in July, Sep- 
tember and November in the hot-moist and 
hot-wet climatic regions. 

Biting habits: On human bait, 17 females were 
captured. Baisas (1974) reported that this mos- 
quito is largely zoophilic, a certain percentage 
bite human beings and so this mosquito be- 
comes the object of interest and study in con- 
nection with Japanese 'B' encephalitis and 
other diseases of man. 

Observations: Recorded in forests at higher 



altitudes and in pit shelter. Nakao as quoted 
by Bram (1967) suggested that C. tritaenior- 
hynchus may be an indoor resting species. Spe- 
cimens of C. tritaeniorhynchus were secured 
in tree holes, underneath logs, and from bushes 
in the courtyard of the hutments. Joshi et al. 
(1965) captured one female from pit shelter, 
six females from outdoors and three females 
inside house in Nepal. 

Culex (Lutzia) vorax (Edwards), 1921 

Specimens collected : Kotamsar 1 fm; Kamanar 7 
fm; Mangnar 6 m; Darbha 1 m, 2 fm; Kukalgur 
1 m, 1 fm; Adhawal 3 m, 1 fm; Useli 8 fm, Ma- 
madaptl 3 m, 5 fm: Total 14 m, 25 fm. 
Distribution: Recorded in the Indravati Plains 
and North-Eastern Plateau. 
Altitudes: 457 to 761 m a.s.l. 
Seasonal prevalence: Collected in June, July, 
September to November in the moderately 
hot-moist and hot-wet climatic regions. 
Observations: This mosquito was taken in 
bushes in forests (Kotamsar); tree holes 
(Useli), underneath logs and from tall grass. 

Culex (Culex) 'vishnui' Theobald, 1901 Group 

Specimens collected: Mamadpal 1 fm; Darbha 11 
m, 35 fm; Etpal 14 m, 3 fm; Adhawal 3 m, 2 fm: 
Total 28 m, 41 fm. 

Distribution: Recorded in the North-Eastern 
plateau, Indravati plains and Godavari Sabri 
lowlands. 

Altitudes: 48.5 to 761 m a.s.l. 
Seasonal prevalence: Collected in Feb., Sept. 
to Dec. in the hot-wet, hot-moist and very hot- 
moist climatic region. 

Biting habits: A total of 32 females were taken 
on human bait. 

Observations: Specimens of this species were 
encountered in grass in the vicinity of hut- 
ments; fences along side rice fields, bushes in 
courtyards and from pit shelter. 



282 



CULICINE MOSQUITOES OF BASTAR 



Genus: Mansonia Blanchard 1901 
Mansonia (Mansonioides) annulifera (Theo- 
bald), 1901 

Specimens collected: Kotamsar 3 fm; Kamanar 3 
fm; Darbha 3 m, 2 fm; Kesaiguda 1 m, 2 fm; Ku- 
kalgur 4 m, 2 fm; Useli 2 m, 3 fm; Aghanpur 2 m, 

3 fm; Bispur 3 fm; Hat Kachora 3 m, 6 fm: Total 
15 m, 27 fm. 

Distribution: Recorded in the Indravati plains, 
North-Eastern plateau and Dantewara plains. 
Baisas (1974) quoted distribution in Philip- 
pines (Mt. Province, Sorsogen, Leyte, Olon- 
gapo Zambales, Manila and Rizal), Ethiopia, 
Oriental and Australian regions, Solomon Is- 
lands, Japan and Ryukyu-Retto. 
Altitudes: Between 48.5 and 761 m a.s.l. 
Seasonal prevalence: Collected in Jan., Feb., 
May, July to Sept. and Nov. in the hot-wet, 
hot-moist and moderately hot-moist climatic 
regions. 

Biting habits: Not secured on human bait. 
Baisas (1974) reported it as both zoophilic 
and anthropophilic. Specimens were collected 
in Carabao-baited traps, a few were caught 
while biting man in late afternoon (Baisas 
1974). 

Observations: M. annulifera was encountered 
in bushes near perennial stream, in pit shelter 
and fences along side rice fields. Joshi et al. 
(1965) encountered this mosquito inside house 
in Nepal. 

Mansonia (Mansonioides) unifomiis (Theo- 
bald), 1901 

Specimens collected: Ban Usri 1 m, 1 fm; Darbha 

4 fm; Tirathgarh 1 m, 3 fm; Kotamsar 2 fm; Ku- 
kalgur 3 fm; Kesaiguda 2 m, 2 fm; Bispur 7 fm, 
Adhawal 3 m, 3 fm: Total 7 m, 25 fm. 
Distribution: Recorded in the North-Eastern 
plateau, Indravati plains and Dantewara plains. 
Baisas (1974) reported distribution from Phi- 
lippines, South-East Asia, Indonesia and 
Thailand. 

Altitudes: 152 to 761 m a.s.l. 



Seasonal prevalence: Collected in May, July 
to December in the hot-moist and hot-wet cli- 
matic regions. 

Biting habits: Nine females were secured on 
human bait. Baisas (1974) described it as 
largely zoophilic, seldom anthropophilic. 
Observations: Specimens were secured in a 
tree hole at a height of 1.2 m above the 
ground. Encountered in pit shelter, bushes 
near ponds and from vegetation out of doors. 
Joshi et al. (1965) collected M. uniformis in- 
side house in Nepal. 

Genus: Armigeres Theobald 1901 
Armigeres (Armigeres) subalbatus (Coquil- 
lett), 1898 

Specimens collected: Mangnar 9 m, 1 fm; Kukalgur 
4 fm; Darbha 3 m, 7 fm; Adhawal 2 m; Kesaiguda 
4 fm, Ban Usri 2 fm: Total 14 m, 18 fm. 
Distribution: Recorded in the Indravati plains, 
the Southern plateau and the North-Eastern 
plateau of Bastar district. Baisas (1974) re- 
ported distribution from Philippines, Indone- 
sia, Malaysia, and Japan. 
Altitudes: 152 to 761 m a.s.l. 
Biting habits: Not taken on human bait. Baisas 
(1974) indicated that this mosquito is seldom 
anthropophilic. 

Seasonal prevalence: Collected in March, July, 
Sept. and Oct. in hot- wet and hot-moist cli- 
matic regions. 

Observations: Specimens were taken in the 
bushes near a stream, tree holes and fences 
of rice fields having tall grass. Joshi et al. 
(1965) took six females from jungle and two 
females from inside houses in Nepal. Baisas 
(1974) reported that A. subalbatus usually 
breeds in cut bamboos, sometimes in coconut 
shells and artificial containers. 

ACK N OWLEDGE M E N TS 

I am grateful to Dr. B. L. Wattal, Dy. Di- 



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JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



rector, Medical Entomology Division, National A. Ward, Mosquito Entomology Project, 
Institute of Communicable Diseases, Delhi for Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. for 
identification of specimens and to Dr. Ronald critical comments on the paper. 

References 



Baisas, F. E. (1974): The Mosquito fauna of 
subic Bay Naval Reservation. Tech Rpt. No. 72-2 
hq. First Med. Set: Wing (PACAF), APO San 
Fransiseo, 170 pp. 

Bram, R. A. (1967): Contributions to the Mos- 
quito fauna of Southeast Asia. II — The genus Culex 
in Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae). Contr. Amer. 
Ent. Inst. 2 (1): 1-296. 

Huang, Yiau-Min (1972): Contributions to the 
mosquito fauna of Southeast Asia XIV. The sub- 
genus Stegomyia of Aedes in Southeast Asia. I. The 
Scutellaris group of species. Contr. Amer. Ent. Inst. 
9(1): 1-109. 

Josh i, G., Pradhan, S. and Darsie, R. F. (1965) : 
Culicine, Sebathine and Toxorhynchitine Mosquitoes 



of Nepal including New country records. Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Wash., 67(3): 137-146. 

Peters, W. and Dewar, S. C. (1956) : A preli- 
minary record of the Megarhine and Culicine mos- 
quitoes of Nepal with notes on their taxonomy (Dip- 
tera: Culicidae). Ind. J. Mai. 10(1): 37-51. 

Prakash, R. and Husainy, Zakir Husain 
(1974): Studies on the Anopheline Mosquitoes of 
Bastar District (Madhya Pradesh). Pt. I. Distribu- 
tion Pattern of Adults. The Annals of Tool., 10(2) : 
13-52. 

Stone, A., Knight, K. L. and Strake, H. (1959) : 
A Synoptic Catalogue of the Mosquitoes of the 
World (Diptera: Culicidae). Ent. Soc. Amer. Tho- 
mas Say Found., Vol. VI, 358 pp. 



284 



NOTES ON THE FEEDING AND HUNTING BEHAVIOUR 
OF LION-TAILED MACAQUES (MAC AC A SILENUS) 
IN CAPTIVITY 1 



Y. Artaud 2 



Introduction 

These notes come from the continuous ob- 
servation of a small group of lion-tailed ma- 
caques in captivity since 1970. Most of the 
facts reported however within the limits im- 
posed by the title, belong to the year 1977, 
after the monkeys had been transferred from 
the urban zone to the countryside near Pon- 
dicherry. There they have shown an evo- 
lution of their dietary habits, mainly due to 
the richness of the vegetal and animal life of 
their new habitat as compared to the old. 

A vast garden now surrounds and prolon- 
gates the monkeys' house. Beside it a pond 
grows papyrus within their reach, which ex- 
plains the coming of visiting frogs inside the 
cages. There is the possibility for some of 
our monkeys to be taken into the garden 
where they can choose from a wider variety 
of food than is normally put at their disposal. 

The group, in 1978, was composed of a 9- 
year-old male, a 9-year-old female and their 
one-year-old infant, together with a 7-year- 
old female. They live in a compound of three 
communicating cages. The five-metre high 
central cage, protected from sun and rain, 
is adjacent to and entirely visible from the 
two-floor abode of the observer. This is v/here 

1 Accepted December 1978. 

2 Identity Research Institute, Sri Aurobindo Ash- 
ram, Pondicherry. 



the females spend more than half of the day 
and where the entire group retires at night. 
A floodlamp projecting a soft artificial moon- 
light captured by the pale grey beard of the 
lion-tailed macaques, permits observation at 
night. 

Feeding behaviour 

When we started our observation of lion- 
tailed macaques in captivity, we soon noticed 
their great need of animal proteins, compared 
to that of the bonnet macaque (Macaca ra- 
diata) which we also study in our centre. An 
adult lion-tailed macaque male lent us for one 
day in 1969 from an itinerant zoo, chose fish 
first (we did not offer him meat) from a plate 
with varied samples of food, asked several 
times for more and ate practically nothing 
else except grapes. When the second of our 
lion-tailed females, then 4 months old, arriv- 
ed at our centre at the beginning of 1972, she 
disregarded the food put before her, includ- 
ing milk, cereals, several varieties of fruits and 
fresh vegetables. Instead she stole meat from 
the dogs. That need can be expressed so vivid- 
ly when they smell or foresee the possibility 
of getting some cooked meat or fish, that we 
have baptised its vocal expression "the pro- 
tein cry". But it is only recently that we have 
witnessed some of their hunting practices. 

The following parts of this article might 
give the impression that our monkeys are 



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JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



undernourished. That is why we have first to 
explain that they are fed according to advice 
given by European and American zoos. They 
get, season by season, all the varieties of vege- 
tal food available in the Pondicherry mar- 
ket, besides plants, flowers and leaves from 
the garden, and a cereal pudding with cal- 
cium and vitamin supplements. Some of the 
items they like to have daily, such as toma- 
toes, lady fingers, guavas, grapes and a local 
plant called in Tamil kirai. For years they 
have received also twice a week a supplement 
of animal proteins. But it has been increased 
in quantity and frequency since we discover- 
ed their propensity for hunting. The male eats 
approximately 100 grams of liver, 100 grams 
of buffalo meat, some crab or fish and half 
an egg per week. 
Natural Animal food: 

As we have already explained, some of our 
monkeys are taken regularly through the gar- 
den and eat whatever they like. Small ani- 
mals happen also to visit their cages and the 
monkeys catch them. 

Frogs: On 15 January 1977 at 10 p.m. we 
noticed an unusual activity. While the females 
remained on their sleeping plank, the male 
was sitting on the floor, his back turned to 
us, eating a frog. Acknowledging our presen- 
ce, he showed us his prey and continued eat- 
ing with obvious satisfaction. Following this 
event, we focussed our observations on the 
beginning of the night period. The same scene 
occurred on the 27th, 28th, 29th and 30th 
of the same month. On the 30th, the male 
even succeeded in capturing three frogs at a 
time and kept one in one foot while eating 
the two others. 

We did not wait long to start increasing the 
amount of proteins alloted to our small co- 
lony, but this did not seem to curb the appe- 
tite of our male lion-tailed macaque for liv- 



ing frogs. All year long he goes around after 
nightfall inspecting his premises. If he finds 
some frog, he likes picking it up and chew- 
ing it leisurely. 

The females are not permitted to hunt in 
his presence. Only three times have we seen 
them capturing and eating frogs inside the 
cage, when the male was busy with some 
other occupation, twice in day time and once 
at the beginning of the night. But while sepa- 
rated from the male and taking a walk in the 
garden, the females know where to find frogs 
in palm-roofed pavilions. On 14 June 1977, 
we saw the older female fishing a frog di- 
rectly out of the pond and devouring it on 
the spot. 

Snails: In the garden, the females some 
times eat snails. They do not automatically 
pick up a snail whenever they see one. Dur- 
ing a period of three months of daily walks 
in the garden, from the middle of June to the 
middle of September 1977, we counted that 
the older female must have eaten about a 
dozen snails. On two occasions, she ate 3 
or 4 at a time. 

Insects: Insects are common food for the 
lion-tailed macaques. They consume a large 
variety of them — including house spiders, 
cockroaches and white ants — when they have 
the opportunity to do so. In the daily ration 
of fresh plants and small branches put inside 
their cages, they always look for insects before 
looking for buds. They also eat several varie- 
ties of water bugs and crunch them with de- 
light. But only the male has been seen to 
make a feast out of giant Belostomatidae, un- 
appetising for his companions. When they for- 
age in the garden, they often pick up at the 
same time with insects, pieces of grass or 
leaves. It may be quicker to capture them 
that way, but it also seems to be a desired 
mixture. 



286 



BEHAVIOUR OF LION-TAILED MACAQUE 



Eggs: Wherever possible, the females also 
rob birds' nests, but they have never eaten 
birds, not even those which happened to enter 
their cages, though they killed two of them 
by trying to chase them away or to play with 
them. 

Reptiles: During her pregnancy, the older 
female became a keen and skillful hunter. She 
looked not only for insects but also for bigger 
prey. On 19 June 1977 we saw her for the 
first time capturing and eating entirely a large 
Indian Bloodsucker lizard {Calotes versicolor). 
Within the three months of her maximal hunt- 
ing activities she ate 9 of them and missed 2. 
A huge one bit her fingers two times and she 
let it go. Another one she wounded before it 
could escape her. Other smaller varieties of 
lizards are also eaten, but only partly. 

Finally we discovered that lion-tailed maca- 
ques attack and eat snakes. 
Feeding behaviour of the alpha: 
The rights of the chief. 
As the princeps, he is the one who takes 
and eats first whatever he likes. His choice is 
quickly made; after that he retires a little to 
give the others their turn. A titbit of food dis- 
tributed outside the schedule, which someone 
manages to get before the chief, is usually not 
contested by him, though the others do not 
hide their pleasure and vocalise it with a spe- 
cial sound which means "How good!" His 
permissiveness varies with the degree of rarity 
of the food, its dietetic value and the distance 
at which the misdeed happens—the nearest 
the most reprehensible. But his attacks do not 
actually injure anyone. Animal proteins are 
considered by him to be his exclusive property. 
When we distribute liver, for example, we have 
to separate the chief from the others. And 
hunting in his presence is absolutely prohi- 
bited. 



Ritualistic behaviour: 

From time to time our monkeys are given 
a complete coconut to peel off and open. One 
day, in front of several spectators, the chief 
had worked for ten or fifteen minutes with 
his four hands and teeth and the entire mus- 
culature of his body to remove the thick coat 
of fibers that cushions the wooden shell. He 
rejected the last mouthful of fibers and looked 
at the coconut. Usually he tries to break the 
shell before the peeling is over. But that day 
he had carefully stripped the entire nut, which 
was now lying at his feet. He looked at it, 
seized it with both hands, stood up and held 
it high above his head, his gaze fixed on it. 
Then he turned slowly around 3 or 4 times, 
lowered the coconut to his chest, held it with 
a single hand and in a few jumps reached the 
top of the 5 metre cage. From there he looked 
to be sure that nobody was standing just be- 
low, and let the coconut drop to the floor. One 
second later he was drinking the water from 
the open fruit. A few minutes afterwards 
everybody had a piece of it. 
Changes brought about by the birth of a 
young: 

After the birth of the first young, a change 
occurred in the feeding behaviour of the alpha. 
He often gave precedence to the mother to 
go from one cage to another where some 
simple food had been placed. He regularly 
turned his back and looked somewhere else 
when we offered a special food every morning 
to the females. He let them eat first, on the 
highest level of the cage, together with the 
baby, while he sat on the floor, sometimes 
picking up what they had let drop, waiting 
for us to come down to give him his share. 
His tolerance was limited to a few given situa- 
tions. But it did not lessen today, when the 
child is nearly one year old. The restraint im- 
posed on his huge body and exhuberant if not 



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JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



explosive vitality by the presence of the child 
is amazing to observe. 

The second female plays the role of the 
elder sister. When the infant started to eat, 
she shared her part of the food with it, so 
giving the nursing mother more chance to 
fulfil her energy needs. 

Now the child goes freely outside the sage 
and serves in a liaison capacity, bringing to the 
other monkeys desired items, such as bones 
abandoned by the dogs or pieces of brick, 
which are very much appreciated. 

Hunting behaviour 

Monkey-snake encounters : 

On 11 April 1977, a snake some 80 centi- 
metres long had entered the central cage. 
When we became aware of it, the male lion- 
tailed macaque had already taken hold of it 
at a few centimetres from the head. With pre- 
cision and skill, he prevented the snake from 
turning towards him. He stood in a bipedal 
position, the right arm fully extended, holding 
the snake. The left hand remained free. His 
whole attitude reminded us of a fencer fend- 
ing off the attacks of his adversary. What 
happened next went so fast that we were not 
able to perceive it. The monkey reached the 
middle floor level of the cage and suddenly 
the snake had lost 10 centimetres or more of 
its tail. Then the male macaque disappeared 
with the snake towards the highest level of the 
cage. He soon came down empty-handed. We 
asked him: "Where is the snake?" He reach- 
ed with his fingers into his mouth and labori- 
ously extracted the dead snake from one of 
his cheek-pouches to show it to us and then 
carefully put it back. The distended pouch 
was not visible behind his large facial ruff. 
A little later the second female ate the tail 
that she had secured for herself and the male 
ate all the rest of the animal. 



In January 1978, we discovered the male 
holding a snake again, this time in his left 
hand. It was the size of a viper and we gave 
the danger signal. He let it drop and the snake 
found its way out. 

Recently, we observed the beginning of a 
fight between the same lion-tailed macaque 
male and another visiting snake. The monkey 
had trapped the snake in a corner of the cage 
and was manoeuvring to catch it. The snake 
was facing the monkey and it suddenly lunged 
towards him in a lightning attack. The maca- 
que avoided the snake with a minimum of 
movement and resumed his approach. Some 
outside event interrupted the fight and the 
snake disappeared. 
Replacement behaviour : 

The intrepid behaviour of the captive lion- 
tailed macaque male confronted for the first 
time by a snake, contradicts apparantly his 
cautious behaviour in front of unknown ani- 
mals or moving toys. Even a new wooden ball 
introduced into his cage, which rolled on the 
sloping floor — and though he has been playing 
with wooden balls before and can recognise 
one at once — became the object of a test per- 
formance, leading to its identification and 
classification. 

He approached the ball with a commanding 
gesture to keep everybody at a distance, and 
covered it with a leafy branch. He started 
rolling the object vigorously to and fro on the 
floor, using the leaves as a protective layer. 
He bent to the ground to try to see the ball 
and pushed it around, always under the leaves, 
to observe its reactions. As nothing happened, 
he parted the leaves, smelled the ball from 
a distance, pushed it a little with the branch 
and finally touched it directly with his fingers. 
He bent, sniffed it again and put his mouth 
on it. Only then did he start manipulating it 
freely and tasting a scrap on it. 



288 



BEHAVIOUR OF LION-TAILED MACAQUE 



This special hunting behaviour brought 
about by a new ball or whatever new or un- 
known thing that moves by itself, evidently 
gives him time to examine it and if possible 
take hold of it. He exhibited the same kind 
of behaviour, in an abridged form, in evaluat- 
ing the quality of a tree frog whose skin had 
turned whitish. He finally pushed it outside 
the cage with a branch without touching it. 
Killing techniques : 

We never saw the females going through this 
elaborate testing process, which seems to be- 
long to the function of the chief. However 
all of them roll insects under or between then- 
naked hands or against the bark of a tree, or 
sometimes with the back of the hand which 
is covered with hairs. In some cases they also 
use leaves as a protection. But they most often 
put insects directly into their mouth without 
preparatory manipulation. When they eat 
snails, they crunch the shell with the teeth or 
by rolling it against something. They remove 
the anal end. When the manipulation is finish- 
ed, they clean their sticky hands against some 
grass or bark. 

The killing becomes more dramatic when 
the technique of rolling the insects is applied 
to frogs and this is how the male generally 
operates. He almost lost one of his first vic- 
tims, which jumped away partly eaten, but he 
caught it again in the semi-darkness and finish- 
ed eating it. 

The females seem to be better killers. They 
bite the animal at the head or open its belly. 
When we saw for the first time the older 
female killing an Indian Bloodsucker lizard, 
she seemed in possession of a perfect techni- 
que. She seized the animal by its upper part 
and, with lightning speed and strength, bit its 
head and ate it immediately. Her next choice 
was the tail, followed by the thighs. She 
then opened its belly, threw away the 



anal part and ate the rest of the contents. 
Then she sat down more comfortably, peeled 
the skin off, let it drop, and ate practically 
the entire body except for the front legs. 

Discussion 

Living under the same roof with a group 
of monkeys, in a proximity which makes ob- 
servation possible day and night, permits the 
discovery of behavioral traits difficult to ob- 
serve otherwise. The many-faceted lion-tailed 
macaque — a rare and little known monkey — 
shows here its ingeniousness, its capacity for 
adaptation and change and its nearness to man 
particularly in the way its society reacts to 
the birth of a child. 

Summary 

The lion-tailed macaques in captivity, that 
we have observed since 1970, have demons- 
trated a great need for animal proteins and a 
natural taste for living food. If given the op- 
portunity, they capture insects, snails, frogs, 
lizards and even snakes and rob birds' nests. 
Their way of killing and their dietary tastes 
are rather individual and adapted to circum- 
stances. We did not see them attacking birds 
or small mammals with a view to feeding on 
them. But they eagerly eat boiled meat, fish, 
crab and even bones. The chief of the group 
has been seen to go through some kind of 
ritual performance to celebrate the opening 
of a coconut and to evaluate the potential 
danger or food value of some moving thing 
or unknown animal. 

These facts have been gathered in an en- 
vironment which gives the facilities of close 
and constant observation and provides at the 
same time enough stimulation and freedom to 
the monkeys to deploy their native psycholo- 
gical capacities. 



289 



NEW DESCRIPTIONS 



ON A NEW SILURID CAT-FISH FROM UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA 1 



S. K. Gupta, 2 K. C. Jayaram 3 and K. P. Hajela 
(With a text- figure) 



Introduction 

During the course of faunistic and ecologi- 
cal studies of the fishes in and around Kan- 
pur, Uttar Pradesh, India, three specimens of 
a new cat-fish of the family Siluridae were 
collected. The specimens are akin to Wallago 
attu (Bloch) but differ from it in possessing 
a second rayed dorsal fin, not confluent with 
caudal and for that matter from all other 
forms of the superfamily Siluroidae where the 
smooth adipose dorsal fin is not so uncom- 
mon. After examination of the specimens and 
on comparison with the material present in 
the National Zoological Collections in Zoo- 
logical Survey of India, Calcutta, (by one of 
us KCJ), it was thought fit to describe it as 
a new genus of Silurid cat-fish. 

This paper presents the description of this 
new fish. 

Pinniwallago gen. nov. 
Similar to Wallace Bleeker but distinguish- 
able from it by the presence of second dorsal 
rayed fin without spines. All other characters 
as in the type-species. 

1 Accepted March 1980. 

2 Zoology Department, D.A.V. College, Kanpur, 
U.P., India. 

3 Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. 



Pinniwallago kanpurensis sp. nov. 
(Fig. 1) 

B. 21; D t 5-6; D 2 30-36; P. 1/14; V. 10; 
A. 84-89 (4/80-85); C. 18. Body depth 5.2 
(4.8-5.5); head length 4.43 (4.2-4.6); head 
width 7.73 (7.7-7.8); head depth 7.7 (7.4-8.1); 
pre-dorsal length 3.3 (3.29-3.31); post-dorsal 
length 1.42 (1.42-1.43); pre-pelvic distance 
2.7 (2.5-2.9); in standard length. Eye 8.0 
(7.9-8.1) in head length; 3.60 (3.45-3.72) in 
inter-orbital space width; 3.11 (2.81-3.27) in 
snout length. Width of base of first dorsal fin 
9.9 (9.0-10.8); width of base of second dorsal 
fin 1.21 (0.90-1.57) in head length. Least 
depth of caudal peduncle 0.43 (0.40-0.47) in 
its length. 

Body elongate, compressed. Head broad, 
large, depressed. Snout depressed, sharp but 
not pointed. Eyes large, inferior, visible from 
below ventral surface. Mouth large, gape ex- 
tending beyond eyes. Jaws subequal, lower 
jaw slightly longer than upper with numerous 
depressible cardiform teeth; an oblique vome- 
rine patch on either side, palatines without 
teeth. 

Barbels two pairs, one each of maxillary 
and mandibular; former thick reaching slight- 
ly beyond origin of anal fin, latter thin, fila- 
mentous extending to a distance slightly pos- 
terior to the eye. Two dorsal spineless fins, 



290 



NEW DESCRIPTIONS 



first short with five or six rays, second long 
with 30 to 36 rays and widely apart from 
caudal fin. Pectoral fin short with a spine. 
Anal fin long, ending near caudal fin but not 
confluent with it. Caudal fin forked with 
rounded lobes. Lateral line simple and com- 
plete. 

Fresh specimens greyish with a yellow 
tinge along the back; sides and belly, yellow. 
First and second dorsal, caudal and anal, 
grey; ventral, yellow, blending with sides and 
belly coloration. Alcohol preserved speci- 



Affinity: This new species is undoubtedly 
related to the widely distributed Wallago attu 
from which it differs in having the second 
rayed dorsal fin. 

Discussion: In Indian Siluroid fishes, the 
second dorsal fin whenever present, is smooth 
and adipose except in the genera Choca Gray 
and Plotosus Lacepede where the second dorsal 
is rayed but confluent with the caudal. Jayaram 
(1966), 4 while discussing the affinities of the 
genus Clarotes Kner of the family Bagridae 
from Africa, pointed out the unique modifi- 




Fig. 1. Pinniwallago kanpurensis sp. nov. 



mens dark grey along upper half of body and 
anal fin base, light grey along ventral half. 

Distribution: Ponds in and around Kanpur, 
Uttar Pradesh, India. All known specimens 
were collected from 'Bara TaT near village 
Bhitargaon, Tehsil Ghatampur, District Kan- 
pur. 

Holotype: in Z.S.I., Calcutta, collected on 
27-6-1976 from above locality; F.F. 1443. 

Paratypes: Two, one in Z.S.I., Calcutta, 
F.F. 1444 and the other in the museum of 
Zoology Department, D.A.V. College, Kanpur, 
collected on 5-vii-1976 from above locality. 



cation of the adipose dorsal fin as a fin with 
rays and spines which justified the provision 
of a generic rank for the African fish. Phylo- 
genetically Wallago is primitive and the new 
genus can be stated to be slightly better evolv- 
ed in possessing the second rayed dorsal fin. 

The species is named after Kanpur, India 
from where it has been first reported. 

4 Jayaram, K. C. (1966): Contribution to the 
study of the Fishes of the family Bagridae. 2. A 
systematic account of the African genera with a 
new classification of the family. Bulletin de V Institut 
Fontamental d' Afrique Noire. Tome xxviii, Ser. A. 
n 3 tuillet pp. 1094-1095. 



291 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 

ON A NEW SPECIES OF GENUS ALLOT RISSOCLADWS FREEMAN 
(DIPTERA, CHIRONOMID AE ) FROM INDIA 1 

P. K. Chaudhuri and S. K. Nandi 2 
{With three text-figures) 



In course of our studies on the Chironomid 
midges of India, a few specimens of genus 
Allotrissocladius Freeman were noticed 
amongst collections of insects from Darjee- 
ling, West Bengal, India. The insects at 
first sight seem to be members of the genus 
Paratrissocladius Zavrel but close examina- 
tion of characters especially the presence of 
accessory appendages in male hypopygium, 
assigns them to the genus Allotrissocladius. 
The genus was first proposed by Freeman 
(1964) on the basis of specimens from West- 
ern Australia and Allotrissocladius amphihius 
Freeman was the type-species. 

The descriptions and terminologies used in 
this paper have been followed after the works 
of Saether (1976). 

Allotrissocladius acutus sp. nov. 

Male: Body length 3.38 (3.34-3.39, n = 6) 
mm; wing length 1.72 (1.68-1.74, n = 6) mm; 
Wing breadth 0.53 (0.52-0.53, n = 6) mm. 

Head: Brown in colour. Vertex brown with 
6-10 setae of which 2 being postocular on each 
side. Clypeus with 4 setae in transverse row. 
Maxillary palp light brown, palpomere III 
with a small preapical pit bearing 1-2 sensilla, 
palpomere V with an apical seta, ratio of 
length of palpomeres from I to V 8:13:32: 
26:45, L/W ratio 4.0. Eyes reniform, bare 
and slightly extended dorsally, extension be- 
ing 0.1 mm. Antenna pale, flagellomeres cylin- 

1 Accepted May 1979. 

2 Department of Zoology, University of Burdwan, 
Burdvvan 713)04, West Bengal, Tndia. 



drical, flagellomere XIII lance-shaped, ratio 
of length of flagellomeres from I to XIII 
8:7:8:8:10:11:11:10:10:11:13:12:91, AR 
0.76. 

Thorax: Antepronotum with 1 lateral seta. 
Acrostichals 4-6 (6), dorsocentrals 10 in a 
row on each side, prealars 4, prescutellars 2 
on each side. Scutellum with 4 setae on each 
side, postscutellum brown with dark margin. 

Wing (Fig. 1): wing without macrotrichia, 
microtrichia visible in high magnification. 
Brachiolum with 1 seta, R with 14-15 (14) 
setae from the base, R x and R 4 + 5 with out 
setae; R 2 + 3 ends C at a distance of 0.19 mm 
from R lf R.1+-, ends slightly proximal to M 3 + 4 , 
C extended little beyond R 4 + 5 being 0.04 mm 
long, f-cu considerably distal to r-m, Oil 
straight and slightly bent at the apex, ends 
slightly proximal to f-cu. Sensory organ 1 each 
r-m and at the base of Ri. Squama with 12 
setae. Anal lobe well developed and produced. 
Haltere pale. VR 1.1, CR 0.93. 

Legs: uniformly brown. Spur of fore tibia 
0.06 mm long, ratio of length of spur to the 
apical diameter of fore tibia 5:9; spurs of 
mid tibia equal 0.32 mm long, ratio of length 
of spur to the apical diameter of mid tibia 
8:10; spurs of hind tibia unequal 0.076 mm 
and 0.032 mm long, ratio of length of spurs 
to the apical diameter of hind tibia 18:12, 
8:12. Hind tibial comb with 12 setae, 0.028- 
0.056 mm long. Claws of hind leg equal, curv- 
ed 0.028 mm long with 2 setae at the base. 
Empodium smaller than claws. LR 0.47 in 
fore leg, 0.56 in mid leg and 0.58 in hind leg. 
TR of hind leg 1.78. 



292 



NEW DESCRIPTIONS 



Abdomen: Terga ochreous, tergum I with 
15-16 lateral setae, terga II to VIII mottled 
brown with numerous setae. Hypopygium 
(Fig. 2). Anal point narrow and pointed bear- 
ing 5-6 (6) setae on each side. Gonocoxite 
with a thumb like basal lobe, gonocoxite with 
24-26 setae; gonostylus (Fig. 3) slightly bent 



at the middle, base narrow and distal part 
wider with an apical tooth 0.012 mm long and 
a seta on each side of tooth. Appendage two 
in number, outer one narrow, profusely seta- 
ceous and inner one broad. HR 2.2, HV 3.9. 

Material: 6 males were collected by the 
senior author from the Govt. College, Dar- 





Figs. 1-3. Allotrissocladius acutus sp. nov. 1. wing; 2. hypopygium and 3. gonostylus. 



293 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



jeeling in May, 1970. Holotype male (Type 
no. 60, B.U .Ent.) in the collections of insects 
at the department of Zoology, University of 
Burdwan, Burdwan. 
Female : unknown. 

The present species has been named Allo- 
trissocladius acutus sp. nov. in view of its nar- 
row and pointed anal point. The species shows 
close similarities with A. amphibius Freeman 
from West Australia in some aspects but the 
differences in the setae of thorax, wing with 



its venation and structure of male hypopygium 
are sufficient to treat the species as a new one. 

Acknowledgements 

We are grateful to Prof. Ole A. Saether of 
the University of Bergen (Norway) for kind- 
ly confirming the species and going through 
the manuscript and to Prof. D. K. Choudhuri, 
Head of the department of Zoology, Univer- 
sity of Burdwan for laboratory facilities. 



References 

Freeman, P. (1964) : Notes on Chironomidae nus, Trissocladius, Zalutschia, Paratrissocladius and 
(Diptera; Nematocera). Proc. R. Ent. Soc, London some related genera (Chironomidae, Diptera). Bull. 
(B) 33: 147-150. Fish. Res. Bd., Canada 195: 1-287. 

Saether, O. A. (1976) : Revision of Hydrobae- 



A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS HERCULIA WALKER FROM 
NORTH INDIA (LEPIDOPTERA : PYRALIDAE: PYRALINAE) 1 

H. S. Rose and S. S. Dhillon 2 
{With seven text-figures) 



During an extensive survey of Pyralid 
moths of North India, we collected six species 
belonging to the subfamily Pyralinae. These 
six species included two new species, one of 
which has been already described (Rose and 
Pajni 1978). The second species, according 
to Hampson's key (1896), is clearly referable 
to the genus Herculia Walker, which includes 
fourteen other species from India. The species 
under reference is distinctly different from all 
other Herculia spp. (Hampson 1896a, 1896b, 
1916, 1917) and hence, is being described as 

1 Accepted January 1980. 

2 Department of Zoology, Punjabi University, . 
Patiala-147 002. 



a new species. The nomenclature of Klots 
(1970) has been followed for genitalic struc- 
tures. 

Genus Herculia Walker 
Herculia Walker, 1859, Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. 
Mus., 19: 807. Type species: Herculia martha- 
lis Walker (Range: Universally distributed). 

Herculia hansi sp. nov. (Figs. 1-7) 
Head: Vertex covered with densely arrang- 
ed long and ochreous scale; frons profusely 
scaled with ochreous brown scales. Antenna: 
shorter than fore wing; scape over laden with 
brown scales; flagellum annulated and finely 
ringed with fusco- rufous and pale brown 
scales; minutely pilose and without any bran- 



294 



NEW DESCRIPTIONS 



ches in male. Eye: large, with a row of grey- 
ish brown scales behind. Ocellus absent. 

Labial palpus: upturned; second segment long, 
reaching vertex of head; third segment por- 
rect, short and acuminate; all segments thickly 
scaled with brown scales, irrorated with fus- 
cous and fulvo-rufous scales. Maxillary pal- 
pus: reduced and filiform, covered with light 
brown scales. Proboscis: long, furnished with 
fuscous brown scales at base. Posterior end 
of head densely clothed with ochreous brown 
scales. 




Herculia hansi sp. nov. 
Fig. 1. Photograph of the adult. 



Thorax: covered with dull green scales 
dorsally; scales on tegula reaching beyond 
metathorax; white ventrally. 

Fore wing: Anterior margin straight; apex 
rounded; termen evenly curved; tornus round- 
ed; posterior margin straight. Ground colour 
dull green, uniformly and finely irrorated with 
white scales; the costal margin yellowish 
brown; a slightly curved white antemedial line 
from costa to inner margin; an inwardly obli- 
que and straight white postmedial line from 
costa to anal margin; margin whitish; marginal 
fringe greyish. Discal cell shorter than half 



the length of wing. Sc straight; R x free, from 
anterior angle of cell; R 2 free; R 3 , R 4 and 
R 5 stalked; M x from base of R 3 + 4 + 5 ; M 2 and 
M 3 from posterior angle of cell, closely ap- 
proximated at origin for sufficient distance, 
diverging distally; Cuj weakly curved towards 
base of M 3 ; Cu 2 from cell at about two-third 
the length of cell; 3A making a small loop 
at base of 2 A. 




Fig. 2. Fore wing. Fig. 3. Hind wing. 
Abbreviations: 
1A, First anal vein; 2A, Second anal vein; 3A, Third 
anal vein; Cu i; First cubital vein; Cu 2 , Second cubi- 
tal vein; M 1 , First median vein; M 2 , Second median 
vein; M 3 , Third median vein; R i; First radial vein; 
R 2 , Second radial vein; R.,, Third radial vein; R 4 , 
Fourth radial vein; R 5 , Fifth radial vein; Rs, Radial 
sector; Sc, Subcosta; Sc. R lt Stalk of Sc and R r 

Hind wing: Costal margin straight; apex, 
termen, tornus and anal margin rounded. 
Ground colour dull green, finely irrorated with 
white scales; a fine white antemedial line from 



295 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol 77 




Figs. 4-6. Parts of male genitalia. 
Abbreviations: 

CRN, Cornutus; GN, Gnathos; JX, Juxta; SL, Sacculus; SOC, Socii; TG, Tegumen; 
TU.A, Tuba analis; UN, Uncus; VIN, Vinculum; VLV, Valva, 
296 . 



NEW DESCRIPTIONS 



middle of cell lo posterior margin; an in- 
wardly oblique white postmedial line from 
Sc+Ri to tornus; margin white; marginal 
fringe grey, with a dark line. Discal cell slight- 
ly less than half the length of wing; discocel- 
lulars long, straight and oblique; cell closed. 
Rs apposed to Sc+R a beyond cell for some 
distance; Rs+Mi stalked; M 2 and M 3 from 
the same point at posterior angle of cell, ap- 
proximated at base, diverging distally; Cu 2 
diverging; Cu 2 from slightly beyond middle 
of cell; three anals present. 

Legs: covered with brown scales, irrorated 
with fuscous and fusco-rufous; tibiae promi- 
nently and densely scaled; outer spur on mid 
tibia two-third the length of inner; outer spur 
of anterior pair on hind tibia exactly one- 
third the length of inner; outer spur of distal 
pair slightly less than half the length of inner. 

Abdomen: brown dorsally, irrorated with 
dull green, poorly ringed with white, under 
surface ochreous brown. 

Male genitalia: Uncus more or less slender, 
rounded distally, tip very minutely setose; 
socii quite prominent, long, each with an an- 
gular process, completely naked; gnathos well 
developed, shorter than uncus, strongly scler- 
tized, its arms broad at base, meeting the dis- 
tal end and drawn out into a short, more or 
less pointed process; tuba analis nearly as 
long as uncus, simple; tegumen reduced and 
well sclerotized; vinculum V-shaped; saccus 
rudimentary or absent. Valva moderately long, 
more or less boat-shaped, costal margin angu- 
late, saccular margin arched, distal end nar- 
row and rounded; costa not differentiated, sac- 
culus very poorly demarcated at base only; 
harpe absent. Transtilla represented by a thin- 
strap; juxta more or less squarish. Aedeagus 
long and slender, its walls well sclerotized; 
vesica with a well developed long and thorn- 




Fig. 7. Female genitalia. 
Abbreviations: 
ANT.APO, Anterior Apophyses; CRP.BU, Corpus 
Bursae; DU.BU, Ductus Bursae; OVP, Ovipositor; 
PO.APO, Posterior Apophyses; SIG, Signum. 



297 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



like, strongly sclerotized cornutus and with a 
few loosely arranged denticles. 

Female genitalia: Corpus bursae globular, 
membranous, lined by a sclerotized line on in- 
ner side; signum circular, well sclerotized and 
beautifully adorned with short denticles; duc- 
tus bursae membranous; anterior apophyses 
quite long, thin and well sclerotized; posterior 
apophyses much longer than anterior apophy- 
ses and slightly better sclerortized; ovipositor 
lobes more or less conical, each bearing short 
and long setae. 

Alar expanse: Male: 20.5 mm to 23 mm 
Female: 25.5 mm 

Material Examined: Holotype: 13; 3 3<5 
and 29 S paratypes, India, Solan and Cham- 
baghat (Himachal Pradesh) (Collected by HS 
Rose). Material deposited in the Department 
of Zoology, Punjabi University, Patiala- 147002, 
Punjab, India. 

Remarks: The genus Herculia Walker in- 
cludes fourteen species, two of which namely 
imbecilis Moore and dharmsalae Butler have 
been described from North India (Hampson 

Refei 

Hampson, G. F. (1896a): Fauna of British India, 
Moths, 4: 1-594. 

(1896b): On the classification of 

three sub-families of moths of family Pyralidae, 
the Epipaschiinae, Endotrichinae and Pyralinae. 
Trans. Ent. Soc. London, pp. 451-550. 

(1916) : Descriptions of new Pyra- 
lidae of subfamilies Epipaschiinae, Chrysauginae, 
Endotrichinae and Pyralinae (Lepidoptera) . Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist. London, I8(S): 126-160, 349-373. 

(1917) : Descriptions of new Pyra- 
lidae of subfamilies Epipaschiinae, Chrysauginae, 



1896a). The species under reference is, thus, 
the third species from North India which dif- 
fers prominently from all the described species 
belonging to genus Herculia. The new species, 
Herculia hansi, however, shows slight similarity 
to H. imbeciles Moore in having an ante- 
medial line on the dorsal surface of the fore 
wing while differing from it in lacking a dark 
speck at the end of the discal cell. The alar 
expanse of the latter is drastically larger 
(male 30 mm, female 34 mm) than as it 
occurs in the former (male 20.5 mm to 23 mm, 
female 25.5 mm.). The generic identity of 
H. hansi sp. nov. has been confirmed from 
the British Museum (Natural History), Lon- 
don. 

ACK NOWLEDGEMENTS 

We wish to thank Dr. J. D. Bradley of 
British Museum (Natural History), London 
for the confirmation of the species and Dr. 
Hans Raj Pajni, Department of Zoology, 
Panjab University, Chandigarh for his help 
in the preparation of this manuscript. 

ENCES 

Endotrichinae and Pyralinae (Lepidoptera). Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist. London, 19: 65-100. 

Klots, A. B. (1970): Lepidoptera, in "Taxono- 
mist's glossary of Genitalia in Insects" (ed. S. L. 
Tuxen), 2nd ed. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, pp. 115- 

130. 

Rose, H. S. and Pajni, H. R. (1978) : Further 
comments on the genus Tamraca Moore with the 
description of a new species from Chandigarh (Lepi- 
doptera: Pyralidae). /. Bombay nat. Hist Soc, 75 
(1): 170-173. 



298 



NEW DESCRIPTIONS 

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES AND A KEY TO INDIAN 
SPECIES OF BELOSTOMATIDAE 1 

P. Venkatesan and T. K. Raghunatha Rao 2 

(With seven text-figures) 



Lauck and Menke (1961) showed that 
Sphaerodema was synonymous with Genus 
Diplonychus Laporte of sub-family Belosto- 
matinae. Earlier workers in India, while re- 
cording and studying the biology of the species 
of this genus, had included them under Sphae- 
rodema Laporte, overlooking Diplonychus 
(Presswala & George 1936, Rao 1962, Indira 
1963, Madhavan 1973). Distant (1906) dif- 
ferentiated S. annulatum (Fabricius) from the 
other two recorded Indian species of this genus 
on the basis of the nature and the size of the 
hemelytra and the measurement of the head 
width between the eyes. He differentiated 
S. molestwn Dufour from S. rusticum Fabricius 
on the basis of the size of the claw in the front 
tarsus. Menke (1960 & 1961) stressed the im- 
portance of the structure and terminology of 
male genitalia and gave a more critical ana- 
lysis of other characters used to distinguish 
the taxa of this sub-family. Hence, it is felt 
worthwhile to include the characters of the 
genitalia in the present investigation while des- 
cribing a new species of the genus Diplony- 
chus, collected from Chetpet pond, Madras, 
India and forming a key to the Indian species 
of Diplonychus. 

Key to the Indian species of 
Diplonychus Laporte 

1. Total body length less than 20 mm; body nar- 
row and tapering; greatest expanse of hemely- 
tra together shorter than the total body length. 



Total body length more than 20 mm; body very 
broad; greatest expanse of hemelytra together 
equal to the total body length. 

. . D. annulatum (Fabricius) 

2. Anterior claws shorter than the width of tarsus. 

.. 3 

Anterior claws longer than the width of tarsus. 

. . D. molestus (Dufour) 

3. Head length shorter than the width between 
the eyes; the posterolateral margin of the res- 
piratory strap of male without the setal tufts 
or spikes; air straps meeting at the tip of 
aedeagus. . . D. rusticus (Fabricius) 
Head length more than the width between the 
eyes; the posterolateral margin of the respira- 
tory strap of male with a cluster of setal tufts 
or spikes; air straps not meeting at the tip of 
aedeagus. . . D. indicus sp. nov. 

Diplonychus indicus sp. nov. 
(Figs. 1 to 7) 

Diagnosis: 

Small and elongated bug measuring 13.5 
mm to 16.5 mm long, greatest width being 
9.6 to 10.1 mm; ochraceous or ochraceous 
brown in colour; the lateral and basal mar- 
gins of pronotum and embolium always paler 
than the meso — and metathoracic segments 
(Fig. 1); legs and ventral part of body con- 
colorous; head \\ times longer than the width 
between the eyes; anteoculus moderately deve- 
loped, shorter than the interoculus; eyes slight- 
ly convex; interoculus half as wide as the eye; 
eyes obliquely triangular, strongly flattened 

Accepted August 1980. 

2 Department of Zoology. Loyola College, 
Madras 600 034. India. 



299 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



T 




Figs. 1-6. Diplonychus indicus sp. nov. 
la. Scutellum; lb. Thoracic region; 2. Head; 3. Hemelytra; 4. Antenna; 5. I, II, III 
legs; 6. Ventral view of abdominal segments to show the ventrolateral pubescence. 
Abbreviations: 

(Aj, A;,) — Anals, An — Antenna, C — Claw, Cu — Cubital, Ec — Epiclypeus, F — Fron, 
Mp — Maxillary Palp, Pc — Postclypeus, Pub — Pubescence, Ros — Rostrum, R + M — 
Radial + Medial, Sc — Subcosta, T— Trochanter. 



NEW DESCRIPTIONS 



dorsally and \\ times longer than wide (Fig. 

2) ; external margin of eye often straight and 
continuous with the pronotum; bulgings pre- 
sent on the margin of anteoculus; posterola- 
teral angle of anteoculus variable; claws and 
embolium of hemelytra paler than meso- and 
metathoracic segments but not smooth (Fig. 

3) and punctured with setigerous holes; mem- 
brane of the hemelytra with a patch of minute 
chitinous hairs at the bottom; rostrum long 
and conical; segment I of rostrum 2 times 
longer than segment II (Fig. 2); antenna hid- 
den, four segmented and located near the eyes 
with segments II and III bearing long curved 
finger-like projection dorsally; IV segment 
with slightly bulbous projection than that of 
II and III (Fig. 4); pronotum with lateral 




Fig. 7a. Genitalia of 
Fig. 7b. Genitalia of 



margin nearly straight; anterior margin of pro- 
notum more than half time as wide as the 
posterior margin. 

Ventral laterotergites of abdominal segments 
III to VII with a narrow, sinuate, central band 
of pubescence, attaining the external margin 
at posterolateral angles at the region of III 
segment only (Fig. 6); abdominal sternites 
shiny with short spinules. 

Legs shiny but often covered with minute 
spinules; front femur strongly dilated, bearing 
two grooves for the reception of tibia; front 
tibia and tarsus usually bearing rov/s of large 
setigerous punctures; front tarsus two-segment- 
ed, terminated by two small and equal claws 
that are shorter than the width of the tarsal 
segment; segments II and III of the tarsus 




D. indicus sp. nov. 
i D. indicus sp. nov. 



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JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



being fused; segment I of the tarsus shorter 
than segment II, the division being visible on 
the ventral side; two spinules project between 
the claws of the mesothoracic and metathora- 
cic legs (Fig. 5). 

The phallus composed of the IX abdominal 
segment, articulating within the genital capsule 
as on a U shaped sclerotic basal plate; arising 
from sides of the genital capsule at the arti- 
culations of the basal plate are the parameres, 
triangular in shape with a feather of setose 
hairs; a ligamentous lamina ventralis being at- 
tached at the base of the basal plate which 
articulated posteriorly with a rather bulbous 
sclerotized caudal extension — the ventral diver- 
ticulum; the basal half of the phallus surround- 
ed dorsally and internally by rather heavily 
sclerotized plate — phallobase; a hollow scle- 
rotized tubular aedeagus arises within the phal- 
lobase, which extends dorsal to the ventral 
diverticulum; the VIII abdominal segment 
being closely associated with the genital cap- 
sule, possesses the long air or respiratory 
straps; air straps not bifurcate and their arms 
not meeting at the tip of the aedeagus 
(Fig. 7). 

In the male, the lateral margins of the air 
straps bearing a cluster of setae or setal tufts 
to form together as a spike extending down- 
wards and being visible to the naked eye; be- 
sides the inner margin bearing another cluster 
of the same nature distolaterally but half as 
long as the cluster in the outer margin; arising 
in the phallobase a hollow sclerotized tubular 
aedeagus, which extends dorsally to the ven- 
tral diverticulum (Fig. 7a). 

In the female, the air straps not possessing 
any long setae; female genital plate bearing 
one tuft of setae on the lateral margins api- 
cally (Fig. 7b). 
Material studied: 

Holotype S collected from Chetpet pond, 
Madras, Tndia on 6-2-1977. 



Allotype 9 and paratype 5 nymphs collect- 
ed from the same locality. 

The type series is deposited in the Museum 
of Loyola College, Madras, India. 
Measurements: 

Holotype and Allotype in mm. (Allotype 
measurements given in paranthesis). Total 
body length— 14.65 (16.46); greatest width— 
9.6 to 10.1; anteoculus— 1.78 (1.78); intero- 
culus— 2.12 (2.12); rostrum— 2.78 (2.68); 
hemelytra — 11.42 (11.52); anterior margin of 
pronotum — 4.9 (5.2); posterior margin of pro- 
notum— 6.92 (6.92); head length— 2.54 (2.30); 
thorax length — 6.24 (6.19): abdominal length 
—7.87 (7.97); I leg- femur 2.88 (2.88); tibia 
2.02 (1.92); tarsus 0.48 (0.48); claw 0.095 
(0.095); II leg— femur 5.8 (4.8); tibia 5.56 
(5.13); tarsus 2.73 (2.63); claw 0.58 (0.46); 
III leg— femur 4.08 (3.74); tibia 3.64 (3.46); 
tarsus 1.54 (1.78); claw 0.48 (0.38). 
Remarks : 

Diplonychus indicus sp. nov. is closely re- 
lated to D. rusticus (Fabr.) in having heme- 
lytra shorter than the total body length, ante- 
rior claws short and the presence of tuft of 
setae on the lateral sides of the basal plate 
in the female genitalia. It differs from D. rus- 
ticus in head length being more than the width 
between the eyes, cluster of setae forming the 
spike being present on the posterolateral mar- 
gins of the respiratory straps, air straps not 
meeting at the tip of aedeagus, the pubescence 
of ventrolateral tergites from III to VII reach- 
ing the external margin on the segment 111 
only and the membrane of the hemelytra with 
a patch of spinules at the bottom. 

AOK NOWLEDGEME N TS 

We are grateful to Dr. Margaret Parsons, 
Minnesota, U.S.A. for her valuable suggestions. 
We thank Rev. Fr. Kuriakose, S.J., Principal 
for providing facilities and extending constant 
encouragement. 



302 



NEW DESCRIPTIONS 



References 



Distant, W. L. (1906) : The Fauna of British 
India, Rhynchota, Vol. Ill (Heteroptera — Homop- 
tera). Taylor and Francis, London, 35-37. 

Indira, T. (1963) : Biochemical and Cytochemica] 
studies during development and ovarian growth in 
Sphaerodema molcstum Duf. Ph.D. Thesis, Anna- 
malai University. 

Lauck, D. R. & Menke, A. S. (1961): The 
higher classification of the Belostomatidae (Hemip- 
tera). Ann. Ento. Soc. Amer., 56: 644-657. 

Madhavan, M. M. (1973): Structure and func- 
tion of the hydropyle of the egg of the bug Sphae- 
rodema molestum. J. Ins. Physiol., 20: 1341-1349. 

Menke, A. S. (1960) : A review of the genus 



Lethocercus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae) in the 
Eastern Hemisphere with the description of a new 
species from Australia. Aus. J. ZooL, 8: 285-288. 

(1961): A taxonomic study of the 

genus Abedus Stal (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae). 
Univ. California Publ. Ento., 16 (8): 393-440. 

Presswala, M. J. & George, C. J. (1936): Mor- 
phology of Sphaerodema rusticum Fabr. /. Univ. 
Bombay, 4: 29-65. 

Rao, T. K. R. (1962) : On the biology of Rana- 
tra elongata Fabr. (Heteroptera: Nepidae) and 
Sphaerodema annulatum Fabr. (Heteroptera: Belo- 
stomatidae). Proc. Roy. Ento. soc. Lond., 37: 61- 
64. 



ACONOGONON KUTTIENSE ( POLYGONACEAE)— A NEW SPECIES 
FROM N. W. HIMALAYA 1 

G. G. Maiti, R. M. Dutta 2 & C. R. Babu 1 
{With five text-figures) 



Aconogonon kuttiense sp. nov. (Figs. 1-5) 
Arete affinis A. tortuosum (D. Don) Hara, 
sed foliis anguste elliptico-lanceolatis subtus 
tomento denso albo-lanato indutis, inflorescen- 
tia plus minusve laxe racemosa axillaris brevis, 
perianthio majore differt; a A. sericeum (Pal- 
las) Hara, inflorescentia racemosa, perianthio 
glabro, foliis minoribus discrepat. 

Sufjrutex erectus, nanus 15-45 cm altus; 
radix perennis, crassa. Caulis repetite dicho- 
tome ramosus, subteretis vel teretis, costatus, 
rubro-brunneus, indumenta fere longe erecto- 
patento vel adpresse brevi-setoso vestitus. 
Folia subsessilis, 1 — 3.5x0.3 — 1 cm, anguste 
elliptico-lanceolata vel oblonga, ad basim an- 
gusta et acuta, margine fortiter revoluta, ad 

1 Accepted July 1980. 

2 Botanical Survey of India, Howrah-711 103. 

3 Present address: Department of Botany, Delhi 
University, Delhi. 



apicem obtuso-acuta, fere rubro-brunnea, 
supra tenuiter adpresse pilosa, infra dense 
albo-lanata, supra nervis depressis, infra ner- 
vis principalibus conspicuis. Ochreae tubulares, 
basin versus irregulariter laceratae, dein deci- 
duae, membranaceae, distincte nervosae dense 
adpresse longe setosae, setis ±1.5 cm longis 
vestitae. Flores racemosi, raro brevipaniculati, 
1.5 — 3 cm longi, terminales vel axillares, albo- 
tomentosi; pedunculi 3 — 8 ( — 10) mm longi; 
Bracteae membranaceae, primo tubulares 
dein irregulariter laceratae, adpresse longe 
albo-tomentosae 2.5 — 3 mm longae; pedicelli 
tenues, anguste marginati, glabri, 1 — 1.5 mm 
longi. Perianthium rubrum, campanulatum, 
3.5 — 4 mm longum, ad trientem fissum undique 
glabrum, segmentis 5, raro 6, oblongis, obtusis 
± 3 mm longis. Stamina 8; filamentis lineari- 
bus, 1 — 1.2 mm longis; antherae minutae, late 
oblongae, 0.3—0.4 mm longae. Ovarium par- 



303 



JOURNAL. BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



vum, 3-quetrum, 0.7 — 0.8 (1) mm longum; quilonga, ± 4 mm longa. 

styli 3, breves, 0.1 — 0.2 mm longi, apice capi- Holotypus (R. M. Dutta 211 A) et isotypi 

tato-stigmatosi. Nux rubro-brunnea, ellipsoi- (R. M. Dutta 277B) lecti die Sept. 22, 1968, 

dea, triquetra acute marginata, perianthio ac- in loco Kutti, in provincia Uttar Pradesh, 




Figs. 1-5. Aconogonon kuttiense sp. nov. 
I. Habit; 2. Flower opened out with ovary removed; 3. Stamen; 4. Gynoecium; 
5. Fruit. 



304 



NEW DESCRIPTIONS 



India; Holotypus et isotypi positi CAL. Para- 
typus: Kumaon, Kutti Valley, 14-15000 ft., 
31-7-1886, J. F. Duthie 5929 (CAL) and 
Kutti Valley, way to Samzurkchan Glacier, 
3 km. from Kutti village, C. 4000 m., 
24-10-1976, G. G. Maiti 790 (CAL). 

Closely allied to A. tortuosum (D. Don) 
Hara but is easily recognizable by densely 
white-lanate or woolly lower, surface of the 
leaves, narrowly elliptic-lanceolate leaves with 
a narrowed base, axillary, short, more or less 
lax racemes and larger perianth. A. sericeum 
(Pallas) Hara— a Siberian species, is also very 
similar to this in its hairiness and shape of 
leaves, but A. sericeum (Pallas) Hara differs 
in having axillary flower-clusters, hairy peri- 
anth and larger leaves. Whereas A. kuttiense 



is characterised by flowers being in racemes, 
glabrous perianth and smaller leaves. 

The specific epithet is derived from the 
name of the locality from where it was collect- 
ed thrice, by Duthie during 1886, then by 
Dutta 1968, and by Maiti 1976. 

ACK NOWLEDGEMENTS 

We are grateful to Dr. M. P. Nayar, De- 
puty Director, Central National Herbarium, 
Howrah, for Latin translation and helpful sug- 
gestions. Thanks are also due to the Council 
of Himalayan Exploration and Research, Cal- 
cutta, for providing financial assistance and 
opportunity to join the "Kutti Valley Expedi- 
tion— 1968 and 1976". 



A NEW SPECIES OF JASMINUM (OLEACEAE) FROM INDIA 1 

A. K. Sinha, G. G. Maiti and G. S. Giri 2 
(With a text-figure) 



Jasminum simonsii sp. nov. 

/. dispermo (J. dispermum Wall.) affinis, a 
qua differt plantis glabris, foliis simplicibus, 
5-nervibus, combinate venosis, cymis laxis era- 
mosis, pedunculis longis gracilibus, calycis 
dentibus acuminatis, et tubo corollae brevi. 

Frutex parvus gracilis, glaber, partibus 
junioribus pruinosis. Folia simplicia, ovata ad 
ovato-lanceolata, 7-10x3.5-4 cm, apice acu- 
minata basi cordata ad rotundata, integra, gla- 
bra, membranacea, infra secus nervos majores 
puberula, 5 nervia, combinate venosa, petioli 
10-13 mm longi, glabri ad pruinosi, penitus 
canaliculati. Inflorescentia cymosa axillaris, 

1 Accepted July 1980. 

2 Central Botanical Laboratory, Botanical Survey 
of India, P.O. Botanic Garden. Howrah-711 103 
(W.B.). 



eramosa, 2-5 flora, pedunculi 2-3 cm, pedicelli 
gracili, 1-2 cm longi, glabri vel raro pruinosi. 
Flores bracteati, bracteae subulatae angulares, 
2-3 mm x 1 mm. Calyx 5-lobus, cupularis, 
dentes acuminati, glabri. Corolla 5-loba, tubu- 
laris, tubus 10 mm longus, lobi ovato-lanceo- 
lati, 6x5 mm, acuti, glabri. Stamina 2, in tubo 
inclusa, fila 7 mm, antherae 5 mm, oblongae, 
2-cellulares. Ovarium ovoideum, 2 mm dia- 
metro, stylus 12 mm, filiformis, glaber; stigma 
lineari-oblongum, bifidum. Fructi maturi semi- 
naque non visa. 

Holotypus lectus a Simons sine numero, sine 
loco, et positus in herbario indico nationali 
(CAL) sub numero accessionis 285972. 

Jasininum simonsii sp. nov. 

Small slender shrub, glabrous to pruinose in 



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JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 




306 



NEW DESCRIPTIONS 



younger parts. Leaves simple, ovate to ovate- 
lanceolate, 7-10 cm x 3.5-4 cm, apex acumi- 
nate, base cordate to rounded, entire, glabrous, 
membranous, puberulous along the major ner- 
ves below, 5 -nerved, convergent with succes- 
sive marginal loops. Petiole 10-13 mm, long, 
glabrous to pruinose, deeply channelled. In- 
florescence axillary cyme, unbranched, 2-5 
flowered. Peduncle 2-3 cm. Pedicels slender, 

1- 2 cm long, glabrous or rarely pruinose, 
Flowers bracteate, bracts subulate, angular, 

2- 3 mm x 1 mm. Calyx 5-lobed, cupular, teeth 
acuminate, glabrous. Corolla 5-lobed, tubular, 
tube 10 mm long, lobes ovate-lanceolate, 6x5 
mm, acute, glabrous. Stamens 2, included with- 
in the tube, filaments 7 mm, anthers 5 mm, 
oblong, 2-celled. Ovary ovoid, 2 mm diam.; 
style 12 mm, filiform, glabrous; stigma linear- 
oblong, bifid. Mature fruits and seeds not 
seen. 

Holotype: Without any precise locality, 
Simons s.n. (CAL) [Jasminum attenuation 
Roxb. ex DC— Det. by C.E.C. Fischer, 
dated 12-8-1936, Acc. No. 285972]. 

Isolype: Without any precise locality, Simons 



s.n. (CAL) [Jasminum attenuation Roxb. 

ex DC.-Det. by C.E.C. Fischer, dated 

12-8-1936, Acc. No. 285972A]. 

The specific epithet was chosen based on 
Mr. Charles J. Simons, who was a pioneer 
collector in the regions of Khasia hills and 
Mikir hills. 

Jasminum simonsii sp. nov. differs from 
J. dispermum Wall, in having glabrous plant 
body, simple leaves, 5-nerved, lateral nerves 
united before they reach the margin, unbranch- 
ed lax cyme with long slender peduncles, den- 
tate acuminate calyx lobes and short corolla 
tube. It is related to /. stenopetalum Lindl, 
but can be easily differentiated by the acumi- 
nate leaves, 5-nerved, glabrous, except the 
nerves beneath, larger peduncles and pedicels, 
smaller angular bracts, shorter calyx teeth and 
5-shorter ovate corolla lobes. 

Acknowledgement 

We wish to thank Dr. N. C. Majumdar for 
Latin translation and valuable suggestions. 



A NEW SPECIES OF EUNOTIA' 

P. T. Sarode and N. D. Kamat 2 
(With two text -figures) 



During studies on the freshwater diatoms of 
the Vidarbh region of Maharashtra State 
we came across a species of Eunotia which is 
different in many respects from all known 
species of Eunotia and hence described here 
as new. 

1 Accepted May 1980. 

2 Botany Department. Institute of Science, Auran- 
gabad. 



Eunotia vidarbhensis sp. nov. (Figs. 1-2) 
Frustula solitariae, in aspectu zonali asym- 
mertice, linearis; valvae 34.5 — 36.7 //. longae, 
6 — 6.5 n latae, aliquantum arcuatae. tenuiter 
curvatis ac latere ventrali paulum inflatae ad 
anum apice; apicibus late rotundatis; nodulae 
polares retractis, satis magnae ac raphe ter- 
minalibus distinctis; striae 14 — 16 in 10 plus 
minus equidistante evolutae sed proxime 



307 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



positae ad apicem, crassae. 

In palude, Nagpur (20-1-78). 

Typus lectus ab autores et positus in col- 
lectione sub numero V 540. 




Eunotia vidarbhensis sp. 
view; 2. Girdle view. 



Valve 



Frustules solitary, asymmetrical, linear in 
girdle view; valves 34.5 — 36.7 /x long, 6 — 6.5 
/j. broad, scarcely arcuate, slightly inflated on 
the ventral side at one end; ends broadly 



rounded; polar nodules retracted, fairly large 
with termination of raphe distinct; striae 14— 
16 in 10 ju, more or less uniformly set but 
somewhat closer towards the ends, coarse. 

In a pond, Nagpur (20-1-78). 

Type collected by the authors and kept in 
the collections No. V 540. 

The new species is close to Eunotia major 
(W. Sm.) Rabh. f. ventricosa A. CI. (Cleve- 
Euler 1953, 119, f. 456d, e) and Euno- 
tia asymmetrica Choi. (Cholnoky 1954, 209, 
f. 21) in some respects but differs from both 
of them in shape and dimensions. In addition 
it differs from the former in not having pseu- 
doraphe and from the latter in having denser 
and coarse striations. 



ACK N OWLEDGE MENT 

Grateful thanks are due to Prof. Dr. L. A. 
Whitford, North Carolina for help in Latin 
translation and identification of the specimen. 



References 



Cholnoky, B. J. (1954): Diatomeen aus Sud- 
Rhodosien. Port. Acta. Biol. (B) 4 (3-4) : 197-228. 

Cleve-Euler, A. (1953) : Die Diatomeen von 
Schweden und Finnland-II. K. Svenska Vetens 
Akad. Handl. Fjurde ser. 4: 1-158. 



308 



OBITUARY 



D. E. REUBEN 
(1893-1980) 



It is with deep regret that we record the 
death of Mr. D. E. Reuben on 24th March 
1980, after a long and painful illness borne 
with patience and fortitude. 

David Ezra Reuben was born at Hassan, 
Mysore, on 3rd September 1893 and did his 
schooling at St. Joseph's, Bangalore, and 
Bishop's High School in Poona. He then took 
his B.A. in Mathematics at the Deccan Col- 
lege, Poona, followed by a first class in Mathe- 
matics at St. John's College, Cambridge. 
While at Poona, he participated in cricket, 
rowing and rifle-shooting, and then secured 
tennis colours at Cambridge. 

Standing first in his batch for the I.C.S. 
Examination in 1917, he served as a Sub- 
Divisional Officer in Bihar and Orissa, and 
then as an additional Magistrate. Having opt- 
ed for the judiciary, he took the Bar Exa- 
mination, reached the High Court in 1943, 
and retired as Chief Justice of Bihar in 1953. 
After retirement, he settled down in Bombay, 
and served for three years as a member of 
the Labour Appellate Tribunal. 

1 List of papers & Notes. 

On the occurrence of the Clucking Teal {Nettion 
formosum) in the Monghyr District 45: 609. 

A jumping snake 53 : 471. 

The Abominable Snowman 54: 762. 

The Indian Mongoose in Jamaica 54: 941. 

Gazelle in North Africa 55: 343. 

Occurrence of the Blue Mormon (Papilio polymnes- 
tor Cramer) in Bombay 57: 231. 

Migrational nights of the common Indian Crow 
butterfly [Euploea core (Cramer)] 57: 673. 



During the years of his service, Bihar and 
Orissa were still wild areas and he shot his fair 
share of deer, antelope, and the larger carni- 
vores. He joined the BNHS in 1924. In Bom- 
bay, he served on the Executive Committee 
of the Bombay Natural History Society from 
1954-1975 and though his name appears as 
editor of the Society's Journal only for two 
years, he vetted the proofs and read the minu- 
tes and other papers of the Committee with 
meticulous care and the queries and notings 
marked 'D.E.R.' always received the closest 
attention and respect. The 2nd edition of 
Prater's book of Indian animals owed much 
to him. The present writer was particularly 
fortunate in receiving similar assistance which 
permitted him to prepare, often in a hurry, the 
several papers 1 published by him in the Journal 
over recent years and as a small token of which 
an Andaman bird has been named Oriolus 
xanthornus reubeni. 

Such unassuming and valuable assistance 
is seldom available and both the Society and 
individual members have suffered an irrepla- 
ceable loss. 

HUMAYUN ABDULALI 

Nocturnal 'Predator' of fruit of Yellow Oleander 

(Thevetia neriifolia) 58: 808. 
Occurrence of the Blue Mormon (Papilio polymnes- 

tor Cramer) in Bombay 58: 816. 
Intelligent behaviour by the Mason Wasp (Eumenes 

petiolata Fabr.) 60: 283. 
Persistent vitality in Bee-hole Borer Moth Duomitus 

leuconotus Wlk. 65: 801. 
Crabs summering in lakeside hotel 75: 516. 



309 



REVIEWS 



1. THE FAUNA OF INDIA, SPIDERS. Araneae, Vol. I. Part 1, Thomisidae (crab-spiders). 
By B. K. Tikader, iv + 1-247 pp., 2 pis. Part 2. Lycosidae (wolf spiders), By B. K. Tika- 
der and M. S. Malhotra, 249-446 pp., 2 pis, Issued by the Zoological Survey of India, Cal- 
cutta, 1980, Price India: Rs. 100/- Foreign: £10/- or $20.00. 



Spiders, though ubiquitous, have remained 
a neglected group, and in the only consolidat- 
ed volume, on the Arachnida, published 80 
years ago, in the fauna of British india 
series (now called the fauna of india), Po- 
cock (1900) listed only some 200 species, and 
the family Thomisidae (which forms half of 
the present volume) was not even represented. 
In the last 20 years, mainly through the work 
of Dr. Tikader, an enormous amount of in- 
formation on Indian Spiders has been gather- 
ed together, and the present is the first of a 
series of projected volumes on Indian spiders. 
The volume is divided into two halves. The 
first half deals with the family Thomisidae 
(by Tikader) and the second half with the 
Lycosidae (by Tikader and Malhotra). 

The volume begins with a short but clear 
and well illustrated account of the taxonomic 
characters of spiders, followed by a key to 
the 44 families of Indian spiders. Then follows 
the descriptions of various genera and species. 
The taxonomic accounts are clear, precise and 
extremely well illustrated by the taxonomically 
important body-parts, especially the cephalo- 
thorax and the epigyne. In all cases, excellent 
identification keys for genera and species are 



provided. There is a select bibliography and 
an alphabetical index of species and genera. 
The Thomisidae includes 25 genera and 115 
species and the Lycosidae 9 genera and 81 
species. 

Considering that there are still 42 families 
to cover, the spider series may be expected to 
run to several volumes, and we sincerely hope 
that Dr. Tikader, who is to be warmly con- 
gratulated upon this fine volume, will be able 
to complete the volumes within a reasonable 
period of time, perhaps during the next five 
or six years. 

A remarkable fact that emerges from a per- 
usal of the volume under review is that so 
many species are described from single speci- 
mens. This emphasises the need for intensive 
collections, by both professional zoologists and 
the non-professionals, in order that the lacu- 
nae can be satisfactorily filled. 

The printing, which is on art paper, and 
the binding are very good, and we can only 
hope that subsequent volumes in the Fauna 
series will be able to maintain this high 
standard. 

M. L. ROONWAL 



310 



REVIEWS 



2. COLLIN'S HANDGUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF THE INDIAN SUB-CONTINENT, IN- 
CLUDING INDIA, PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH, SRI LANKA & NEPAL. Written and 
illustrated by Martin W. Woodcock. Designed by Hermann Heinzel. pp. 176 (19x11.5 cm) 
with coloured and monochrome illustrations. Distributed by Rupa & Co. Price £4 (Rs. 94), 
Hardback; £3 (Rs. 66), paper back. 



This is the first real attempt at a field guide 
to the birds of the Indian Sub-Continent on 
the lines established by Peterson for American 
birds just about 50 years ago. 272 species are 
illustrated in colour, followed by 273 sketches 
in black and white. 

A quick look-over has been very enjoyable 
but attention may be drawn to a few points 
which may be rectified in the next edition. 

The first bird, the Dabchick, is referred to 
as Tachybaptus ruficollis. This generic name 
is probably being used for the first time in 
Indian literature and raised the fear that there 
was to be a plethora of name changes, but 
this proved unwarranted. The sequence is not 
the same as in Indian handbook. The pictures 
are on the whole excellent, though some of the 
colours do appear a bit too vivid, e.g. the 
Red Junglefowl (p. 38) and the Courser 
(p. 59). The stripe down the front of the 
Purple Sunbird (p. 108) shows very blue. 

On page 10, reference is twice made to a 
1000 km contour which is presumably a slip 
for the land over 1000 metres shown on the 
map opposite. 

In the good old days, Great Indian Bustard 
were sometimes seen in small parties of 5 to 
8 but these were scattered over a mile or more 
and one wonders if ten would be seen to- 
gether on the ground as illustrated (pp. 48- 
49). Again while several snipe may rise to- 
gather. it is unlikely that one would see three 
of them together on the ground (p. 57). The 
Fantail Snipe in flight is too heavily marked 
on the underparts, and lacks the white trailing 
edge to the wing (really secondaries only), 



which character distinguishes it from the 
Pintail. The popular name of Buceros bicornis 
the Great Indian Hornbill has been changed to 
the Great Pied Hornbill. As two other pied 
hornbills already exist it would perhaps be 
better to drop the term "pied" and continue 
to refer to the old name. The male of the 
Common Iora on page 89 would perhaps be 
more distincitive with a black head, and the 
colour of the male Rosefinch on page 111 is 
the only one which I would call really mis- 
leading. 

With this example before us, we may hope 
that we will in due course see a similar field 
guide which covers all the Indian species and 
also perhaps the subspecies which are suffici- 
ently distinct. Thereiceryx zeylanica on page 
76 has a streaked breast, and the Bombayman 
suspects an error, for the nominate race in 
western and southern India has a plain breast. 
The picture represents caniceps, the northern 
race of zeylanica, (which is found as far south 
as Chikalda, Berar) but suggests another spe- 
cies M. viridis. The House Crow of the nomi- 
nate race on p. 7 shows no pale collar round 
the neck, while birds around Bombay, 
accepted as C. splendens splendens do. 
These are only subspecific differences and 
when one considers that only 543 of some 
1250 species (220 species and subspecies) are 
illustrated, there is still a long way to go. 

The last paragraph in the book is a hand- 
some tribute to the BNHS journal. 

In the Introduction (p. 15) the author says 
that half the battle in bird identification is in 
knowing what to expect in a given area or 



311 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



season. We hope he will soon produce another 
guide which covers all the species likely to be 
seen including Martin and Woodcock. 
It is indeed a fine effort and Mr. Martin 



Woodcock who had illustrated a field guide 

TO THE BIRDS OF SOUTH EAST ASIA (1975) is tO 

be sincerly congratulated. 

HUMAYUN ABDULAI.I 



312 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



FOOD HABITS OF THE INDIAN WILD DOG (CUON ALPINUS) : 
A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS 



From October through December of 1975, 
one hundred and fifty (150) droppings of 
wild dogs (Cuon alpinus) were collected from 
within an area of twenty four (24) square 
miles in and around the eastern entrance of 
the Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary in Tamil 
Nadu. The study area was bounded by the 
Kalhatty slope to the east, the village of Ma- 
sinigudi to the west, Anaikatti to the north, 
and Bokapur to the south. 

This region of the Nilgiris lies at an altitude 
of between 3000 and 3500 feet and is char- 
acterized by low scrub jungle, interspersed 
with stands of bamboo surrounding the larger 
waterways. Cultivation is common and occurs 
at fairly regular intervals throughout the study 
area. At the time of collection, the north-east 
monsoon was well under way, providing 
moisture necessary for the rapid growth of lush 
vegetation. Consequently, the animal life, large 
and small was abundant. 

As the wild dog typically whelps from Nov- 
ember through February (Cohen 1977), only 



yearling and adult dogs are assumed to have 
contributed to our sample. 

Identification of fecal content was made 
using hair samples, bone fragments, vegeta- 
tion, and insect parts found in each bolus. For 
this preliminary analysis, unknown hair sam- 
ples were compared by gross visual inspection 
with similar samples collected from known 
species at the Bombay Natural History So- 
ciety. A more detailed hair follicle analysis, 
based on microscopic techniques will be re- 
ported elsewhere. Bone fragments were iden- 
tified by A.J.T. Johnsingh and K. Paraman- 
antham of the Ayya Nadar Janaki Annual Col- 
lege in Sivakasi, Tamil Nadu. Assistance in 
the identification of vegetational types was 
kindly given by Dr. M. Joseph, Regional Bo- 
tanist of the Botanical Survey of India at 
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. 

The food items represented in the droppings, 
the number of times each item occurred, and 
their frequency percentage in the sample are 
shown in Table 1. 



Table 1 

Diet of the Indian Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus) as determined by fecal analysis of 151 droppings 



Item Times occurring Frequency percentage 



Spotted Deer (Axis axis) 


62 


41 


Sambar (Cervus unicolor) 


10 


7 


Wild Pig (Sus scrofa) 


3 


2 


Mouse Deer (Tragulus meminna) 


1 


0.7 


Blacknaped Hare (Lepus nigricoUis) 


53 


35 


Rodentia 


17 


11 


Unidentified Mammal 


11 


7 


Domestic livestock 


1 


0.7 


Insecta 


9 


6 


Fruits 


2 


1 


Grasses & Vegetation 


71 


47 



313 



8 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



A similar collection of 138 droppings was relative food abundance. It was reported to 



made by Dr. Michael Fox and A. J. T. John- 
singh in December through February, 1974 
and will be cited in the following discussion. 
These results are summarized in Table 2. 



these investigators by the Forest Ranger at 
Theppakadu that the estimated chital popu- 
lation in the Sanctuary in 1975 was approxi- 
mately 1750 animals (by pellet count), while 



Table 2 

Diet of the Indian Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus) as determined by fecal analysis of 138 droppings 



Item 


Times occurring 
in adult faeces 


Times occurring 
in pup faeces 


Total 
freq. % 


Spotted Deer {Axis axis) 


102 


5 


78 


Sambar (Cervus u tricolor) 


13 


0 


9 


Wild Pig (Sus scrofa) 


1 


0 


0.7 


Small Mammals (lagomorphs, rodents) 


12 


2 


10 


Domestic Livestock 


3 


0 


2 



Iseilema prostration grass common in faeces 

Segments of tapeworm, Taenis hydatigena frequent in scats. 



Discussion 

Mammals : 

Spotted deer (Axis axis) exceeded all other 
items in the diet, except grasses. They were 
six per cent (6%) more frequent in the drop- 
pings than hare remains. That these animals 
are the chief staple in the diet is thus reaffirm- 
ed. In those scats able to be identified as such, 
chital fawns outnumbered adults as prey by 
almost three-to-one (3:1). Sambar comprised 
a relatively small part of the diet (7%). Fox 
and Johnsingh (1975) also found spotted deer 
remains in seventy-eight per cent (78%) of the 
samples they collected from the same area in 
January and February of 1974, compared to 
only nine per cent (9%) sambar. There may 
be several explanations for this observed pre- 
ference of chital in the diet. There is a great 
size difference between sambar and chital and, 
given the fact that the dogs usually hunt in 
groups of three to five individuals, a full- 
grown sambar may present too much of a 
risk to the predator, especially in times of 



the sambar population numbered only about 
200. These facts and the additional fact that 
Sambar are relatively solitary in their habits 
as opposed to the chital, who tend to congre- 
gate in herds of up to 250 animals in the 
evening, before breaking up into smaller for- 
aging groups during the daylight hours, may 
help to explain our observed results. Periods 
of hunting activity in the wild dog correlate 
well with the observed increase in the sizes of 
chital herds in early evening and early morn- 
ing hours. 

The remains of wild pig, a common inhabi- 
tant of the region, occurred in only two per cent 
(2%) of the sample. Mouse deer (Tragulus 
meminna) for Indian Chevrotain also play a 
very minor role in the wild dog's diet, com- 
prising only seven-tenths of one per cent 
(0.7%). This may be expected due to the 
rarity of this species in the region. 

Blacknaped hare ranked next to chital in 
relative frequency of occurrence (35%). This 
correlates well with the observed abundance 
of this species of lagomorph in the study area. 



314 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



No other lagomorph species occurs in the area 
of the Mudumalai. 

Eleven per cent (11%) of the fecal samples 
contained members of the class Rodentia. 

In the present study, hare and rodents com- 
prised forty-six per cent (46%) of the wild 
dog's diet. Johnsingh and Fox, in 1974 found 
all small mammals to make up only ten per 
cent (10%) of the total diet. It must be taken 
into consideration, however, that while the 
present collection was made at the end of the 
monsoon season, the other was made at the 
height of the dry season. Due to the extreme 
ground temperatures, lack of cover, scarcity 
of water, and reduced availability of food, a 
reduction of small mammal activity and a pro- 
bable reduction in population sizes of such 
animals would subsequently result in a reduc- 
tion in the frequency of these prey items in 
the dogs' diet. 

According to analysis of fecal samples, do- 
mestic livestock comprised only seven-tenths 
of one per cent (0.7%) of the dogs' total 
diet. This is most interesting in light of the 
fact that the wild dog is still considered to be 
a "pest", with bounties awarded for its ex- 
termination. M. Krishnan (1972) states that 
wild dogs rarely take domestic stock as prey. 
Although this statement is reaffirmed in the 
present study and from the collection and 
analysis made by Fox and Johnsingh (op. cit.), 
who found livestock remains in only two per 
cent (2%) of their sample. Fox, found, upon 
asking paddi owners, that nearly seven per 
cent (7%) of their cattle losses are attributed 
to wild dogs. It is possible that in times of 
scarce food supply, the wild dogs turn to do- 
mestic stock, which is plentiful in the region, 
for food. Other possibilities also exist. Among 
those is the possibility that the actuals kills are 
not witnessed by the paddi owner, but merely 
the loss of an animal is automatically attri- 



buted to the wild dog. Indeed there seems to 
be some disparity between observed propor- 
tions of cattle in the wild dogs' diet and their 
reputed effect on livestock numbers in the 
area. By studying the food habits of the wild 
dog in relation to that of the leopard, tiger, 
and pariah (pie) dog {Canis jamiliaris), a 
recently introduced predator, a true picture 
of the wild dogs' role in the region's ecology 
could be gained. The common attitude of the 
wild dog as a "pest" to be exterminated re- 
quires intensive re-examination. 

The remaining animal matter found in the 
feces (7%) were unidentifiable due to the 
condition of the scats themselves. The age of 
the dropping (e.g. calcification of contents) 
and the quantity recovered prevented any de- 
finite identification of the hair samples. 

Miscellaneous : 

Insects appeared in only six per cent (6%) 
of the droppings. The majority of these were 
identified as beetles (from elytra and wings). 
It is not known if these animals were purpose- 
fully eaten or perhaps entered the feces after 
being deposited. Fruit of the Zizyphus genus 
was found in one per cent (1%) of the sample. 
Although this seasonal fruit seems to serve 
as a food source for many of the mammalian 
and avian herbivores of the area, it does not 
appear to be an important supplement in the 
diet of the wild dog. 

The most frequent item found in the feces 
of the wild dog was grass and vegetation. 
Although only two of the one hundred and 
fifty-one droppings were totally vegetable in 
content, occurrance in all other cases appear- 
ed incidental to the existance of animal matter. 
The following grasses were identified: Hete- 
ropogon contortus, Cynodon dactylon, Dacty- 
loctenium aegypiium, Cynodon barberi, Aris- 
tida hystrix, and Eragrostis bifaria. 



315 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



World Federation for the Protection 
of Animals, 
Zurich, Switzerland. 

Dept. of Forest Zoology, 
State University of New York, 
College of Environmental Science and 
Forestry, 

Syracuse, New York, U.S.A. 

Ayya Nadar Janaki Ammal College, 
Sivakasi, Tamil Nadu. 

Director of Research into Animal 
Problems, 

Humane Society of the U.S.A. 
August 11, 1977. 

Refer 

Cohen, J. A. (1977): A review of the biology of 
the dhole on Asiatic Wild dog (Cuon alpinus). 
Anim. Reg. Stnd. 1 : 141-158. 

Fox M. W. (1975): In Search of Wildness and 
Whistling Jungle Dogs. Unpublished. 

Fox, Michael & Johnsingh, A. J. T. (1975): 



BRUCE D. BARNETT 



JAMES A. COHEN 



A. J. T. JOHNSINGH 



MICHAEL W. FOX 



ENCES 

Hunting and feeding in wild dogs. J. Bombay nat. 
Hist. Soc. 72(2) : 321-326. 

Krishnan, M. (1972): An ecological survey of 
the large mammals in peninsular India. J. Bombay 
nat Hist. Soc. 69 : 26-54. 



2. OBSERVATION ON CARNIVOROUS HABIT OF AN IRRAWADDY 
SQUIRREL, CALLOSCIURUS PYGERYTHRUS (GEOFFROY) 



During a trip to North Lakhimpur, Assam, 
in October 1976, an interesting behaviour of 
the Irrawaddy Squirrel, Callosciurus pygery- 
thrus (Geoffroy), was noted. 

On October 15th 1976 at about 8.00 hours, 
I noticed the animal eating the fruit of an 
Olive tree (Olea europaea) in a small orchard 
(about an acre in area) having a pond and 
other trees, namely Embelic (Embelica offi- 
cinalis) in fruit, shrubs such as Lemon (Citrus 
lemon) and undergrowth mainly of Pineapple 
(Ananas sativus) and other fruit-bearing herbs, 
just behind the house where 1 was camped. 
The squirrel slipped away when an attempt 



at closer observation was made. On that very 
day at about 16.00 hours, the cackling call of 
a squirrel was heard, but unfortunately, it could 
not be traced. The following day two mongoo- 
ses were seen busily digging the earth beside 
the pond. With a view to catching them, two 
traps were set in the bushes at about 13.00 
hours with intestine of chicken as bait. After 
about two hours, to my great surprise I found 
that an Irrawaddy Squirrel, instead of a mon- 
goose, had been trapped. It was still feeding 
on the bait. The squirrel was allowed to con- 
sume the whole of the bait without being dis- 
turbed. 



316 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



According to literature (Prater 1971), Cal- dance of fruits on the trees in and around the 
losciurus pygerythrus (Geoffroy) feeds on area the preference for animal food is highly 
fruit, leaf-buds and is particularly partial to interesting, 
oranges. In spite of the availability of abun- 

Zoological Survey of India, SANTANU GHOSH 

8, Lindsay Street, 
Calcutta 700 016, 
December 26, 1978. 

Reference 

Prater, S. H. (1971): The Book of Indian Ani- 
mals, ed. 3. Bombay Natural History Society, Bom- 
bay. 

3. UNUSUAL RAT FEEDING BEHAVIOUR ASSOCIATED WITH 
CATTLE AFFECTED WITH FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE 

(With a text-figure) 



An epidemiological investigation aimed at 
revealing the possible role of rodents in the 
transmission of foot and mouth disease was 
conducted in Purulia district of West Bengal. 
Rats (Rattus rattus) and squirrels (Funam- 
hulus pennanti) were trapped in and around 
cow sheds which had harboured confirmed 
cases of foot and mouth disease two months 
previously. Their blood was collected and the 
serum was tested as described below. 

The study utilized an immuno-diffusion test 
(Virus Infection Associated antigen) to detect 
the presence of serum antibodies specific for 
foot and mouth disease (FMD). Antibodies to 
the Virus Infection Associated (VIA) antigen 
cross reacts with all four types of foot and 
mouth disease (O, A. C and Asia! ) found in 
India (Cowan and Graves 1966) and is diagno- 
stic with just a single test (unlike serum neu- 
tralization and compliment fixation tests). 

The results of this study demonstrated that 
no squirrels (10 serum samples) and no rats 
(47 serum samples) were infected by the FMD 



virus despite an intimate association with the 
infected cattle. (Many villagers reported that 
they had seen rats feeding on the foot lesions 
of the FMD infected cattle when they would 
enter the cow shed at night.) 

An unexpected result was a definite preci- 
pitation line between the unknown rat serum 
wells and the control bovine antisera wells in 
twelve out of forty-seven cases (see figure 1). 
This same phenomena was never observed 
with any of the squirrel sera. 

The precipitin line between the control 
bovine serum and unknown rat serum depicted 
in the figure may be explained by various in- 
terpretations. It could be due to; a non-speci- 
fic reaction, the presence of a cross- reacting 
antibody, a common infective process, or spe- 
cific antibodies in one serum directed toward 
serum components of the other. The last ex- 
planation seems more plausible for the reasons 
outlined below. 

Rats were seen feeding on the FMD lesions 
at which time serum substances undoubtedly 



317 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



could have been ingested. It is known that 
mice given bovine serum orally will develope 
specific antibodies to certain components 
(Andre et al. 1973). No other species of ani- 
mal tested (cattle, goats, sheep, chickens or 
squirrels) demonstrated a similar precipitin 
line in the VIA test. It is probable that not 
all rats fed on the FMD lesions or fed intense 
enough to become sensitized to bovine serum 
factors. 

While the above is admittedly a conjecture, 
it does provide some possible scientific docu- 
mentation to the villager's observation of rats 
feeding on the foot lesion of cattle infected 
with FMD. 

Even though rats are considered "versatile 
feeders" (Barnett 1975) it is doubtful that 
this particular feeding behaviour has been 
reported before. It is unknown how common 
or extensive this practice is. 

AC K NOWLEDGE MENT 

This work was sponsored by an Indo-Ame- 
rican Fellowship from the Indo-U.S. Subcom- 
mission on Education and Culture. 

Department of Anatomy and Radiology, 
College of Veterinary Medicine, 
University of Georgia, 
Athens, Georgia 30602, U.S.A., 
August 25, 1978. 




Fig. 1. Agar gel immunodiffusion VIA antigen 
test for serum antibodies to foot and mouth disease. 

The central well contains the VIA antigen. Wells 
number 1 and 4 contain known reacting control 
bovine antisera. Wells number 2, 3, 5 and 6 contain 
four different unknown rat serum samples. The line 
between the central well and well 1 and 4 is a posi- 
tive reaction of VIA antigen and its specific antibody. 
The line between well 1 and 2 may be due to an 
antigen — antibody complex of unknown origin which 
occurred in 12 out of 47 rat sera tested. 

S. ODEND'HAL 



References 

Andre, C, Bazin, H. & Heremans, J. F. (1973) : haviour. University of Chicago Press. Chicago. 
Influence of repeated administration of antigen by 318 pp. 

the oral route on specific antibody producing cells Cowan, K. M. & Graves, J. H. (1966): A third 
in the mouse spleen. Digestion 9: 166-175. antigenic component associated with foot and mouth 

Barnett, S. A. (1975): The Rat. A study in be- disease infection. Virology 30: 528-540. 



318 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



4. BAIT SHYNESS AND POISON AVERSION IN BANDICOTA 
BENGA LENSIS (GRAY) USING RH-787 AS RODENTICIDE 



Introduction 

Studies have been made on behavioural as- 
pects of poison aversion and bait shyness in 
Rattus rattus (Barnett et al. 1975), Tat era 
indica, Meriones hurrianae (Prakash and Jain 
1971) and Gerbillus gleadowi (Rana et al. 
1975). In the present experiments, studies have 
been made on bait shyness and poison aver- 
sion in Bandicota bengalensis (Gray) when 
subjected to sub-lethal dose of RH— 787 (N- 
3-Pyridylmethyl-N-P-Nitrophenylurea) ] . Ac- 
ceptability of RH-787 to B. bengalensis in labo- 
ratory conditions has already been studied 
(Sood and Dilber 1977). 



Food 
Millet 



Material and Metods 

Ten individuals of B. bengalensis were kept 
segregated in laboratory cages for 15 days to 
acclimatise them. Each individual was daily 
provided with sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) 
and millet (Pennisetum typhoides) grains. 
Water was supplied ad-libitum. For the first 
three days, total daily intake (TDI) of each 
food item was measured. For the subsequent 
four days, 0.025 per cent of RH-787 (Vacor) 
and one per cent mustard oil were mixed with 
the preferred food material, and the TDI of 
both the food materials were recorded. There- 
after, rats were fed on wheat {Triticum aesti- 
vum) grains. They were then exposed to the 



preferred food mixed with one per cent mus- 
tard oil and simple sorghum grains for 24 
hours after 7th and 15th days from initial 
exposure to the sub-lethal dose of RH-787 
and TDI of both the food materials was re- 
corded. 

Results and Discussion 

B. bengalensis preferred millet over sorghum 
during the first three days. The TDI of millet 
was significantly more than that of sorghum 
(t = 7.08 P<.005). On the subsequent four 
days, less millet was consumed to which 0.025 
per cent RH-787 and one per cent mustard 



day 

±1.52 
±0.60 



oil were mixed (Table 1). The difference in 
TDI of plain millet prior to the exposure to 
sub-lethal dose of RH-787 and of millet grains 
mixed with RH-787 and mustard oil is signi- 
ficant (t = 3.64 P-C01). There is no significant 
difference in TDI of plain sorghum consumed 
on subsequent four days when millet was mix- 
ed with RH-787 and mustard oil. 

On the 10th day, rats were provided with 
plain sorghum and millet mixed with mustard 
oil. TDI of millet was less than that of the 
initial three days of the experiment. On the 
15th day, the consumption of both the food 
materials surpassed the initial level similar to 
that reported in Gerbillus gleadowi using sub- 
lethal dose of zinc phosphide (Rana et al. 



Table 1 

Mean daily intake (g/100 g body wt.) of sorghum and millet by B. bengalensis (Gray) 

1st day 2nd day 3rd day 4th day 5th day 6th day 7th 

10,1 ±1.01 11.66±1.07 9.71±1.46 6.46±1.02 1.56±0.95 2.95±1.22 4.5 
im 4.96±1.61 5.9±0.98 1.45±0.57 2.16±0.71 1.19±0.40 1.72±0.61 2.39 



319 



JOURNAL. BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



1975). Thus, sickness developed due to feed- 
ing on sub-lethal dose of Vacor lasts for 7-15 
days only. This implies that the poisoned bait 
is liable to be rejected by the rats if, it is pro- 
vided before the completion of 15 days from 
the previous poison baiting. Hence the poison 
baiting for control in B. bengalensis should 
not be repeated before 15th day of previous 
poison baiting, using RH-787 as a rodenticide. 
However, more studies of the type as also the 
field trials need to be done before recommen- 
dations. 

Present studies also reveal that 30% rats 
on 2nd and 3rd days of exposure and 10% 
rats on 4th day of exposure did not feed on 
poisoned millet. 

When a second group of ten individuals of 

Department of Zoology, 

Punjab Agricultural University, 

Ludhiana, 

April 7, 1978. 

R E FE 1 

Barnett, S. A., Cowen ,P. E., Radford, G. and 
Prakash, I. (1975) : Peripheral anosmia and dis- 
crimination of poisoned food by Rattus rattus I.. 
Behavioural Biol. 13: 183-190. 

Prakash, I. and Jain, A. P. (1971): Bait shyness 
of two gerbils Tatera indica indica Hardwicke and 
Meriones hurrianae Jerdon. Ann. Appl. Biot. 59: 
169-172. 



B. bengalensis was provided with plain sor- 
ghum and millet grains mixed with one per 
cent mustard oil for four days, there was no 
decline in the consumption of millet. Thus 
shyness can be ascribed to poison not mustard 
oil. 

Acknowledgements 

We are grateful to Dr. S. S. Guraya, Prof. 
& Head for the laboratory facilities provided 
and Mr. M. L. Bansal, Asst. Prof, of Statistics 
for help in statistical analysis and to Indofil 
Chemicals Ltd., Bombay for providing RH- 
787. Thanks are also due to Dr. Ishwar Pra- 
kash, Principal Animal Ecologist, C.A.Z.R.I., 
lodhpur for going through the manuscript and 
giving useful suggestions. 

M. L. SOOD 
R. P. S. GIL L 



E N C E S 

Rana, B. D.. Prakash, I. and Jain, A. P. ( 1975) : 
Bait shyness and poison aversion in hairy footed 
gerbil, Gerbillus gleadowi (Murray). Proc. All India 
Rodent Seminar 1975 Ahmedabad (India): 58-60. 

Sood, M. L. and Dilrer, D. S. (1977): Accept- 
ability of Vacor to Bandicota bengalensis (Gray) 
and Tatera indica (Hardwicke) in laboratory condi- 
tions. Int. Pest Control. 10-11, 20. 



5. ON THE UNUSUAL OCCURRENCE OF THE COMMON 
DOLPHIN, DELPHINUS DELPHIS LINNAEUS IN LONG LINE 
CATCHES AT PORT BLAIR, ANDAMANS 

The Exploratory Fishing Vessel, Meena- dolphin measuring 202 cm, weighed 68 kgs. 

pruyas, conducting longline tuna fishing off The animal was dead when hauled on deck. 

Port Blair, Andamans, had an unusual catch It was not actually hooked in the mouth, but 

of the Common Dolphin, Delphimis delphis had fouled in the branch line of the longline 

Linnaeus, on 30-3-1979. The black-skinned gear. 



320 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



The dolphin was fouled in the tail region 
and probably lashing at the bait hanging at 
the end of the line and playing around, the 
animal must have got entangled in the line. 
Being an air-breather, it has to come to the 
surface periodically to breathe and because of 
the fouling, it could not come to the surface 
and had drowned. 

This kind of behaviour has also been observ- 
ed in the case of the Thresher or Fox Shark, 
Alopias vulpinus (Bonnaterre), which is al- 
most never hooked in the mouth which is 
small. This shark has a tail, as long as the 
body, with which it is believed to lash and 
frighten schools of fishes and feed on them. 
Similarly, this shark lashes at the bait and 
gets hooked in the tail. It is also hooked in 
the body or gills. 

The Common Dolphin, which has world- 

Govt. of India, 
Port Blair Base of 
Exploratory Fisheries Project, 
Port Blair, Andamans, 
April 2, 1979. 



wide distribution, is common in the Andaman 
Sea, often found swimming in large schools. 
True to the popular belief that it is fisher- 
man's friend, they are invariably found along 
the bow of fishing vessels while steaming to the 
fishing grounds. Other Cetaceans and SireniaK 
are also common in the Andaman Sea. Re- 
ports of large whales blowing 'water-spouts' 
off Nancowry, Little Andaman and Middle 
Andaman are received frequently. Their iden- 
tity has however not been established. Two 
large False Killer Whales, Pseudorca crassi- 
dens (Owen) were caught in gill nets off Port 
Blair on 27-7-1976 and 9-6-1977. A Dugong, 
Dugong dugon (Muller) was also caught in 
gill nets off Port Blair on 8-7-1977. They were 
inavriably dead while hauling for the same 
reason mentioned earlier. 

T. E. SIVAPRAKASAM 



6. LITTER SIZE OF SOME CAPTIVE WILD MAMMALS 



This note presents some data on litter size 
of nineteen species of captive wild mammals 
observed at Nandankanan Biological Park. 



Orissa. The details of our observations are 
given in the Table. 



Serial 
No. 



Species 

of 
mammal 



Period 
of 

observation 



No. of births re- 
corded (Total no. 
of young born 
during the period) 



Litter size 
(No. of 
births) 



Average 
litter 
size 



(1) 



(3) 



1 . TIGER 

(Panthera ligris) 



1.7.1969 
to 

31.3.1978 



(4) 



(5) 



1 (1) 

2 (3) 

3 (4) 



2.38 



321 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



2. 


LION 

( Ponthcva Ico) 


1.7.1969 
31.3.1978 


13 (24) 


1 (3) 

2 (9) 

3 (1) 


1 . 85 


3. 


LEOPARD 

( P Qiithci'Q pui'dus) 


1.7.1969 
31.3.1978 


22 (54) 


1 (2) 

L (11) 

3 (6) 

4 (1) 
6 (1) 


2.45 


4. 


GOLDEN CAT 

(Felis temmincki) 


1.4.1972 
to 

31.3.1978 


4 (5) 


1 (3) 

2 (1) 


1.25 


5 . 


11 TTVTflT C PAT 

(Felis chaus) 


1.7.1976 
to 

31.3.1978 


2 (8) 


J (1) 
5 (1) 


4.00 




rnyMfiN pat m pivft 

(Paradoxurus 
hermaphroditus) 


1 .4 1964 
to 

31.3.1978 


12 (36) 


7 C,\ 
z yj) 

3 (7) 

4 (1) 

5 (1) 


3.00 


7 _ 


COMMON MONGOOSE 
(Herpestes edwardsi) 


1.7.1969 
to 

31.3.1978 


1 (2) 


2 (1) 


2.00 


8. 


JACKAL 
(Canis aureus) 


1.4.1964 
to 

31.3.1978 


1 (3) 


3 (1) 


3.00 


9. 


RHESUS MACAQUE 
(Macaca mulatto) 


1.7.1969 
to 

31.3.1978 


7 (7) 


1 (7) 


1.00 


10. 


BONNET MACAQUE 
(Macaca radiata) 


1.7.1969 
to 

31.3.1978 


3 (3) 


1 (3) 


1.00 


11. 


INDIAN WILD BOAR 

(Sus scrofa cristatus) 


1.4.1969 
to 

31.3.1978 


40 (179) 


1 (2) 

2 (4) 

3 (4) 

5 (9) 

6 (5) 

7 (6) 


4 48 


12. 


SAM BAR 

(Cervtis unicolor) 


1.7.1969 
to 

31.3.1978 


60 (60) 


1 (60) 


1.00 


13. 


SPOTTED DEER 

(Axis axis) 


1.7.1969 
to 

31.3.1978 


74 (74) 


1 (74) 


1.00 


14. 


HOG DEER 

(Axis porcinus) 


1.7.1966 
to 

31.3.1978 


13 (13) 


1 (13) 


1.00 



322 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



15. BARKING DEER 1.7.1969 
(Muntiacus muntjak ) to 

31.3.1978 

16. MOUSE DEER 1.7.1969 
(Tragulus meminna) to 

31.3.1978 

VF. NILGAI 1.7.1969 
(Boselaphus to 
tragocamelus) 31.3.1978 

18. BLACKBUCK 1.7.1969 
(Antelope cervicaprd) to 

31.3.1978 

19. FOURHORNED ANTELOPE 1.4.1974 
(Tetracerus to 

quadricornis) 31.3.1978 



The observations of some of the earlier 



workers on litter size of these nineteen species 
of wild mammals along with a study of the 
above table follows. 

tiger: The litter size of eight births of this 
species in this park was from 1 to 3 with an 
average of 2.38 cubs. 

The size of 79 litters born in zoos was I 
to 5 with an average of about 2.8 (Schaller 
1972). The litter size is usually 2 to 3 but as 
many as 6 may be produced (Prater 1971). 
The litter size varies from 1 to 7 (Brander 
1923). 

lion: The litter size of thirteen births was 
from 1 to 3 with an average of 1.85 cubs. 

The average of 64 lion litters in captivity 
was 2.5 (Cooper 1942). The usual litter 
size is 2, sometimes 3 and it may contain as 
many as 5 (Prater loc. cit.). The number of 
cubs per litter is 1 to 6 with an average of 3.04 
and the litter size of one birth in one lioness 
in Dublin was 7 including three dead ones 
(Steyn 1951). 

leopard: The litter size of 22 births at this 
Park was from 1 to 6 with an average of 2.45 
cubs. The birth of 6 cubs in one litter, observed 
in this Park, appears to be the maximum so 
far recorded. 



23 (23) 1 (23) 1.00 

6 (6) 1 (6) I. 00 

7 (8) 2 (1) 1.14 

64 (64) 1 (64) 1.00 

1 (2) 

5 (8) 2 (3) 1.60 



The usual litter size is 2 to 4 (Prater, loc. 
cit.). The litter size of 27 births of leopards in 
the Zoological Gardens of London from 1839 
to 1937 was 1 to 3 (Zuckerman 1953). The 
litter size of 39 births in Delhi Zoological Park 
was 1 to 3 with an average of 1.6 cubs (Desai 
1975). The litter size of four births was 1 to 
2 (Acharjyo 1970). 

golden cat: The litter size of four births of 
this species was 1 or 2 with an average of 1.25 
kittens per litter. 

The litter size of one birth is one (Acharjyo 
1971), of two births is 1 to 2 (Acharjyo and 
Misra 1973) and 2 (Prater, loc cit.). 
jungle cat: The litter size of two births 
was 3 and 5 with an average of 4 kittens per 
litter. 

Acharjyo and Mohapatra (1977) state thai 
the litter size of eight births of this species 
was from 3 to 5 with an average of 3.5 kittens 
per litter. Usually 3 to 4 young are born per 
litter (Asdell 1964). 

common palm civet: The litter size of 12 
births of this species was from 2 to 5 with an 
average of 3 young per litter. 

The usual litter size is 3 to 4 (Prater, loc. 
cit.) and 3 to 4 but sometimes as many as 6 
(Asdell, loc. cit.). 



323 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



common mongoose: Only one birth with 
two young per litter was recorded. 

The litter size is small, usually 2 to 3 ( Pra- 
ter, loc. cit. ). The litter size of two births was 

1 and 3 respectively (Acharjyo 1970). 
jackal: Only one birth with three young 
per litter was recorded. 

The number of young per litter varies from 

2 to 6, mode 5, and mean 4 (Asdell, loc. cit.). 
rhesus macaque: The litter size of seven 
births was always one. 

All primates usually produce their young 
singly but occasionally twins are born (Prater, 
loc. cit). Twins in this species are born about 
once in 90 to 100 births (Asdell, loc. cit.). 
bonnet macaque: The litter size of three 
births was always one. 

inoian wild boar: The litter size of 40 births 
was from 1 to 7 with an average of 4.48. 

The litter size of this species is 4 to 6 (Pra- 
ter, loc. cit.). The litter size of five births was 
from 4 to 7 young (Zuckerman, loc. cit.). 
sambar: The litter size of 60 births was al- 
ways one and never twins. 

One to two fawns are usually born per litter 
(Asdell, loc. cit.). One pair of twins was born 
in 41 births (Crandall 1965). Always single 
young was born to the 30 births recorded at 
Nandankanan Biological Park, Orissa upto 
30th June 1969 (Acharjyo 1970). A single 
fawn per litter is the rule (Schaller 1972). 
spotted deer: Always single young per litter 
was recorded at all the 74 births. 

Usually one young per litter is born (Prater, 
loc. cit.). Only one pair of twins was noted 
in 225 births (Crandall, loc. cit). Twins have 
been born only once in 80 births in the London 
Zoo (Asdell, loc. cit.). The litter size of 9Q 
births was always one and never twins (Achar- 
jyo 1970). One to three is usual with twins 
being common ( Brander, loc. cit). There were 
no twins in the 25 births at the Calcutta Zoo 



and 97 births at the Bombay Zoo (Schaller, 
loc. cit). 

hog deer: The litter size of 13 births was 
always one. 

Single young was born to all the 32 births 
recorded at the New York Zoological Park 
(Crandall, loc. cit.). Twins have been recorded 
twice in 55 births in London Zoo (Asdell, 
loc. cit). 

barking deer: The litter size of 23 births 
was always one. 

The young born per litter is usually one 
and sometimes two (Prater, loc. cit.). Always 
single young were born to all the 30 births 
recorded in the Zoological Gardens of London 
(Zuckerman, loc. cit.). Twin birth was re- 
corded once in 47 births (Acharjyo 1970). 
mouse deer: The litter size of six births was 
always one. 

The litter size is generally two (Prater, loc. 
cit.; Asdell, loc. cit.). 

nilgai: The litter size of seven births was 
1 or 2 with an average of 1.14 young per litter. 

Always single young was born to all the 
eight births recorded at New York Zoological 
Park (Crandall, loc. cit.). There were two twins 
in four births (Acharjyo 1970). In about 61 
births in the Zoological Garden of London, 
Zuckerman (loc. cit.) states that on an aver- 
age twins were born in every alternate birth. 
blackbuck: The litter size of 64 births was 
always one and never twins. 

One or two young are produced at a time 
(Prater, loc. cit.: Asdell, loc. cit.). Always 
single young and never twins was recorded in 
97 births (Crandall, loc. cit.). The litter size 
of five births was always one (Acharjyo 1970). 
four horn ed antelope: The litter size of 
five births was 1 or 2 with an average of 1.60 
young per litter. 

The litter size of six births was from 1 to 2 
with an average of 1.83 (Acharjyo and Misra 



324 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



1975). Twins were produced in 3 of the 5 
births in the London Zoo (Asdeli, loc. cit. ) . 

Acknowledgements 

We are grateful to Sri G. M. Das, I.F.S., 

Veterinary Asst. Surgeon, 
Nandankanan Biological Park, 
P. O. Barang, Dist., Cuttack. 

Wild Life Conservation Officer, 
95-Saheed Nagar, 
Bhubaneswar-751007, 
May 23, 1978. 

Refer 

Acharjyo, L. N. (1970) : Observation on some 
aspects of reproduction among common wild mam- 
mals in captivity. Indian J. Anim. Health, vol. X 
(2): 125-129. 

(1971): A note on the birth of a 

Golden Cat (Felis temmincki) in captivity. /. Bom- 
bay nat. Hist. Soc, 68 (1): 241. 

and Misra, R. ( 1973): Further 

notes on the breeding of Golden Cat (Felis temmin- 
cki) in captivity. Indian Forester, 99 (1): 53-54. 

(1975): A note on the 

breeding habits of Fourt-horned antelope (Tetra- 
cerits quadricornis) in captivity. /. Bombay nat. 
His. Soc., 72(2): 529-530. 

and Mohapatra, S. (1977) : Some 

observations on the breeding habits and growth of 
Jungle Cat (Felis chaus) in captivity. /. Bombay 
nat. Hist. Soc. 74 (1): 158-159. 

Asdell, S. A. (1964) : Patterns of mammalian 
reproduction, Second Edition, Cornell University 
Press, Ithaca .New York. 



Chief Wildlife Warden, Orissa, Bhubaneswar 
and to Sri S. Jee, I.F.S., Chief Conservator of 
Forests, Orissa, Cuttack for the facilities pro- 
vided. 

L. N. ACHARJYO 



S. MOHAPATRA 



E N C E S 

Brander, A. (1923): Cited by Schaller, George, 
B. (1972). 

Cooper, J. (1942): Cited by Schaller, George. 
B. (1972). 

Crandall, Lee S. (1965): The Management of 
Wild Mammals in Captivity. The University of 
Chicago Press, Chicago and London. 

Desai, J. H. (1975): Observations on the Re- 
productive Biology and early Post-natal Develop- 
ment of the Panther Panthera pardus L. in captivity. 
J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc., 72 (2) : 293-304. 

Prater, S. H. (1971): The Book of Indian Ani- 
mals, Third (Revised) Edition. Bombay Natural 
History Society, Bombay. 

Schaller, George B. (1972): The Deer and the 
Tiger. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 
and London. 

Steyn, T. J. (1951): Cited by Crandall, Lee S. 
(1965). 

Zuckerman, S. (1953): Cited by Crandall, Lee 
S. (1965). 



7. OBSERVATIONS ON PARENTAL CARE OF A WOUNDED CHICK 
OF THE BRONZEWINGED JACANA, METOPIDIUS INDICUS 
(LATHAM) 



While collecting waterbirds in a small fish 
tank at a swamp in Senpukur, Baj Baj, 
West Bengal (about 16 km SW. of Calcutta), 
on 3rd October 1977 around midday, a rico- 
chetting shot from my .22 bore rifle acciden- 



tally hit a leg of one of the four chicks of a 
brood of the Bronzewinged Jacana. At the 
time of shooting they were following their 
parent on the other side of the tank. 
Next day when I visited the tank I observed 



325 



JOURNAL. BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



an extremely irritated and pugnacious Bronz- 
winged Jacana chasing and driving away al- 
most all the birds which came to visit the tank 
for foraging, which included Cotton Teal, 
Lesser Whistling Teal, Pheasant-tailed Jacana, 
etc. It even chased and drove away a White- 
breasted Kingfisher and compelled a Little 
Grebe, an actual resident of the tank, to leave 
the place. I discovered that the hostile behavi- 
our of the bird was only to protect the wound- 
ed chick which was unable to move with the 
others and was only able to feebly paddle in 
a small pool of water cleared by a parent bird 
by pushing or pulling apart the thick floating 

c/o. Dr Biswamoy Biswas, 
Zoological Survey of India, 
Indian Museum, 
Calcutta 700 016, 
December 20, 1977. 



aquaic weeds with its bill. This rather cum- 
bersome and laborious process of making clear 
spaces in the thickly entangled mass of aquatic 
weeds was observed to be performed repeated- 
ly whenever the chick intended to move about. 
This behaviour of assistance to the wounded 
chick lasted till the midday of 5th October 
when the chick died. 

During the period of observation, the three 
other broodmates of the unfortunate chick were 
unattended by the parent, but were found to 
be behaving normally like typical precocial 
chicks. 

SRIKUMAR CHATTOPADHYAY 



8. BLACKNECKED CRANE IN BHUTAN AND ARUNACHAL 
PRADESH— A SURVEY REPORT FOR JANUARY-FEBRUARY 1978 



For studying the status of the allegedly rare 
Blacknecked Crane, Grus nigri colli s Przevalski, 
in the eastern Himalaya during winter, the 
Bombay Natural History Society, the Zoologi- 
cal Survey of India and the World Wildlife 
Fund — India, organised a joint expedition to 
Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh during Janu- 
ary-February 1978. Due to unavoidable rea- 
sons Dr. Salim Ali of the BNHS and Dr. B. 
Biswas of the ZSI could not join the team. 
Mr. K. S. Lavkumar of the World Wildlife 
Fund — India and I from the Zoological Sur- 
vey of India, therefore, conducted the survey. 
Earlier under the leadership of Dr. Salim Ali, 
an expedition in search of the breeding ground 
of the crane had been undertaken in Ladakh 
during June-August of 1976, when the BNHS, 
the ZSI and the WWF-India, participated. 



On the basis of the report by F. N. Betts 
(1954) from the Apatani Valley, Subansiri 
District of Arunachal Pradesh and the report 
furnished by Dr. B. Biswas, who led a fauni- 
stic exploration in central and eastern Bhutan 
from the Zoological Survey of India and actu- 
ally found the cranes in the Tashi Yangtsi 
Valley in eastern Bhutan during 1973, together 
with the information supplied by the forest 
department of the Govt, of Bhutan, Central and 
Eastern Bhutan and Subansiri District (Apa- 
tani Valley in particular) in Arunachal Pra- 
desh were chosen for the study. 

itinerary: 

In Bhutan: 11 Jan. 1978. Dep. Calcutta 

15 Jan. 1978. Arr. Bumthang (Cham- 
khar Chu Valley), central Bhutan 
20 Jan. 1978. Dep. Bumthang 



326 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



(Due to road blocks produced by heavy snowfall 
in the higher reaches, the party was unable to pro- 
ceed further east to the Tashi Yangtsi Valley. It left 
Bhutan on 23 Jan. 1978). 

In Arunachal Pradesh: 24 Jan. 1978. Arr. Itanagar 

27 Jan. 1978. Dep. Tarajuli 
(near Itanagar) 

28 Jan. 1978. Arr. Apatani 
Valley (at Hapoli) 

29-31 Jan. 1978. Halt at 
Tale Valley 

1 Feb. 1978. Dep. Apatani 
Valley 

2 Feb. 1978. Arr. Daporb.o 

4 Feb. 1978. Dep. Daporiza 

5 Feb. 1978, Arr. Tarajuli 
6-12 Feb. 1978. Halt at Ta- 
rajuli 

13 Feb. 1978. Dep. Tarajuli 
15 Feb. 1978. Arr. Calcutta. 

The Blacknecked Crane a bird of the Tibe- 
tan Plateau, inhabited the grassy shores or 
reed-beds on the shores of the lakes of the 
Tibetan Plateau, or on their islands. It ranges 
from Ladakh in Kashmir east to Koko Nor 
region of Tibet and is believed to be migra- 
tory. Very little was known about this beauti- 
ful crane. In recent years, the Zoological Sur- 
vey of India team, headed by Dr. B. Biswas 
found nine birds in the Tashi Yangtse Valley 
in eastern Bhutan during November of 1973. 
And lastly, in 1976, the breeding birds with 
nestlings were found in Ladakh by the joint 
expedition team headed by Dr. Salim Ali. 

Altogether we came across sixteen Black- 
necked Cranes during our stay in Bhutan. At 
Gyetsa, 42 Km east of Tongsa, in the Kagang 
Chu Valley, a pair was seen foraging in the 
bogs as well as in the cultivated fields, soaked 
with melting snow. At Byakar, in Bumthang 
area, in the Chamkher Chu Valley, fourteen 
birds were seen. The composition of the flocks 
in Bumthang was nine adult and five juvenile 
birds. The flock broke up into family parties 
during the daylight hours. There were two 



pairs with two young, one pair with single 
young, one pair without any young, and a 
singleton male. The family parties collected 
in a flock at their roost before dusk. Segre- 
gated family parties were observed throughout 
the daylight hours, foraging in feeding grounds, 
usually in the bogs and marshes as well as in 
the ploughed fields. Each party maintained its 
own feeding territory. The gap between the 
feeding territories were usually about a kilo- 
metre or more. Only the mateless male was 
seen foraging near the couple without young. 
But he was not allowed to come closer than 
about a hundred metre or so. Each family 
party, even with the young foraged in its own 
particular field. Young fed independently of 
their parents but their movements from place 
to place or when alarmed were always together. 
Before dusk, each party came down to a parti- 
cular field not far from the roost, where they 
had their last feed. The congregated family 
parties had their preening and other rituals and 
just at dusk, they simultaneously left for their 
roosting ground in a marshy fallow field at the 
foot of a hillock somewhat away from the 
river bed. Whether at their last feeding ground 
or at roost, the parties maintained their sepa- 
rate entities. At daybreak, the parties were 
seen coming out one after another over the 
river and settling on their respective feeding 
grounds. Usually they foraged in a particular 
field throughout the day unless disturbed. They 
took no notice of the local people in tradi- 
tional costumes and would allow them to come 
within about 20 metres, or so, but were visibly 
suspicious and cautious at the sight of per- 
sons not in the familiar apparrel. They became 
alert and agitated at the report of a .22 rifle 
and invariably left the feeding ground, sug- 
gesting a familiarity with firearm sounds ap- 
parently in their breeding grounds, as they 
have never been shot at in Bhutan. On the day 



327 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



we left Bumthang ,a fresh pair was seen. This, 
apparently, was the pair we saw at Gyetsa 
on 15 January, for we did not see it there on 
our return journey. 

In the Apatani Valley, Subansiri District of 
Arunachal Pradesh, the recorded wintering 
ground of the Blacknecked Crane, a thorough 
search for the bird was conducted, but with- 
out any success. The crane is a well known 
bird and has found its place in the folk-lore. 
Information from local sources suggests that 
some twenty years back flocks of twenty or 
thirty Blacknecked Crane used to land in the 
Apatani Valley during the winter, when on 
such an occasion F. N. Betts encountered them 
in 1954. At that time the bird enjoyed pro- 
tection from the local inhabitants. Since then, 

Zoological Survey of India, 
Indian Museum, 
Calcutta-700 016, 
December 29, 1978. 



however, its population in the valley has start- 
ed dwindling, chiefly due to human interfer- 
ence by way of hunting. Over the years, ap- 
parently, the habits of the local inhabitants 
has changed. During recent years, the free use 
of firearms, has made persecution of this bird 
much easier, so that the population of the 
Blacknecked Crane has now dwindled alarm- 
ingly, so much so that during the last two 
years no crane has been sighted in the Apa- 
tani Valley. The last pair that appeared in 
the Apatani Valley near Hang Village in Feb- 
ruary of 1975 was soon collected for the 
pot within an hour or so of its landing. Since 
then cranes are not flying over this otherwise 
beautiful country, an erstwhile favourite win- 
tering ground. 

SUBHENDU SEKHAR SAHA 



9. THE BLUECHEEKED BEE-EATER MEROPS SUPERCILIOSUS 
LINNAEUS IN KUTCH 



The Bluecheeked Bee-eater has so far been 
believed to be only a passage migrant in Kutch. 
However on June 25, this year I saw one 
young bird which appeared to have just left 
its nest, since it kept on sitting in the same 
position on an electric wire and was being 
frequently fed by one adult bird. This was 
at the Devisar Tank, about 16 kms. north of 
Bhuj. While I, along with the local bird-en- 
thusiasts, Messers Bapat, Varu and others, 
watched this young bee-eater no other adult 
bird except one was seen. Almost all the in- 
sects caught and fed to the young were dragon- 
flies (sp ?). The parent bird, after catching 
its prey, would settle down at some distance 
on the wire and only after properly killing the 



insect feed the young one. This, I think, is the 
first breeding record of this bee-eater in 
Kutch. 

Dr. Salim Ali did not come across the Blue- 
cheeked Bee-eater in Kutch in any season ex- 
cept during their outward passage migration 
in Sept. -Oct. They are known to breed in 
Saurashtra (Dharmakumarsinhji — birds of 
saurashtra — specific breeding areas not men- 
tioned). I have seen them off and on in Kutch 
during summer. 1 first came across the bird 
on May 2, 1950; this too was at the same 
place (Devisar), and I saw them in the Banni 
on October 6, 1950, then on November 8, 9, 
10, 1973 on the sea coast of Mandvi in scatter- 
ed parties in a stretch of about 19 kms. from 



328 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



Raval Pir to Panchatiya village. These birds grounds, 
were obviously on their way to their wintering 

Jubilee Ground, M. K. HIMMATS1NHJ I 

Bhuj, Kutch, 
August 12, 1978. 



10. THE COMMON HAWK-CUCKOO, CUCULUS VARIUS VAHL 
IN KUTCH 



The Common Hawk-Cuckoo or Brainfever 
Bird is found practically all over the country, 
and I have heard and seen it quite often 
in Saurashtra (Wankaner) and elsewhere in 
India. However, I had never come across it 
in Kutch until 23rd August this year. 
So far as I know, Dr. Salim Ali has 
not recorded it here during his surveys 

Jubilee Ground, 
Bhuj, Kutch, 
September 1, 1978. 



prior to the publication of the birds of kutch. 
Thus this sighting of Cuculus varius by me 
seems to be the first record for the area, at 
least after the publication of the list of birds 
recorded by Stoliczka and Hume (birds of 
kutch, p. 171). 

I am inclined to put this bird down as an 
extremely rare visitor or a vagrant into Kutch. 

M. K. H1MM ATSINH J I 



11. A NEW NESTING SITE OF COMMON MYNA, ACRIDOTHERES 
TRISTIS (LINNAEUS), IN THE PUNJAB 

{With two photographs) 



The common myna, Acridotheres tristis 
(Linnaeus), has been reported to nest in holes 
in trees, rock faces, vertical earth banks, walls 
of buildings and wells (Whistler 1963, Ali and 
Ripley 1972 and Ganguly 1975). Occasionally 
it also builds untidy nests in trees. During 
July 1977, this bird was seen exploiting a dif- 
rent nesting site in the Punjab. We saw this 
bird making use of wheat hay stacks for nest- 
ing purposes. A wheat hay stack is locally 
known as kup, a dome shaped structure about 
3 to 4.5 metres high and approximately of the 
same diameter (Photo.l). 



Only one pair of birds usually nests in a 
kup. The mynas make a slit at the top of the 
kup by pulling out straw and an entrance hole 
is made at the bottom of the slit (Photo.2). 
There is sufficient place for laying eggs and 
raising young inside the hole. The eggs are 
laid directly on the flat platform of hay. How- 
ever, in some nests it was observed that the 
bird had placed a few dry leaves and feathers. 

This nesting site was discovered accidentally 
on 9th July, 1977 in an agricultural farm at 
village Darawan, Distt. Jullundur (Punjab). 
Examinations of the nest in the kup revealed 

329 



9 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 




Photo. 1. A kup showing entrance hole of common 
myna nest at its top. 

the presence of five eggs of the common myna 
on the flat platform of wheat hay. On the 
same day, all kups of that village were examin- 
ed and the majority of these had common 
myna nests. 

In 1978, during mid-July to mid-August, 

Department of Zoology, 
Punjab Agricultural University, 

LUDHIANA-141 004, 

September 12, 1978. 



286 kups were observed at random in the dis- 
tricts of Hoshiarpur, Jullundur and Ludhiana. 
Out of these, 151 contained nests of common 
myna. This number clearly indicates a change 
in the nesting behaviour of this bird which is 
probably due to the changed ecological condi- 
tions. 




Photo. 2. Top portion of the same kup (enlarged) 
showing common myna coming out of the nest. 



The nest in the kup is well protected against 
rain and sun and is not easily approached by 
predators. Even if rain water penetrates to 
some extent, the structures quickly dry up 
owing to their porous nature. Besides this, 
the birds need not collect nesting material, 
and can lay eggs directly on hay. In using 
other nesting sites, mynas are known to stuff 
nesting holes with twigs, roots, tow and rubbish 
(Ali & Ripley 1972). 

H. S. TOOR 
MANJIT SINGH DHINDSA 



330 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



References 

Ali, S. & Ripley, S. D. (1972): Indian Myna to the Birds of the Delhi Area. pp. 207-08. Indian 
Acridotheres tristis (Linnaeus). In: Handbook of Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, 
the birds of India and Pakistan, pp. 177-180. Oxford Whistler, H. (1963): The common mynah. In: 
University Press, Bombay, London and New York. Popular Handbook of Indian Birds, pp. 203-04, Oli- 

Ganguly, U. (1975): Common myna. In: A guide ver and Boyd. Edinburgh and London. 



12. ON THE TAXONOMIC STATUS OF THE EASTERN GHATS 
HILL MYNA, GRACULA RELIGIOSA PENINSULAR1S WHISTLER 
AND KINNEAR, 1933 [AVES: STURNIDAE] 



The Eastern Ghats population of the Hill 
Myna was separated from the Northern Hill 
Myna, Gracula religiosa intermedia A. Hay, 
1844, by Whistler and Kinnear (1933) as 
Gracula r. peninsularis with Sambalpur district, 
Orissa, as the type-locality, on the basis of its 
being smaller in size and in having finer and 
shorter bill. Ripley (1961) and Ali and Ripley 
(1972) also accepted them as separate sub- 
species. 

However, while working out some recent 



collections of birds from Orissa made by me 
in 1976 and 1977, I find that my specimens 
of the Hill Myna are very difficult to separate 
from Gracula r. intermedia. An attempt has, 
therefore, been made to settle the taxonomic 
status of Gracula religiosa peninsularis on the 
basis of the material present at the Zoological 
Survey of India and the Bombay Natural His- 
tory Society. The differences between the popu- 
lations from Orissa and northern India are 
given in Table. 



Table 

Measurements in mm. (Averages in parenthesis) 



Wing 


Tail 


Bill 


Wing-Tail 
Index 


Wing-Bill 
Index 


Gracula religiosa intermedia : 










Nepal 










1$ : 170 


78 


31 


45.88 


18.23 


15 : 170 


79 


31 


46.47 


18.23 


Darjeeling 










3 3 : 16-166 


71-74 


31-33 


43.82-45.62 


18.91-20.62 


(162.66) 


(72.66) 


(32) 


(44.67) 


(19.76) 


3 5 : 168-172 


78-80 


34 


45.34-47.05 


20-20.34 


(170) 


(76.66) 


(34) 


(46.27) 


(20.19) 


Bhutan (Data taken from Dr. 


B. Biswas) 








3$ 160-165 


75-79 


30-31 


46.87-47.87 


18.18-19.37 


(161.66) 


(76.33) 


(30.66) 


(47.20) 


(18.97) 


3 5 : 158-172 


72-81 


32-33.5 


45.56-47.64 


18.82-20.88 


(166.66) 


(77.66) 


(32.83) 


(46.57) 


(19.72) 



331 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Arunachal Pradesh 

2 9 : 164-168 74-75 
(166) (74.50) 

Khasi and Jaintia Hills, Meghalaya 



32 



74-77 
(75.33) 

78 

73-74 
(73.50) 

77-79 
(78) 



77, 78 
(77.50) 
76 



161-171 

(165.66) 
19 : 162 
Garo Hills, Meghalaya 
2$ : 168-170 

(169) 
Goalpara 
2$ : 167-174 

(170.50) 

Orissa population (=Gracula religiosa peninsularis) 
Chahala, Mayurbhanj Dist. 
2$ : 160, 161 

(160.50) 
19 : 156 

Kotagarh, Phulbani Dist. 
5S : 156-168 72-80 
(163.20) (75) 

3 9 : 154-155 69-74 

(154.66) (71) 
Madpad, Koraput Dist. 
5$ : 154-169 74-84 

(162.80) (79) 

4 9 : 157-162 76-80 

(160) (78) 
Chitrakunda, Koraput Dist. 
2$ : 154, 163 74, 79 

(158.50) (76.50) 
Kutri and Gonia, Puri Dist. 
2 9 : 155, 160 75,77 

(157.50) (76) 



31-33 
(32) 



34(2) 
(34) 
34 



32-34 
(33) 



32-34 
(33) 



30, 32 
(31) 
31 



33-34 
(33.75) 

30- 32 
(31) 

32-34 
(33) 

31- 33 
(31.75) 

32, 33 
(32.50) 

33 
(33) 



44.64-45.12 
(44.88) 

45.02-45.96 
(45.47) 
48.14 

42.94-44.04 
(43.49) 

45.40-46.10 
(45.75) 



48.12, 48.44 
(48.28) 
48.71 

43.97-47.14 

(45.85) 
44.80-47.74 

(45.89) 

42.01-48.44 

(46.85) 
46.91-50.31 

(48.75) 

48.05, 48.46 
(48.25) 

48.12, 48.38 
(48.25) 



18.90-19.64 
(19.27) 

19.88-20.60 
(20.24) 
20.98 

18.82-20.23 
(19.52) 

18.39-20.35 
(19.37) 



18.63, 20 
(19.31) 
19.87 

19.64-21.79 
(20.79) 

19.35-20.64 
(20.03) 

18.93-21.42 
(20.29) 

19.13-21.01 
(19.84) 

20.24, 20.77 
(20.50) 

20.62, 21.29 
(20.95) 



It appears from the above data that inter- 
media and peninsularis cannot be separated 
from each other on the basis of either size or 
bill characters. Though intermedia is generally 
slightly larger than peninsularis, only about 
50% and not 75% of the population can be 
separated, and there is complete overlap in 



the size of the bill between them, and in their 
wing-tail and wing-bill indices. Hence, Gracula 
religiosa peninsularis should be considered a 
synonym of Gracula religiosa intermedia. 

I am grateful to Dr. B. Biswas, Zoological 
Survey of India, Calcutta for his valuable sug- 
gestions and for going through the manuscript 



332 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



and to Dr. S. D. Ripley of the Smithsonian advice in this matter. He also agrees with my 

Institution, Washington, D. C, for his wise conclusion. 

Zoological Survey of India, N. MAJUMDAR 
Indian Museum, 
Calcutta 700 016, 
January 3, 1978. 

References 

Ali, S. and Ripley, S. D. (1972): Handbook of Sikkim, Bhutan and Ceylon. P. 304. Bombay Natu- 

the birds of India and Pakistan, together with those ral History Society, Bombay. 

of Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and Ceylon, 5: 195. Whistler, H. and Kinnear, N. B. (1933): The 

Oxford University Press, Bombay. Vernay Scientific survey of the Eastern Ghats. Orni- 

Ripley, S. D. (1961): A synopsis of the Birds thological Section, /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc, 36: 

of India and Pakistan, together with those of Nepal, 586. 



13. EGG-BOUND DEATH OF A PURPLERUMPED SUNBIRD AT 
BAJ BAJ, WEST BENGAL 



The Purplerumped Sunbird, Nectarinia zey- 
lenica sola (Vieillot), breeds throughout the 
year. However, there is marked increase in 
breeding activities in lower West Bengal from 
the early part of March to May. 

Early in February this year, with the first 
incursion of the south wind that brings humi- 
dity from the Bay of Bengal and heralds the 
advent of spring in lower Bengal, I noticed a 
female Purplerumped Sunbird building its 
pouch-like pear-shaped nest which lacked the 
porch-like projection over the entrance, sus- 
pended from a thin branch of a Sourlime tree 
[Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle] at a 
height of c. 1.5 m from the ground at Baj Baj, 
24-Parganas District, West Bengal. The nest was 
built entirely by the female, while her mate 
did the 'watch and ward' duties. She took six 
days for completion of the nest, from 5th 

Baj Baj, 
West Bengal, 
July 1, 1977. 



February to 11th February 1977. 

The first egg of the clutch was laid on 20th 
February. The bird was found dead at her nest 
on the 22nd morning. Its head was tucked in- 
side the wall of the nest-chamber and the lower 
part of the abdomen bulged out in such a way 
that the brood-patch was completely exposed, 
and the anal circlet was curved inward. The 
presence of a ring formed by pollen and nectar 
at the distal part of its bill indicated that it 
had its early morning feed. 

On postmortem it was found that the bird 
died egg-bound. A thinly shelled and properly 
shaped egg measuring 15.6x11.7 mm was 
found in the distal part of the oviduct. Traces 
of haemorrhage in the brain and in the mouth 
cavity probably the effect of egg-binding were 
also noticed. 

SRIKUMAR CHATTOPADHYAY 



333 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 

14. OCCURRENCE OF THE BENGAL BLACK ROBIN, 
SAXICOLOIDES FULICATA ERYTHRURA (LESSON) 
[MUSCICAPIDAE: TURDINAE], AND THE ASSAM PURPLE 
SUNBIRD, NECTARINIA ASIATIC A INTERMEDIA (HUME) 
[NECTARINIIDAE] IN ORISSA STATE, 



While working out a collection of birds from 
Orissa State made by Dr. V. C. Agrawal in 
1972, Dr. A. K. Mondal in 1972, Shri P. K. 
Das in 1973 and by me in 1976 and 1977, I 
came across two species of birds, namely, the 
Bengal Black Robin, Saxicoloides fulicata ery- 
thrura (Lesson) [Musicapidae: Turdinae] (15 
examples) and the Assam Purple Sunbird, 
Nectarinia asiatica intermedia (Hume) [Nec- 
tariniidae] (two examples). According to the 
standard literature on Indian ornithology like 
Baker (1926) and Ali and Ripley (1973 and 
1974), these have not so far been reported 
from Orissa. The particulars of the specimens 
are as follows: 
Saxicoloides fulicata erythrura (Lesson) 
Material. — d* : 2, Tikarpara, Dhenkenal dis- 
trict, January 8 and 11, 1972; 1, Lathore, Bo- 
langir, December 19, 1972; 2, Rairakhol, Sam- 
balpur district, January 26 and 27, 1973; 2, 
Madpad, Koraput district, February 21 and 
24, 1974; 4, Balimela, Koraput district, March 
6, 7 and 8, 1977. 

9 : 1, Charmal, Sambalpur district, March 

Zoological Survey of India, 
Indian Museum, 
Calcutta 700 016, 
December 21, 1977. 



27, 1976; 2, Balimela, Koraput district, March 
7, 1977; 1, Chitrakonda, Koraput district, 
March 17, 1977. 

Measurements (in mm.): 

Wing Tail Bill 

113: 68,69(3)70,71(3), 59(3) ,60,61,62, 16(7), 17(4) 

74(2) ,75 63 (3), 64,65 
49 66,67,68,69 58(2) ,60,62 15,16(3) 

Distribution: Ali and Ripley (1973) stated 
that it is known from eastern Bihar, West 
Bengal and adjacent areas of Bangladesh. 

This is the first record of the occurrence of 
this subspecies in Orissa. 

Nectarinia asiatica intermedia (Hume) 

Material. — cf : 1, Badrama, Sambalpur dis- 
trict, December 27, 1972; 1, Madpad, Koraput 
district, February 20, 1977. 

Measurements (in mm.): 2d 1 : Wing 56, 
58; Tail 37, 38; Bill 22, 23. 

Distribution: According to Baker (1926) 
and Ali and Ripley (1974) this subspecies is 
found in Assam and Bangladesh. The present 
specimens, therefore, constitute the first record 
of its occurrence in this region. 

N. MAJUMDAR 



References 

Ali, S. and Ripley, S. D. (1973, 1974): Hand- 9: 61; 10: 37. 
book of the birds of India and Pakistan, together Baker, E. C. S. (1926): Fauna of British India, 
with those of Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and Ceylon. Birds. 3: 398. Taylor & Francis, London. 



334 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



15. DISPERSAL OF BAYAS WITH RECORDED DISTRESS CALLS 



Introduction 

The Indian Baya {Ploceus philippinus) is a 
common crop pest causing considerable dam- 
age to cereal crops. They commence visiting 
the fields in flocks from the time the crops 
are in milky stage of grain and continue to 
damage till the harvest of the crop (Hamid 
Ali et al. 1980). Though various control mea- 
sures have been advocated none has given a 
satisfactory result. Some investigators (Frings 
and Jumber 1954, Frings and Frings 1963 and 
1967, Pearson et al. 1967) used the distress 
calls to frighten away and disperse the birds 
from their roosts and bird pests from feeding 
areas. The present experiment was conducted 
to investigate whether recorded distress calls 
have any repellent effect in dispersing the 
bayas from crops. 

Materials and Methods 

The roosting site of bayas selected for the 
present study was situated in the midst of the 
Agricultural University experimental paddy 
fields approximately one kilometre from the 
Veterinary College, Rajendranagar, Hydera- 
bad. About 350 bayas roosted in a bush. These 
bayas caused heavy damage to the surround- 
ing experimentl fields. The acoustic equipment 
used for the experiment consisted of micro- 
phone, stereo tape recorder of high quality, 
30 W amplifier, speakers and 12 V battery. 
The distress calls of bayas were recorded for 
a continuous period of three minutes in the 
laboratory. The recorded distress calls have 
high signal-to-noise ratio. 

The experiment was conducted during 
March 1978. The amplifier feeding a speaker, 
and the tape recorder playing the recorded 



distress calls were operated at a distance of 
200 metres from the roosting site. On March 
1, 1978 at 5 p.m. about 350 bayas arrived in 
groups at their roosting place. Prior to the 
arrival of bayas the speaker was kept hidden 
on one side of the roosting bush. After 15 
minutes of the arrival of bayas and as they 
began to settle down, the distress calls were 
played for 30 seconds. Immediately the birds 
responded to the distress calls and showed 
signs of restlessness and moved to the other 
side of the bush. After an interval of 5 minutes 
the distress calls were again played for 40 
seconds. Groups of bayas came out of the bush 
and hovered around the speaker at a height of 
about 12 metres and flew off in a northern 
direction. The birds did not return to the site 
to roost on that night. 

The same experiment was repeated at inter- 
vals of 2 to 7 days. The experimental data on 
the effect of distress calls on baya population 
arc shown in the Table. 

Table 



Effect of distress calls on the population of 
bayas during the experimental period 



Date 


No. of bayas 
in the bush 


Time of arrival 
of the bayas 
(in hours) 


1-3-1978 


350 


17.00 


3-3-1978 


350 


16.50 


6-3-1978 


200 


17.40 


8-3-1978 


80 


17.30 


10-3-1978 


49 


18.00 


13-3-1978 


20 


18.20 


16-3-1978 






23-3-1978 






30-3-1978 







In each trial the bayas came out of the bush 
in small groups, hovered around the speaker 



335 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



without actually settling down and after 6 to 
8 seconds activity at the roosting site, the 
bayas dispersed. 

Discussion 

Observations recorded in three trials after 
the last batch of bayas were dispersed show 
that the birds did not return to their night 
roosts till the end of the experimental period, 
i.e. till 30 March when the last observation 
was taken. 

Pearson et al. (1967) observed that starlings 
were not habituated to distress calls contrary 
to the findings of Frings & Frings (1963). In 
the present studies the dispersal of bayas from 
their roosting site indicates that they are not 
habituated to the distress calls which is in 
confirmation with findings of Pearson et al. 
(1967). From the above observations it is 
inferred that the bioacoustic method is effec- 

Ornithology Scheme, 

Insectary Building, 

A. P. Agricultural University, 

Rajendranagar, 

Hyderabad 500 030, 

February 21, 1979. 

Refer 

Frings, H. and Frings, M. (1963): Pest Control 
with sound. Part II. The problem with vertebrates. 
Sound 2(i) : 39-45. 

(1967) : Behavioural manipulation 

(visual, mechanical and acoustical). In "Pest Con- 
trol" (Kilgore, W. W. and Doutt, R. L. ed) Acade- 
mic Press, New York. 387-454. 

and Jumber, J. (1954): Preliminary 

studies on the use of a specific sound to repel starl- 
ings (Sturnus vulgaris) from objectionable roosts. 



tive in moving bayas from their roosts. Further 
experiments with regard to the effective dis- 
tance of audibility in cropped area, duration 
of the effect and the response of the bird pests 
toward the distress calls of other species are 
in progress. 

Acknowledgements 

Thanks are due to the Indian Council of 
Agricultural Research, New Delhi, for financ- 
ing a research scheme for biology and control 
of bird pests at Andhra Pradesh Agricultural 
University, Hyderabad, under which the pre- 
sent studies were carried out. The authors are 
also grateful to Dr. B. Biswas, Dy. Director 
and Dr. A. K. Mukherjee, Superintending 
Zoologist, Zoolgical Survey of India, Calcutta 
for their valuable suggestions on the manu- 
script. 

S. T. P. V. J. SWAMY 
N. SHIVANARAYAN 
MIR HAMID ALT 



ENCES 

Science. 119 (3088): 318-319. 

Hamid Ali, M., Singh, T. G. M., Banu, Aziz, 
Rao, M. A. and Janak, A. T. (1980): Observa- 
tions on the food and feeding habit of Baya weaver 
(Ploceus philippinus) . J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 
75 (supplement): 1198-1204. 

Pearson, E. W. Skon, P. R. and Corner, G. W. 
(1967). Dispersal of urban roosts with records of 
starling distress calls. /. Wildl. manage. 31(3): 502- 
506. 



336 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



16. ON NESTING ASSOCIATION OF THE WHITEBACKED MUNIA, 
LONCHURA STRIATA (LINNAEUS) WITH THE MOUND-FORMING 
TREE- ANT, CREMA TOG ASTER ROGENHOFERI MAYR 



The nesting association of birds with aggres- 
sive social insects like bees, wasps and ants is 
well known. As early as 1866, Ramsay wrote 
of Gerygone olivacea, the Whitethroated Gery- 
gone: "The nests are often placed in trees 
covered with ants, which insects are often on 
the nests themselves but do not, as far as I 
am aware, cause the bird any anxiety." Since 
then some work has been done on this subject 
by various authors such as North (1904, 1909), 
Jackson (1907), Maclaren (1950), Chisholm 
(1952) and a collation with critical analysis 
of all those works has been done by Hindwood 
(1955). 

In India the only bird that has so far been 
recorded to form its nesting association with 
tree-ants {Crematogaster, Plegiolepis, etc.) is 
the Rufous Woodpecker, Micropternus, brach- 
yurus (Vieillot) [Baker (1927), Ali & Ripley 
(1971)], though the nesting association of the 
Blackheaded Munia, Lonchura malacca (Lin- 
naeus), with paper- wasps has been recorded 
from Australia (Hindwood 1950), where the 
bird was imported from the East as a cage- 
bird. 

The present paper deals with a four-year 
study on the nesting association of the White- 
backed Munia, Lonchura striata (Linnaeus), 
with the paper nest tree-ant, Crematogaster 
rogenhoferi Mayr, at Baj Baj, 24 Parganas 
district, West Bengal. 

In the year 1974, a pair of Whitebacked 
Munia built their nest in a Kamini tree {Murya 
paniculata Jack) at a height of c. 3 m from 
the ground at the edge of a pond. They com- 
menced building the nest on 5th August and 
completed it on 14th August. On close inspec- 
tion which was only possible after a good 



number of ant-bites, it was found that the 
nest was constructed very close to a live, oval- 
shaped nest of tree-ants. The parent birds were 
able to rear successfully all the four young 
of the brood that year. 

The female bird was caught in a mistnet 
and was marked by clipping its middle claw 
of the right foot. 

Next year, the same female along with a 
male again commenced building their nest in 
the same bough close to that nest of ants on 
3rd August 1975 and completed it on 11th 
August 1975. Unfortunately, however, after 
the female had laid the first egg of the clutch 
the local village boys damaged the nest along 
with the egg on 18th August 1975. Three 
weeks later, on 9th September 1975, to my 
utter surprise, I found that the pair had again 
started building another nest at the same spot, 
and completed its construction on 19th Sep- 
tember 1975. This time they were successful 
in raising their brood. 

In 1976 in order to study the habitat and 
associate preference, I intentionally damaged 
the newly built nest on 27 August. They re- 
built the nest on 7th October at the same 
spot. 

A very interesting thing happened this year 
(1977). The same female bird and a male built 
their nest at exactly the same spot as in the 
previous years, commencing on 15th Septem- 
ber and completing it on 24th September. How- 
ever, soon after the tree-ant nest was damag- 
ed by torrential rain on 6th October, the birds 
deserted the nest and shifted to a nearby 
Bakul tree (Mimusops elengi Linnaeus) that 
was heavily infested with tree-ants, to con- 
struct another nest. 



337 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



From the above observation it appears that 
the Whitebacked Munia prefers such an asso- 
ciation with the ants, and that the nesting acti- 
vities of the pair are tolerated by the ants, 
which can also differentiate the intruders, as 
whenever I ventured near the nest, the ants 
rushed towards me in hundreds, holding their 
abdomen skywards like anti-aircraft guns and 
within a very short time I found myself cover- 
ed with ants all stinging, until I made a hur- 
ried retreat. A female Longtailed Mouse, 
Vandeleuria oleracea (Bennett), who built her 
nest in the same tree, was, however, unable to 
rear her young because of the ants. 

Zoological Survey of India, 
Indian Museum, 
Calcutta 700 016, 
December 22, 1977. 

R E F E 1 

Ali, S. & Ripley, S. D. (1971): Handbook of 
birds of India, Pakistan and Ceylon. 10. Oxford 
University Press, Bombay. 

Baker, E. C. S. (1927): Fauna of British India 
including Ceylon and Burma. 6. London. 

Chisholm, A. H. (1952): Bird insect nesting as- 
sociation in Australia. Ibis. 94: 395-405. 

Hindwood, K. A. (1955): Bird/Wasp nesting as- 
sociation. Emu 55: 263-274. 



It appears that the munias were aware of 
the arms of protection provided by the ants, 
because there is no convincing alternative for 
the evaluation of such an association known 
at present. 

Acknowledgements 

I record my sincere thanks to Dr. Biswamoy 
Biswas of the Zoological Survey of India, for 
his interest in this study and helping me in 
the preparation of this paper, I also thank 
to Dr. Amalesh Chowdhury of the Depart- 
ment of Zoology, Calcutta University, for en- 
couragement. 

SRIKUMAR CHATTOPADHYAY 



EN CES 

Jackson, S. W. (1907): Catalogue and data of 
Jacksonian Oological collection: 72. Sydney. 

Maclaren, P. I. R. (1950): Bird-ant nesting as- 
sociations. Ibis 92: 564-566. 

North, A. J. (1904): Nests and eggs of birds 
found breeding in Australia: 1-194. Sydney. 

— (1909): Notes on the Nesting-site 

of Gerygone personata, Gould. Rec. Aust. Mas. 7: 
186-188. 



17. BIRD PESTS TO RICE AT BUMBONG LIMA, PROVINCE 
WELLESLEY, WEST MALAYSIA 



From April 1975 through March 1977, I 
conducted an investigation of bird pests to rice 
in northwestern peninsular Malaysia. The study 
came under the auspices of the United States 
Peace Corps/ Smithsonian Institution Environ- 
mental Program, and was conducted in co- 
operation with the Malaysian Agricultural 
Research and Development Institute (MAR- 
DI). My study area consisted of 15 ha. of 



experimental rice fields at the MARDI Rice 
Research Center (RRC) at Bumbong Lima 
in Northern Province Wellesley. The RRC 
conducts research in the areas rice breeding 
and varietal improvement, rice plant physio- 
logy, agronomy, and crop protection, which 
includes such pests as rodents, insects, weeds, 
fungus and bacteria. Bumbong Lima is situated 
in one of Malaysia's most productive rice- 



338 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



growing areas. Much of the agricultural land 
is irrigated so that two crops of rice are har- 
vested annually. 

Throughout Asia, numerous species of seed- 
eating birds cause extensive damage to cereal 
grain crops such as rice. In West Malaysia, 
the main bird pests are four species of munia 
in the genus Lonchura (Estrildidae), and the 
Baya Weaver, Ploceus philippinus (Ploceidae). 
Munias have long been popular with avicultu- 
ralists, and many cage studies of their beha- 
vior have been made, but relatively little re- 
search has been conducted under natural con- 
ditions. On the other hand, the Baya Weaver 
has been the subject of many field studies, 
particularly with regard to its nesting beha- 
vior, but as with the munias, its role as a crop 
pest has not received much attention. This 
study was designed to gather data on move- 
ments, food habits, and breeding seasonality 
of the bird pests to rice in the Bumbong Lima 
area. 

At the RRC, the principal rice-eating spe- 
cies were the Sharp-tailed Munia, Lonchura 
striata; the Spotted Munia, L. punctulata; and 
the Baya Weaver. The Chestnut Munia, 
L. malacca, and the White-headed Munia, 
L. maja, occurred abundantly in fields within 
15 km of the RRC, but only seldom did I 
observe them on the study area. 

The results of my study are summarized 
below under three main headings. Additional 
data or details of the investigation are avail- 
able from me upon request. 

Movements 

I instituted a ringing program early in the 
study to obtain data on the movements of the 
three target species. During 1975, numerous 
ringed birds were retrapped at the RRC, but 
reports of ringed birds being trapped out- 
station were non-existent. To spur interest 



among farmers, I advertised in the local news- 
papers and on the radio a reward of MS2.00 
(US$0.80) for out-station recoveries of ringed 
birds. The response was very enthusiastic, and 
a total of 50 recoveries resulted. 

The Sharp-tailed Munia (STM) was by far 
the most numerous of the three target species 
on the study area. Regular censuses showed 
that STMs were most abundant during the 
months of March and September, with lows 
occurring in May and November. This pat- 
tern of abundance corresponded with the pal- 
tern of rice availability at the RRC. 

Overall, I ringed 1988 STMs, and recorded 
250 on-station retraps. The high rate of re- 
traps indicates that STMs in the Bumbong 
Lima area had rather localized movements and 
returned regularly to the RRC to feed. There 
were 1 1 out-station recoveries of STMs, all 
from within 10 km of the RRC, again indi- 
cating a localized pattern of movement. 

At the RRC, field counts of Spotted Munias 
(SPM) tended to be low during the first eight 
months of the year and high during Septem- 
ber-December, probably due to the addition 
of juvenile birds to the population. A total of 
531 SPMs was ringed during the study, but 
only 14 on-station retraps were recorded. This 
suggests either that this species moves about 
more extensively than do STMs, or that SPMs 
are more successful in avoiding being recap- 
tured. Two out-station recoveries of SPMs 
were reported, one from 16 km south of the 
RRC. 

Numbers of Baya Weavers (BW) fluctuated 
quite drastically from month to month with 
no apparent pattern. Altogether, 863 BWs were 
ringed and 193 were retrapped on-station. 
Most of the retraps occurred within one month 
of the ringing date, and retraps over longer 
intervals were uncommon, indicating that once 
they left the study area, BWs seldom returned, 



339 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



unlike STMs which regularly came back. 
There were 37 out-station recoveries of BWs. 
About half of these were from locations greater 
than 10 km from the RRC, suggesting that 
BWs ranged over a greater area than did the 
munias. 

Food Habits 

The food habits of the three target species 
were examined through field observations and 
crop analyses. In addition, cage studies were 
conducted on the munias. 

In the field, STMs were observed eating rice 
almost 75% of the time. The only other food 
item recorded in the field was the filamentous 
green algae, Spirogyra. Rice was also the most 
common food item for SPMs in the field, but 
they were also frequently seen eating Echino- 
chloa, a common weedy grass that was abund- 
ant at certain times of the year. SPMs also ate 
algae, but not as often as did the STMs. BWs 
were never seen eating algae. Rice comprised 
the bulk of their diet, according to the held 
observations, although they frequently were 
seen in tall grass and reed areas adjacent to 
the rice fields. 

Crop analyses performed on a total of 231 
birds largely confirmed the field observations. 
Very little other than rice and algae was found 
in the crops of STMs. SPMs ate rice more 
often than any other food item, but seeds of 
wild grasses as well as algae were recorded 
with appreciable frequency. No algae was 
found in BW crops, two-thirds of which con- 
tained rice. Seeds of the grass Paspalum sp. 
and various sedges (Cyperaceae) were frequ- 
ently found. Insect matter was found in two 
BW crops. 

In the cage experiments, munias, singly and 
in pairs, were given a choice of two food items 
on each of five days. In the first series, the 
food items were ripe rice and the grass Echi- 



nochloa crusgalli. In the second series, rice at 
various stages of ripening was used. The S TMs 
tested usually showed a preference for rice 
over Echinocloa whereas the SPMs displayed 
no preference. This is very consistent with the 
field observations. In the second series, STMs 
tended to prefer younger, milky stage rice over 
rice that was at least two weeks older, although 
both were eaten. No distinction was made by 
the birds between rice that differed in age by 
just one week. 

Breeding Seasonality 

The breeding seasonality of the two munia 
species was examined in three ways: the pre- 
sence of juvenile-plumaged birds in the popu- 
lation, the gonad size of autopsied birds, and 
field observations of nesting activity. 

The juvenile plumages of both munia spe- 
cies persist until about three months of age. 
Among the STMs, birds in juvenile plumage 
were most common during the periods March- 
April and September-October. These periods 
were also the times of maximum rice abund- 
ance at the RRC. The peak time of juvenile- 
plumaged SPMs was September-December, al- 
though birds in juvenile plumage were present 
all year round. 

Among the adult-plumaged STMs of both 
sexes, the greatest periods of reproductive acti- 
vity, as indicated by enlarged gonads, were 
January-February and July-August, just prior 
to the periods of greatest juvenile abundance 
in the population. Thus, it appears that STMs 
at the RRC have two main periods of breed- 
ing activity annually. 

Not enough SPMs were collected to deter- 
mine their seasonal gonadal condition. 

STM nesting activity was determined regu- 
larly at five locations outside of Bumbong 
Lima, and local (within 1 km) rice conditions 
were assessed at the same time. These obser- 



340 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



vations showed that active or very active nest- 
ing occurred 12 times when rice was locally 
available and 6 times when it was not. On 
the other hand, only once was nesting not 
recorded when rice was available in local 
fields. The remaining 13 observations when no, 
or slight, nesting was recorded, there was no 
locally available rice. Thus, there was a de- 

231 Gibson Road, 
Annapolis, Maryland 21401, 
U.S.A., 

March 15, 1978. 



finite association between STM nesting acti- 
vity and nearby rice conditions. 

It is hoped that the results of this study will 
lead to a better understanding of the relation- 
ships between certain bird species and the rice 
crop in Malaysia, and that these results will 
provide a basis for further studies. 

MICHAEL AVERY 



18. NOTES ON SEXING CROCODILIANS 
(With two plates) 



The need for sexing crocodilians for captive 
propagation or for release is self evident. 
Several authors have reported the effectiveness 
of the simple cloacal probe technique. The 
crocodile is held and turned on its back. The 
cloacal area is cleaned with water, finger (close- 
cropped nail advisable) is inserted to feel for 
the presence or absence of the penis. 

Male crocodilians possess a single organ, 
rooted to the interior ventral wall of the cloaca 
immediately anterior to the anal vent. Normal 
rigidity of the organ permits contact when 
probed at a depth of 8 centimetres or less in 
an animal 3 to 4 metres in length. The absence 
of a rigid organ within the cloaca of the female 
reveals only a vacant chamber when probed. 
The small flaccid clitoris of the female cannot 
easily be confounded with the penis of the 
male if a minimum specimen size limitation 
of 75 cm is observed, particularly when deal- 
ing with individuals of the genus Tomistoma 
and Gavialis (Brazaitis 1968). 

With smaller mugger (70-80 cm) it is often 
impossible to insert a finger. However the 
penis was extrudable by applying digital pres- 



sure on both sides of the cloaca while bending 
the animal's tail upwards (plate I). 

Mugger (C. palustris) of under 80 cm are 
difficult to sex. The cloacal opening is small, 
the clitoris and penal tip are extrudable and 
look alike. As they grow larger the clitoris 
is no longer extrudable while the penis grows 
and continues to be extrudable manually. At 
2.5 metres (near breeding size for the male) 
the penis will extrude approximately 10 cm 
and is about 3 cm in diameter. 

Crocodylus porosus is similar in structure 
and development rate to the mugger. Animals 
of 90 cm can be reliably sexed using the fifth 
finger (small opening). 

There is little in the literature on sexing 
Gavialis gangeticus. Our experience in exam- 
ing 20 Gavialis from 1 m (2 years) to nearly 
3 m (20 years) suggest that this animal has 
a slower rate of sexual development than the 
other two Indian crocodilians. In none of the 
gharial checked was the penis more than a few 
centimetres in length though the 2.7 m speci- 
men was over 12 years of age (plates). Capti- 
vity (diet, metabolism, enclosure, disturbance) 



341 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



places some developmental limits but one cap- cussion it was felt that the non-breeding of 

tive male (Nandankanan, Orissa) of about this crocodilian in captivity is at least partly 

2.5 m is reported to be developed "normally" due to the difficulty in sexing them. The Table 

by other known crocodilian standards (H. R. gives the basic details of the Gavialis checked. 



Year . ' Place Size Sex Notes 

Age 



1. 


1974 


10 


Mysore Zoo 




2.8m 


$ 


No ghara, penis small, distin- 
















guishable. 


2. 


1974 


10 


Mysore Zoo 




2.7m 


9 


Smooth cloacal wall with small 
















clitoris 


3. 


1974 


3 


Mysore Zoo 




1.2m 


9? 


At this size sex probably not 
















determinable 


4. 


1975 


2 


Madras Crocodile 


Bank 


1.2m 


3? 


In 1975 it was sexed as a female; 
















in 1978 (at 2 m) it is apparently 
















a male! 


5. 


1975 


3 


Madras Crocodile 


Bank 


1.6m 


$ 


Penis small but distinguishable. 


6. 


1977 


10+ 


Ahmedabad Zoo 




2.5m 


$ 


Thought to be a female and 
















penis not detected at first check. 
















Upon rechecking confirmed to 
















be a male (at 2.7 m). 


7. 


1977 


20+ 


Calcutta Zoo 




2.5m 


9 


Smooth, wide cloaca with small 
















clitoris about six cm inside on 
















anterior wall. 


8. 


1977 


2 


Madras Crocodile 


Bank 


1.1m 


9? 


At this size sex probably not 
















determinable. 


9. 


1977 


2 


Madras Crocodile 


Bank 


1.2m 


7 


Sex not determinable. 


10. 


1978 


7+ 


Patna Zoo 




2.3m 


$ 


No ghara, penis small but dis- 
















tinguishable. 


11 


1978 


2, 3 


Gharial Project, 




1-1. 6m 


? 


Cloacal opening small and sexes 


to 






Kukkrail, Uttar Pradesh 






undistinguishable. 


20. 

















Bustard, pers. comm.). The specimen is not 
particularly old (12-15 years) but has a well- 
developed "ghara" over its nostrils (plate). 
The ghara is interpreted to be a dimorphic 
male character (Martin and Bellairs 1977) and 
may indicate sexual maturity. 

At the Crocodile Bank we have 6 gharial 
ranging from two 1.2 metres 2 year old to 
a 2.7 m, 18 year old male. After the February 
1978 IUCN/SSC Crocodile Specialist Group 
Meeting, several of the specialists worked with 
us checking the lower size limit for sexing 
young mugger and sexing the gharial. In dis- 



Discussion: If further studies on sexing gha- 
rial confirm the difficulties mentioned above, 
other methods of sex determination must be 
investigated. Bellairs (the life of reptiles, 
1969) mentions that karotyping may not work 
in crocodilians (Gavialis?) but other sex cha- 
racters may come to light. This problem attains 
more importance considering that recent re- 
search indicates that egg incubation tempera- 
ture influences the sex ratio of crocodilian off- 
spring and the need in release programmes to 
stock a suitable ratio. 



342 



J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 77 

Whitaker & Whitaker : Sexing crocodilians 



Plate I 




J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 77 

Whitaker & Whitaker : Sexing crocodilians 



Plate II 




Close up of extruded penis of 2.7 m Gavialis. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



Madras Crocodile Bank Trust, 
Vadanemmeli Village, 
Tamil Nadu, 
January 25, 1979. 

Refer 

Bellairs, A. D'A. (1969): The Life of Reptiles. 
Weidenfeld and Nicholson. 

Brazaitis, P. J. (1968): The Determination of 
Sex in Living Crocodilians. British Journal of Her- 
petology. 

Martin, B. G. H. & Bellairs, A. D A. (1977) : 



ROMULUS WHITAKER 
ZAHIDA WHITAKER 
ALLEN VAUGHAN 



E N C E S 

The narial excrescence and pterygoid bulla of the 
gharia], Gavialis gangeticus. J. Zool. London 182: 
541-558. 

Whitaker, R. (1975): A note on Crocodilian 
Sex Determination. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 73 
(3): 531-532. 



19. ON THE OCCURRENCE OF BIFURCATED TAILED IN AGAMA 
LIZARD FROM SIMLA HILLS, HIMACHAL PRADESH 



During September 1970, while undertaking 
a general faunistic survey of Rajgarh and its 
vicinity of district Sirmour, H.P., we observed 
a good number of agama lizards basking on 
barren rocks, creeping out from below stones 
and crevices of boulders, of which a few lizards 
were collected. 

While studying these specimens, one lizard 
was noted to have its tail bifurcated last one- 
third of the total length of the tail. The speci- 
men was identified as Agama tuber culata 

High Altitude Zoology Field Station, 
Zoological Survey of India, 
Solan (H.R), 
December 21, 1978. 



Gray. 

Material: 1 ex. Loc. Rajgarh, Dist. Sirmour, 
H.P., 3-9-70, M. Chandra. 
Measurement: 250 mm. Total length. 123 mm. 
Standard length. 

We are deeply indebted to Dr. R. Bielowski, 
Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sci- 
ence, Warsaw for his valuable comments and 
confirmation during his study of Solan in 1973. 
Thanks are due to the Director, Z.S.I, for the 
facilities afforded. 

MAHESH CHANDRA 
RATHIN MUKHERJEE 



20. RECENT RE-DISCOVERY OF THE RARE AGAMID LIZARD 
OTOCRYPTIS BEDDOMU 



Recently I picked up a juvenile agamid 
lizard from a bush near a stream in the upper 
shola, Kodaikanal (2100 m), Palnis, Western 
Ghats, South India. On detailed examination 
later the specimen was recognised easily as Oto- 
cryptis beddomii Boulenger because of its sub- 



dermal tympanum and the short fifth toe. Bou- 
lenger (1885: 272) has described this species 
based on five specimens — two females and 
three juveniles — collected by Colonel Beddome 
at Sivagiri Ghat, Cardamom Hills, South India. 
Smith (1935: 148) says: "Ferguson obtained 



343 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



two more specimens in Travancore". 

The specimen has the following characteris- 
tics: snout-vent length — 35 mm; tail — -73 mm. 
Its coloration is as follows: Dorsum with five 
black transverse bars. While the dark bars on 
the limbs are clearly visible, the forehead is 
devoid of the dark bar observed by Smith. 
No traces of gular appendage. 

The specimen bearing Register Number L. 
151 is deposited in the reptile collections of 
the Southern Regional Station of the Zoolo- 
gical Survey of India, Madras 600 028. 

Zoological Survey of India, 
Madras-600 028, 
June 23, 1980. 



The present record of this species from 
Palanis other than its type locality and nearly 
after a century since its description is rather 
interesting. We can definitely say that it is not 
as rare as to be restricted to the Cardamom 
Hills, Kerala. However, its definitive distribu- 
tion should await further exploration of the 
Western Ghats. 

I am thankful to the Officer-in-Charge, 
Southern Regional Station, Zoological Survey 
of India, Madras for facilities. 

T. S. N. MURTHY 



References 

Boulenger, G. A. (1885): Catalogue of the Smith, M. A. (1935): Fauna of British India. 
Lizards in the British Museum (Natural History), Reptilia and Amphibia, Vol. 2, Sauria. 
Vol. I, 436 pp. 



21. GROWTH RATE OF INDIAN PYTHON, PYTHON MOLURUS 
MOLURUS (SERPENTES: BOIDAE) IN CAPTIVITY WITH SPECIAL 
REFERENCE TO AGE AT FIRST EGG-LAYING 

{With two text-figures) 



The growth rate of Indian Python from the 
time of hatching to the age at first egg-laying 
has rarely been reported. Acharjyo and Misra 
(1976) reported on the mating, gestation 
period, egg-laying, incubation, behaviour of the 
brooding female, hatchlings and quarterly 
growth rate to the age of one year of Indian 
Python observed at Nandankanan Biological 
Park, Orissa, India. They have also stated that 
it was intended to rear a batch of these hatch- 
lings to sexual maturity. This communication 
is a follow up to these earlier observations. 
In this, studies on the quarterly growth rate 



of 4 to 9 hatchlings of Indian Pythons from 
the 12th month to the age of the first egg- 
laying and beyond observed in the same park 
are reported. 

Growth Rate: The quarterly growth rate 
of 11 to 38 Indian Python babies from the 
time of hatching to one year old has already 
been reported by Acharjyo and Misra (loc. 
cit.). 

Our further observations on growth rate 
from the 12th month to the age of 51st month 
are as follows (Table 1, Figs. 1 & 2). 



344 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 
Table 1 

Quarterly growth rate of young Indian Pythons from 12th month to the age of 51st month 

Dates Age in Sample Mean length Mean weight 

months size (Range) cm (Range) g 



1 


2 


3 


4 July 


12 


1 1 


2.3 oept. iy/j 


15 


9 


25 Dec. 1975 


18 


6 


25 March 19/6 


21 


5 


0< Tuna lO^r 

Zj June ly/o 


24 


5 


25 Sept. 1976 


27 


4 


ZD JJec. l9/o 


30 


4 


25 March 1977 


33 


4 


25 June 1977 


36 


4 


25 Sept. 1977 


39 


4 


25 Dec. 1977 


42 


4 


25 March 1978 


45 


4 


27 June 1978 


48 


4 


25 Sept. 1978 


51 


4 



Examination of this table and the graphs 
reveals that the average growth rate in total 
length in the first year was maximum (75.70 
cm) and the growth rate during the second 
year (44.99 cm) and third year (51.85 cm) 
remained almost the same. But during the 
fourth year the average growth rate was much 
reduced (15.50 cm). 

The weight increase graph (Fig. 2) reveals 
that the maximum average growth in weight 
(5115 grams) was recorded during the third 



4 5 



136.41 


942.91 


(126.5-153) 


(720-1535) 


142.72 


1251 


(127-142) 


(780-2330) 


144.83 


1152 


(128-179.5) 


(635-2170) 


167.60 


1813 


(151-194) 


(1210-3005) 


215.50 


4755 


(190-237) 


(2390-6640) 


215.80 


4378 


(194-240) 


(2250-6110) 


218.25 


4378 


( 1 94-240) 


(2250-6110) 


219.75 


5551 


(195-241) 


(3220-7535) 


233.25 


7945 


(214-249) 


(6580-8540) 


241.00 


8444 


(220-257) 


(7250-8910) 


245.75 


8408 


(233-261) 


(7440-8870) 


246.75 


9090 


(235-262) 


(7750-10,600) 


248.75 


8523 


(235-266) 


(5570-10,970) 


250.25 


9565 


(236-267) 


(7430-10,940) 



year of life and the minimum average growth 
in weight (578 grams) was recorded in the 
fourth year. 

Two of the (female) pythons first laid eggs 
in the fourth year and as usual starved for 
about two months during incubation. 
Age at first egg-laying: Two female pythons 
hatched in the Park during the period from 
23 to 25 June 1974 (whose matings were not 
observed) laid eggs on 27 April 1978 and 4 
May 1978 respectively at the age of 3 years 

345 



10 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



10 months and 3-5 days and 3 years 10 months 
and 10-12 days respectively. Taking the gesta- 
tion period as 82-83 days (Acharjyo and 
Misra, loc. cit.) the age of sexual maturity in 
these two cases can be said to be about 3 
years and 1\ months. 

The two females weighed 7.750 Kg (Total 
length 235 cm) and 8.920 Kg (Total length 
250 cm) on 25 March 1978 before egg laying. 
These two weighed 5.570 Kg (Total length 235 
cm) and 6.880 Kg (Total length 251 cm) on 
27 June 1978 after the incubation was over. 

The two male pythons weighed 9.090 Kg 
(Total length 262 cm) and 10.600 Kg (Total 
length 240 cm) on 25 March 1978. They 
weighed 10.970 Kg (Total length 266 cm) and 
10.670 Kg (Total length 243 cm) on 27 June 
1978. Since no mating was observed and since 
all the eggs were found infertile and spoiled, 
it is presumed that the male pythons require 
a longer time to reach sexual maturity than 
females. 

Clutch size and eggs: The clutch size of one 
female which laid eggs on 27 April 1978 was 
13 (eight normal sized white coloured eggs and 
five small sized light brown coloured eggs) 
whereas the clutch size of the other female 
which laid eggs on 4 May 1978 was 17 (two 
normal sized white coloured eggs and fifteen 
small sized light brown coloured eggs). 

Five white coloured eggs measured 8.5- 
12.0x4.7-5.2 cm and weighed 165-207 grams. 
Five light brown coloured eggs measured 
7.4-9.6x3.9-5.0 cm and weighed 73.97 g. 

Discussion 

Deoras (1965) states that in the laboratory 
an Indian Python of unknown age and un- 
stated size and weight grew 6-8 inches (15- 
20 cm). 

Pope (1962) states that the Indian Python 



holds the record growth rate of 3^ feet pei: 
year for the first two years of life. Our obser- 
vations partly agrees with his observations in 
that maximum average growth rate in total 
length (75.70 cm) was recorded in the first 
year of life but was less than recorded by Pope 
(loc. cit.). This partly reflects the natural con- 
ditions under which pythons are kept with a 
marked winter period during which feeding was 
greatly reduced. 

About this species Smith (1943) states that 
"the rate of growth in nature is not known, and 
the records of growth in captivity vary so 
greatly that they are obviously influenced by 
the conditions under which the snakes live". 
According to Grzimek (1975) the boids grow 
fairly quickly until they are 2-3 metres long, 
but after that time, growth proceeds at a much 
slower rate. Eight hatchlings of this species 
grew from an average length of 19| inches to 
6 feet 7 inches in twenty months, a fourfold 
increase (Pope, loc. cit.). 

Fig. 1 shows the effect of the cooler weather 
(monsoon quarter) on growth in length. In the 
year one .growth was slow in the winter quar- 
ter (October-December), picked up in the next 
quarter (January-March) and was maximum in 
summer (April-June). 

The following comments on the Orissa 
climate are essential for proper understanding 
of the discussion. First quarter (January- 
March) winter gives way to a very brief spring 
followed by warm weather during February; 
second quarter (April-June) hot (very hot) 
season; third quarter (July-September) mon- 
soon season (cooler); fourth quarter (Octo- 
ber-December) autumn and winter, feeding 
much reduced. 

In the second year there was marked reduc- 
tion in growth in the monsoon and winter 
quarters and rapid growth thereafter which 
was marked in the monsoon quarter of the 



346 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 




Fig. 1. Graph showing quarterly average growth rate in total length of Indian Pythons from the 
time of hatching to the age of 51 months (4 years and 3 months). 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 




MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



third year. After this, growth slowed down as 
is to be expected with attainment of sexual 
maturity. 

Fig. 2 shows these effect also and makes 
interesting comparison with Fig. 1. Marked 
increase in weight commenced in the third 
quarter of the second year at eighteen months 
of age and continued until the age of three 
years (36 months) with the sole exception of 
the fourth quarter (October-December) of 
1976, when actual loss of weight was recorded 
due to cessation of feeding. Weight increase 
was minimum in the fourth year. This partly 
reflects brooding by the females but also mark- 
ed reduction in growth following attainment 
of sexual maturity. There was a good weight 
increase in the third quarter of 1978 but this 
reflects more regaining weight lost during the 
fasting incubation period. 

The rapid increase in length was over by 
27th month of age, having commenced at sixth 
month, thus covering 21 months. The rapid 
weight increase was over at 36th month, hav- 
ing commenced at 18th month and thus occu- 
pying 18 months. Hence growth in length was 
followed subsequently by weight increase 
which took more time to catch up. The idea 
of Williamson (1967) that about half of the 
total length may be attained in the first 3 to 
4 years of life is extremely interesting. This 
hypothesis receives some confirmation from 
Bustard's finding in the Green Sea Turtle, 
Chelonia mydas (Bustard 1972). To put this 
more concisely this means the maximum size 
of the indvidual depends upon early growth, 
the rate of which is clearly dependent upon 
genetic and environmental factors (Bustard, 
Singh and Choudhury, MS) as observed in 
Indian Mugger Crocodile (Crocodylus palu- 
stris) . 

It is clear that much faster growth rates than 



here reported could have been achieved by 
winter heating resulting in greatly enhanced 
feeding during the winter quarters. Such growth 
rates would however have been much faster 
than occurs in nature as occurring in the 
Indian Crocodile (Bustard, Pers. Comm.). 

Our own figures are considered to be more 
closely approximates natural growth being re- 
corded out-doors under ambient temperature 
conditions within the natural range of the spe- 
cies. However they may exceed wild growth 
as a result of enhanced food supply. This in 
itself may have resulted in first egg laying 
at an early age than is naturally the case in 
nature (Bustard, Pers. Comm.). 

The boids reach sexual maturity in three 
years in captivity (Grzimek, loc. cit.). Accord- 
ing to Pope (loc. cit.) the smallest Indian 
python to produce fertile eggs was only 8 feet 
6 inches (2.55 m). He further states that the 
female of a mated captive pair of this species 
laid fertile eggs at the age of less than three 
years. 

Summary 

The quarterly growth rate of 4 to 1 1 Indian 
pythons from the 12th month to the age of 
51st month were observed in a natural environ- 
ment at Nandankanan Biological Park, Orissa, 
India. 

The average growth rate in total length in 
the first year was maximum (75.70 cm) and 
the growth rate during the second year (44.99 
cm) and third year (51.85 cm) remained al- 
most the same. But during the fourth year 
growth rate was much reduced (15.50 cm). 
The maximum average growth in weight (5115 
g) was recorded during the third year of life 
and the minimum average growth in weight 
(578 g) was recorded in the fourth year. 



349 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Acknowledgement 

We are grateful to Dr. H. R. Bustard, India for his help in the preparation of this 
F.A.O./U.N.D.P. Consultant on Crocodiles in paper. 

Veterinary Assistant Surgeon, L. N. ACHARJYO 

Nandakanan Biological Park, 
P.O. Barang, Dists Cuttack, 
Orissa (India) 754 005. 

Wild Life Conservation Officer, CH. G. MISHRa\ 

95-Sahid Nagar, 
Bhubaneswar-751 007, 
Orissa (India), 
April 21, 1980. 

References 



Acharjyo, L. N. and Misra, R. (1976): Aspects 
of Reproduction and Growth of the Indian Python, 
Python molurus molurus, in captivity. British Jour- 
nal of Herpetology, 5 : 562-65. 

Bustard, H. R. (1972): Sea-Turtles: Their Na- 
tural History and Conservation. Collins, London & 
Sydney. 

Singh, L. A. K. and Choudhury, 

B. C. (M.S.) : Growth of Three Populations of 
Mugger Crocodiles, Crocodylus palustris Lesson 
(Reptilia, Crocodilia) from Tamilnadu, South India, 
M.S. 

Deoras, P. J. (1965) : Snakes of India. National 



Book Trust, India, New Delhi. 

Grzimek, Bernhard (1975): Animal Life En- 
cyclopedia, Vol. 6, Reptiles, Van Nostrand Reinhold 
Company, New York, Cincinnati, Toronto, London, 
Melbourne, pp. 363-380. 

Pope, Clieford H. (1962): The Giant Snakes. 
Routledge & Kegan Paul, London. 

Smith, M. A. (1943) : The Fauna of British India, 
Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. Ill, Serpentes, Taylor & 
Francis, London, pp. 102-110. 

Williamson, Michael A. (1967): Notes on the 
Growth Rate of Python reticulatus (Serpentes: 
Boidae). Herpetologica, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 130-132. 



22. COBRA AND LITTLE BITTERN IXOBRYCHUS MINUTUS 

On the morning of 5th August I had the died in the struggle to swallow the little bit- 
opportunity to collect a cobra (Naja naja tern (Ixobrychus minutus) which was com- 
oxiana) lying dead on the bank of river Tawi paratively large in size and there were no 
(360 m), with a little bittern stuck in its throat, bruises or even scratches on the body of the 
Examination confirmed that the snake had snake. 

Department of Zoology, B. D. SHARMA 

University of Kumaun, 
Nainital, (U.P.). 
September 18, 1978. 



350 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



23. KHULNA W A — A SPECIAL FISHING DEVICE FOR MINNOWS 
IN THE RIVER GANGA AT PATNA (BIHAR) 

(With a plate) 



Break-up figures of fish landings from the 
river Ganga at Patna during the years 1958 
to 1966 indicate the larger groups, comprising 
Cirrhinus mrigala, Catla catla, Labeo rohita, 
Mystus aor, M. seenghala, Wallago attu and 
Hilsa ilisha, constitute over 55% of the total 
fish landing (Jhingran et al. 1970). From our 
visits to fishing sites in the river at Patna and 
also from emphatic comments of the fishermen 
we gathered that there has been a sharp decline 
in the catch of the larger groups of fishes in 
this stretch of the river with Hilsa ilisha on the 
verge of disappearance. Increasing dependance 
of the local wholesale fish market (Mussalle- 
pur Haat) on the imports to the extend of 
over 60% from other states for the larger 
fishes is yet another evidence of fall in the 
catch in the river. The fishermen recall notic- 
ing the declining trend with coming up of the 
Farrakka barrage across the Ganga in the 
Malda district of West Bengal. While obstruc- 
tional role of the barrage on the migration of 
Hilsa ilisha is as per expectations, cause of the 
fall in catch of the other larger fishes is in- 
comprehensible beyond the point that their 
number might have thinned out in this stretch 
of the river due to some unobserved subtle 
ecological changes associated with the instal- 
lation of physical structures in the river. Natu- 
rally, the fishing community dependent on the 
river Ganga along Patna are obliged to adopt 
the gears suitable for exploiting the smaller 
group of fishes whose catch is relatively assur- 
ed. During the course of a survey of these 
newly adopted fishing practices, an ingenious 
device for catching minnows was noticed with 
quite a large concentration of the same at 



Ghaggha Ghat in the Patna Sahib area. The 
antecedent, structure and operation of the gear- 
craft were studied by visiting the fishing sites 
and interviewing the fishermen. The findings 
are presented in this note. 

Nomenclature and history: The device is 
locally called Khulnawa which means an open 
wale boat. It has been introduced here from 
the Tarai region of Nepal only a decade ago 
but now with its proven efficacy to fetch a 
good catch of minnows, already there are one 
hundred and odd of the gear-craft operating 
in the 30 km stretch of the river along Patna. 
Obviously, the gear-craft does not find men- 
tion in any of the earlier descriptions of the 
fishing methods in the Ganga river system 
(Hornell 1923, Farupui and Sahai 1943, Ano- 
nymous 1949, Job and Pantulu 1953, and 
Saxena 1966). 

Structure: The device (see Plate) has three 
components namely ( 1 ) the boat with one of 
the wales open (2) a screen platform and 
(3) a frilled pole. 

The boat; It is an ordinary plank built 
narrow keel-less dinghy with equipointed bow 
and stern. It is about 7.5 m long and about 
65 cm broad at the middle with a shallow 
depth of merely 25 cm. The wale on one side 
has a cut out opening, about 5 m long and 
12 cm deep. Kathal (Artocarpus integriofolia) 
or Sal (Shorea robusta) wood are used in con- 
struction of the boat. The boat is kept pitch 
dark in colour by regular coatings of coal-tar. 

The screen platform: It is a closely knit 
screen of bamboo splinters measuring about 
5 m by 0.5 m. To construct it, 40 and odd 
number of fine flat strips of bamboo are woven 



351 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



by interlacing them with 5 rows of plastic 
cords. For reinforcement, the screen is sup- 
ported by broader splinters of bamboo 70 cm 
long at intervals of about 50 cm. The extra 
length of the splinters over the width of the 
screen project inwards where it is attached 
to the boat and provide room for fastening 
with strings to pegs fixed on the floor of the 
boat. Fixed at the cut portion of the open 
wale, the screen slopes out so that its free 
margin is constantly immersed in the water. 
The screen is always maintained in sparkling 
white condition by coatings of enamel paint. 

The frilled pole: It comprises of one full 
length piece of 4 to 6 m long bamboo pole 
with tufts of dry Save grass (PolHnidium an- 
guisti folium) drooping as frill along fth of 
its length. To make the outfit, a tuft of 4 to 
6 dry blades of the grass is tied to the nar- 
rower end of the pole, then while half the 
length of the tuft is twisted into string, the 
other half is left loose. The next tuft is tied 
to the portion of the first tuft and likewise 
initial half of it is twisted into string and the 
remaining part droops as frill. Series of the 
tufts of the grass are wrought in the fashion 
to make a drooping frill along the desired 
length of the pole and the last tuft is twisted 
into string and fastened to the pole. The whole 
frill remains hanging from the pole by the 
tying of it at intervals of about 50 to 60 cm. 

Operation: Khulnawa is operated by two 
men, keeping the boat always parallel to the 
bank of the river at a distance little more 
than the frilled pole. The side of the boat 
with open wale and the screen faces the bank. 
The man sitting at the stern rows the boat and 
manoeuvres the frilled pole while the other 
one sitting at the bow helps in rowing and 
attends to the catching operation. The manoeu- 



vring of the frilled pole is so done as to 
keep the free edge of the drooping grass just 
overhanging the surface of the water. Surface 
inhabiting minnows that happen to be school- 
ing in between the boat and the bank are 
scare-driven towards the boat by the looming 
shadow of the frilled pole. In the dark, the 
bright white screen jutting down to the water 
from the cut wale, possibly, gives the fishes an 
illusion of flowing stream and in their attempt 
to negotiate it, they leap into the boat-hold. 

Khulnawa's catch efficacy is confined to 
night time with better results in moonless nights 
having calm weather. Possibly, such conditions 
favour the illusionary effect. The best opera- 
tion period in a year has been experienced as 
February to April, obviously owing to favour- 
able ecological condition of the water like 
higher transparency and plankton growth lead- 
ing to surface foraging by the fishes. 

When Khulnawa is taken out for fishing, 
it is operated intermittently althrough the night 
covering a distance of 5 to 10 km from the 
point of sail. The catch during a single night 
varies from 15 to 50 kg with the high figures 
restricted between middle of March to end 
of April. The species featuring in order of 
abundance are Oxygaster bacaila, Gadusia 
chapra, Seti pinna phasa, Aspidoparia morar 
and smaller species of Puntius. Major or me- 
dium carps or catfishes are rarely caught. 

Khulnawa seems to be a fishing device worth 
trying in lakes, reservoirs and other rivers with 
favourable ecology. 

Acknowledgements 

We are thankful to Dr. P. S. Prasad, Director 
of Fisheries, Bihar and Shri T. K. Chakra- 
varty, District Fisheries Officer, Patna for their 
cooperation. 



352 



J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 77 
Banerji et al.: Khulnawa 



Plate 




(A) The components of Khulnawa when not in opera tion. Note the screen platform kept in rolled condition 
on the boat aground, the two frilled poles kept tucked on the same boat, and the dinghy in full view in 
water. (B) The components of Khulnawa being set together for a fishing round. (C) A close-up view of 
the screen platform fixed up in the boat for start of operation. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



Fisheries Research Institute, S. R. BANERJI 

Government of Bihar, M. L. SINGH 

Mithapur Farm, S. K. THAKUR 

Patna 800 001. 

Central Fisheries (ICAR), NIRMAL K. THAKUR 

Mithapur Fish Farm, 
Patna 800 001, 
February 14, 1979. 

References 



Anonymous (1949) : Preliminary guide to Indian 
fish, fisheries, methods of fishing and curing. Mana- 
ger of Publications, Delhi: 137 pp (Marketing 
Series, 66) . 

Faruqui. A. J. and Sahai, R. (1943): Methods 
of catching fish in the United Provinces and the 
scope of establishing inland fisheries in these pro- 
vinces. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 13 (B) : 198-214. 

Hornell, J. (1923): The fishing methods of the 
Ganges. Mem. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 8(3) : 199-237. 



Jhincran, V. G. et al. (1970): Fisheries of the 
Ganga river system (MS) crossed referred to from 
'Fish and Fisheries of India' by V. G. Jhingran, 
Hindustan Publishing Corporation, New Delhi 
(1975). 

Saxena, R. K. (1966): The fishing nets and traps 
in a section of the middle reaches of Ganga river 
system of India. Pro. Indo-Pacif. Fish. Court. 11 
(2): 250-271. 



24. A NOTE ON THE DRAGONFLIES (ODONATA: INSECTA) 



In October, 1976 we saw a specimen of 
Orthetrum sabina sabina (Drury) flying above 
the water in a small weedy pond in Sibpur 
Botanical Garden, Howrah district, West Ben- 
gal (India). After flying for sometime, it sat 
on the vegetation in the pond. Some Acisoma 
panorpoides panorpoides were also circling 

Zoological Survey of India, 
Calcutta 700 012, 
February 4, 1978. 



over the water and then resting on the aquatic 
vegetation. The Orthetrum sabina sabina sud- 
denly caught by the thorax an Acisoma panor- 
poides panoropoides with its legs and sat on 
the small grass stalk and chewed it slowly till 
it was fully consumed. 

MAHABIR PRASAD 
M. K. BISWAS 



25. MICR O TR OMBID1 U M SP.— AN ACARINE ECTOPARASITE OF 
MUSCA DOMESTICA NEBULO FABR. 

Recently at Saharanpur (U.P.) the common first record of an ectoparasite on this house 

house fly, Musca domestica nebulo Fabr., was fly. 

observed infected by the larvae of Microtrom- During May to August, 1976 and 1977, a 

Iridium (Trombididae, Acarina). This is the good number of house flies were collected 



353 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



from different localities and examined for in- 
fection by larvae of Microtrombidium. During 
1976, 12.70 to 14.10 per cent of (average being 
13.4 per cent) were infected by the acarine. 
Similar trend was noticed during 1977 also 
and the infection ranged from 11.80 to 13.70 
per cent, average being 13.00 per cent. The 
ectoparasite was found attached in general, on 
almost all parts of the host fly, namely wings, 
head, mouth parts, thorax, abdomen and legs, 
the maximum individuals occurring at wing 
articulation and on the mouth parts. These 
suck the body fluid of the host fly and severely 
infected flies fail to feed and fly, become weak 
and finally die. 

The larva of Microtrombidium is about 
0.43 mm long and 0.19 mm wide with the 
colour of the body being red. Two blackish 
dots are visible externally, one each on the 

Department of Zoology, 
Maharaj Singh College (P.G.), 
Saharanpur (U.P.), 
April 26, 1978. 



thorax and the abdomen. On the thorax, blunt 
small spines are present. The body and appen- 
dages are densely clothed by fine spines. Late- 
rally, on the dorsal surface of the body, poly- 
gonal areas are present. 

Transmission of this ectoparasite takes place 
during the process of mating. Often the larvae 
are shed off in the debris from the host body 
from where they stick on to the body of visit- 
ing house flies. 

Acknowledgements 

We are grateful to the Director, Common 
Wealth Institute of Entomology, British Mu- 
seum (Natural History), London for identi- 
fying the ectoparasite. The help of Prof. V. C. 
Chatterjee in the preparation of this note is 
gratefully acknowledged. We are also thankful 
to Dr. G. D. Garg for his encouragement. 

S. C. DHIMAN 
R. C. DHIMAN 



26. A SUPERNUMERARY LARVAL INSTAR AND ANTIMELANIN 
EFFECT ON THE 6TH INSTAR LARVAE OF SPODOPTERA LITURA 
(F.) (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) BY ALTOZAR— A 
JUVENILE HORMONE ANALOGUE 



A number of analogues of the juvenile hor- 
mone have been obtained and tested against 
several species of insects to inhibit the adult 
growth and reproduction. Altozar is one of 
these analogues. In the present note observa- 
tions carried out with Altozar against Spodop- 
tera litura, a serious lepidopterous pest of 
several crops for its juvenile effect are reported. 

Newly moulted 6th instar larvae of S. litura 
were obtained from a stock culture maintained 
in breeding jars at 27 ± 1°C and 70-80% 
R.H. Separate strips of filter paper each mea- 



suring 3.0 x 3.0 cm were soaked in 0.25 ml ace- 
tone solution containing 0.25 mg, 0.50 mg and 
1.00 mg Altozar (Ethyl 3, 7, 1 1-trimethyl- 
(2E, 4E) — 2, 4-dodecadieonate), a juvenile 
hormone analogue (supplied by Zoecon Corp., 
Palo Alto, California, U.S.A.) and dried. On 
each paper strip, treated with the respective con- 
centration, a group of three larvae of S. litura, 
newly moulted from the 5th instar were releas- 
ed to remain in contact with the treated paper 
for two days. A total of 78 larvae were treat- 
ed with each concentration. Strips soaked in 



354 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



acetone alone served as control. These larvae 
were daily provided with fresh castor leaves 
as their food. 

All the larvae kept in contact with the treat- 
ed strips with the respective concentration of 
Altozar developed red pigmentation on the 
cuticle instead of normal dark black pigmen- 
tation within 24 hrs. Further, the larvae con- 
tacting 0.50 mg and 1.00 mg concentrations 
of Altozar had longer (5-6 days) duration of 
this instar than that of the control which had 
3-4 days duration of the 6th instar. 

Out of the larvae in contact with 0.50 mg 
concentration, 5.0 per cent unsuccessfully tried 
to moult to a supernumerary larval instar. 
Such larvae developed a new cuticle below the 
larval cuticle of the 6th instar but the older 
cuticle could not be cast off completely in- 
spire of the repeated trial by the larvae and 
they died after 3-4 days. In case of the larvae 
kept in contact with 1.00 mg concentration, 
6.25 per cent larvae died in their unsuccessful 
attempt to moult to a supernumerary instar, 
but 13.33 per cent of these larvae successfully 
moulted to a supernumerary instar which also 
had red pigmentation. 

The larvae when they successfully entered 
the supernumerary larval instar had an average 
duration of two days and their average length 
and width were 4.860 cm and 0.658 cm res- 
pectively as compared to 4.12 and 0.50 cm of 
the normal 6th instar larvae. The supernume- 
rary larvae were also heavier (0.939 g) as 
compared to the normal 6th instar larvae 
(0.616 g average). In other morphological res- 
pects supernumerary larvae were like those 
of the 6th instar. However, all the supernu- 
merary larvae died during the larval-pupal 
moult. 

Melanin pigments are generally incorporated 
in the substance of the cuticle, they range in 
colour from yellow to black. Tyrosine (Mon- 



oxy-phenyl alanine) is oxidized in the presence 
of the enzyme Tyrosinase (Cordier 1928). At 
least three compounds are recognized in the 
tyrosinase complex: monophenolase converting 
tyrosine to 'dopa' or 3-4-dioxy- phenylalanine; 
diphenolase, a copper protein compound con- 
verting 'dopa' to red substance, hallachrome; 
and enzyme III, apparently a dehydrase which 
converts hallachrome to a colourless substance 
and then to melanin (Danneel 1946). In S. 
litura, it appears that Altozar inhibits enzyme 
III so that hallachrome did not convert into 
melanin and remained to give red coloration 
of the cuticle. However, in Blatella germanica, 
Altozar increased level of melanization in 
supernumerary nymphs and adultoids (Riddi- 
ford et al. 1975). 

In S. litura, the duration of larval period 
increases probably because of the presence of 
exogeneously applied juvenile hormone ana- 
logue in the last larval stage which delayed 
the pupal moult. The implantation of active 
corpora allata results in the production of a 
supernumerary larva in Galleria mellonella 
(Sehnal 1968). Application of Cecropia Juve- 
nile hormone to final instar larvae also have 
the same effect (Sehnal and Meyer 1968). 
Thus the formation of a supernumerary larval 
instar in S. litura totally conforms to the fact 
that the exogeneous application of juvenile 
hormone analogue to the last instar larva re- 
sults in the production of a supernumerary 
larva. However, no significant increase in the 
number of larval stadia was observed in ano- 
ther lepidopteran, Porthetria dispar when its 
larvae were treated with Altozar (Granett 
1974). 

Acknowledgements 

We wish to express our gratitude to Prof. 
Shah Mashhood Alam, Head of the Department 
of Zoology, A.M.U., Aligarh, for his encour- 



355 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



agement and constructive criticism and to Zoe- presses his thanks to the C.S.I.R., New Delhi, 
con Corporation, Palo Alto, California, for for the award of a Research Fellowship during 
the gift of Altozar. The first author also ex- the progress of this work. 

Section of Entomology, S. BADRUL ISLAM 

Department of Zoology, MUMTAZ AHMED KHAN 

Aligarh Muslim University, 
Aligarh, U.P., 
May 9, 1978. 

References 



Cordier, R. (1928): Melanin pigments. Ann. 
Bull. Soc. Roy. Sci. Med. Nat. Bruxelles., 43-57. 

Danneel, R. (1946): Melanin formation: Dro- 
sophila. Biol. Zbl, 63: 377-94. 

Granett, J. (1974): Juvenile hormone analogue 
toxicity to laboratory reared gypsy moth larvae, 
Porthetria dispar. Can. Entomol., 106: 695-99. 

Riddiford, L. M., Ajami, A. M. and Boake, C. 
(1975): Effectiveness of insect growth regulators 



in the control of populations of the german Cock- 
roach. /. Econ. Entomol., 68: 45-48. 

Sehnal, F. (1968): Influence of the corpus alla- 
tum on the development of internal organs in Gal- 
leria mellonella. J. Insect Physiol., 14: 73-85. 

Sehnal, F. and Meyer, A. S. (1968): Larval- 
pupal transformation: Control by Juvenile hormone. 
Science, 159: 981-983. 



27. PTERIS DACTYLINA HOOK. FROM SILENT VALLEY— A 
NEW RECORD FOR PENINSULAR INDIA 



Beddome (1883, 1892) described twenty 
six taxa belonging to the genus Pteris Linn, 
(including Campteria Presl, p.p.), out of which 
fifteen are reported by him to be present in 
Peninsular India. Nair and S. R. Ghosh (1976) 
described a new species Pteris jurunculata 
Nair et S. R. Ghosh from the Western Ghats. 
Further studies on the ferns of Kerala (Nair 
and S. R. Ghosh 1977 a, b) enabled them to 
discover P. confusa Walker, P. gongalensis 
Walker, P. multiaurila Agardh, P. praetermissa 
Walker and P. roseo-lilacina Hieron. from that 
area. P. tremula R. Br. was reported from 
Shevroy Hills, Salem Dt, Tamil Nadu, by 
Nair and S. R. Ghosh (1977 c). P. hetero- 
morpha Fee and P. memoralis Willd. were dis- 
covered from Orissa by Nair and R. K. Ghosh 
(1975, 1978). Bole and D' Almeida (1977) des- 
cribed a new species P. almeidiana Bole et 



D'Almeida from Maharashtra. These new dis- 
coveries emphasize the need for more intensive 
and extensive explorations and herbarium 
studies with regard to the genus Pteris Linn, 
in Peninsular India particularly in view of the 
fast disappearing forests from the region and 
the consequent ecological imbalance setting in. 
It must also be stressed that several species 
of Pteris Linn, are very sensitive to environ- 
mental changes. 

The present record of P. daclylina Hook, 
from the dam site in Silent Valley, Kerala is 
another addition to the fern flora of Peninsu- 
lar India and it is certainly one among the 
threatened taxa of ferns from the area in view 
of the proposed Silent Valley Project. Earlier, 
this small and delicate plant was known only 
from Sikkim to Khasia. The present discovery, 
therefore, is also of phytogeographical signi- 



356 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



ftcance. Since a detailed description of this 
species is not available in the literature, it is 
provided in the present report. 
Pteris dactylina Hook. sp. Fil. 2; 160. f. 13 A. 

1858; Bedd. Ferns Brit. India 23. f. 23. 

1866; Handb. Ferns Brit. India 107. fig. 56. 

1883. 

Terrestrial small herbs; rhizome short, erect 
or obliquely ascending, scaly at growing tips; 
stipes variable, 5-25 cm long, stramineous, 
glabrous; lamina digitate with 3-7 pinnae; pin- 

Botanical Survey of India, 
coimbatore 641 002, 
July 26, 1979. 



nae 5-15 cm long, linear, margin sharply ser- 
rate towards the sterile apex; veins simple or 
forked; indusium broad, subintramarginal, 
membranaceous; sori submarginal, linear; 
spores brown with light brown perispore. 

Specimens examined: Kerala, Palghat Dis- 
trict, Panthanthode to Silent Valley Dam site, 
900 m, N. C. Nair 56637, Acc. No. 103435, 
7-4-1978 (MH); Eastern India, Assam, Local 
Hill, Cherapunji, ± 1200 m, Gustavmann 65, 
Acc. No. 87906, Sept. 1889 (MH). 

N. C. NAIR 
P. BHARGAVAN 



References 



Beddome, R. H. (1865): Ferns of British India 
being the figures and description of ferns of all 
parts of British India. Gantz Brothers, Madras. 

(1883): Handbook to the Ferns 

of British India, Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. 
Thacker Spink and Co., Calcutta. 

(1892): Handbook to the ferns of 

British India, Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula with 
a supplement, Calcutta (repr. ed. 1969, New Delhi). 

Bole, P. V. and D' Almeida, M. R. (1977): Four 
new species of Pteridophytes from Bombay Presi- 
dency. /. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 74: 320-325. 

Nair, N. C. and Ghosh, R. K. (1975): Notes on 
some additional distribution of ferns to the botany 
of Orissa. /. Indian bot. Soc. 54: 45-49. 



(1978) : Pteris heteromorpha Fee — 

A new record for India. Indian Forester 104: 374- 
376. 

Nair, N. C. and Ghosh, S. R. (1976): A new 
species of Pteris from Western Ghats. /. Indian 
bot. Soc. 55: 38-40. 

(1977a) : Pteris quadriaurita Retz. 

and a few related taxa in Kerala. J. Bombay nat. 
Hist. Soc. 73: 438-443. 

(1977b): Pteris roseo-lilacina Hie- 

ron. — A new record for Peninsular India, ibid. 73: 
424-425. 

(1977c): Pteris tremula R. Br.— A 

new record for India, ibid. 73: 240-241. 



28. THE GENUS MACROPTILIUM (BENTH.) URB.— A NEW 
RECORD FOR INDIA 

(With eight text-figures) 



Macroptilium atropurpureum (DC.) Urb. 
Symb. Antill 9: 452. 1928. Verde, in Kew 
Bull. 24: 517, 1970 (in foot notes). Phaseo- 
lus atropurpureus DC. Prodr. 2: 395, 1825. 
Slender creeping herbs; stem terete, obscu- 
rely striate, grey tomentose. Leaves alternate, 



trifoliate; petioles 1-5.2 cm long, tomentose; 
stipules 2-5 mm long, reflexed, narrowly del- 
toid, acute, tomentose, more so without. Leaf- 
lets ovate, terminal ones sometimes rhomboidal, 
1.3-3.5x0.7-2.9 cm, lateral leaflets as long as 
terminal ones and broader, acute, apiculate, 



357 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 




Figs. 1-8. Macroptelium atropurpureum (DC.) Urb. : 1. Part of plant. 2. Young in- 
florescence 3. Calyx split open. 4. Corolla parts. 5. Androecium. 6. Gynoecium. 7. Pods 
(dehisced). 8. Seed. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



obscurely lobed, round or truncate at base, 
nerves prominent beneath, grey tomentose 
above and more so beneath; petiolules 2-5 mm 
long, tomentose; stipels minute, subulate, to- 
mentose. Flowers in axillary racemes; pedun- 
cles 10.5-20.5 cm long, tomentose; bracts and 
bracteoles minute, tomentose, caducous, Calyx 
green tomentose, tube nearly as long as lobes; 
upper 3 lobes shorter than lower 2, narrowly 
deltoid, acuminate. Corolla purple, upto 1.5 
cm long; wing petals deeply coloured, longer 
than vexillum and keel; vexillum reflexed, keel 
incurved. Stamens 9+1, vexillary stamen free; 
style incurved at right angle, bearded on the 
adaxial side below the capitate stigma. Fruits 
nearly terete, beaked, upto 7 cm long, grey 
tomentose, valves twisting after dehiscence. 
Seeds dark brown, upto 3 mm long, more than 
1 mm broad. 

This is a tropical American species now 
widely cultivated in parts of Africa (Kenya, 
Malawi, Zambia, South Africa and Zimbabwe); 
New South Wales and Queensland in Australia 
and Hong Kong in Asia. It was found growing 

Southern Circle, 
Botanical Survey of India, 
coimbatore 641 002, 
July 25, 1979. 



in the fodder grass plot of Tamil Nadu Agri- 
cultural University, Coimbatore and probably 
came as an impurity with some other seeds. 
An allied species, M. bracteatum (Nees & 
Mart.) Verde, is also found near Waltair in 
Andhra Pradesh. (Information kindly furnish- 
ed by Dr. G. Panigrahi from Kew Herbarium.) 

The typical characters of the genus Macro- 
ptilium (Benth.) Urb. are squarish hooked 
style; wings rounded and longer than vexillum 
and keel; stipules not produced below the base. 

Specimens examined: Farm of Tamil Nadu 
Agricultural University, Coimbatore, 487 m, 
20-8-1974, Marudan 39285, in flowers and 
fruits. 

ACK N OWLEDGE M E N TS 

We are grateful to Dr. G. Panigrahi, Re- 
gional Botanist at Kew, for confirming the 
specimens and supplying the distribution data. 
We thank Dr. N. C. Nair, Deputy Director, 
Southern Circle, Botanical Survey of India 
for his help and encouragement. 

S. V. SUBBA RAO 
R. GOPALAN 



29. ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF RAJASTHAN 



During the course of identification of plants 
collected from Bhilwara and Jodhpur districts 
of Rajasthan, I came across the following spe- 
cies which were not recorded earlier from 
Rajasthan. All the specimens cited in the 
paper are deposited in the herbarium of Arid 
Zone Circle, Botanical Survey of India, Jodh- 
pur (BSJO). 

Alysicarpus heterophyllus (Baker) Jafri & Ali, 



in Biologia 12: 33. 1966; Ah, in Fl. W. Pak. 
100. 343. 1977; A. vaginalis var. heterophyl- 
lus Baker, in Hook, f., Fl. Br. Ind. 2: 158. 
1879. 

An erect or diffuse annual herb upto 45 cm, 
in moist sandy soil amidst grasses. Stem slight- 
ly angular, puberulous. Leaves stipulate, 1-3, 
foliolate intermixed. Leaflets 0.5-4.5x02-1 cm, 
lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate, acute. Flowers 



359 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



yellowish-pink to bluish pink in distant pairs 
along a filiform, leaf opposed rachis. Calyx 
teeth equalling the first joint of pod. Pods 4-6 
jointed, compressed, sub-moniliform, reticula- 
tely veined. Scarce. 

jodhpur: along Jaisalmer road near Tole- 
sar, A. N. Singh 4350. 

Flowers & fruits: August. 
Eleocharis congesta D. Don, Prod. Fl. Nep. 

41. 1825; Clarke, in Hook, f., Fl. Br. Ind. 

6: 630. 1894. 

Erect tufted herb, nearly 10 cm tall, in mar- 
shy places. Stem striate. Sheath appressed, pur- 
plish at base. Spikelets ovoid, solitary, terminal. 
Glumes membranous, ovate, lanceolate, 1 -ner- 
ved. Bristles brown, scabrid. Nuts trigonous. 
Common. 

jodhpur: Banganga river bed, near Bilara, 
A. N. Singh 3523. 

Flowers & fruits: February. 
Samolus valerandi Linn., Sp. PI. 171. 1753; 

Hook, f., Fl. Br. Ind. 3: 506. 1882; Duthie, 

Central National Herbarium, 
Botanical Survey of India, 
Howrah-711 103, 
July 3, 1979. 



Fl. Up. Gang. PI. 2: 7. 1911. 

A glabrous annual herb in moist shady 
places, in rocky soil. Stem erect (rarely hori- 
zontal), upto 50 cm tall. Leaves rosulate, spa- 
thulate, apiculate at base, alternate spathulate 
to obovate-elliptic above. Flowers white, in 
axillary and terminal racemes, pedicelled. Pedi- 
cels geniculate at the insertion of a small bract 
at or above the middle. Calyx tube hemi- 
spheric, half adnate to ovary, 5-toothed. Corol- 
la lobes imbricate. Stamens 5, alternating with 
scaly staminodes. Ovary globose, half inferior. 
Scarce. 

bilwara: Mandalgarh forests along Bijolia 
Road, A. N. Singh 7164. 
Flowers & fruits: February. 

Acknowledgements 

I am indebted to the Director, Botanical 
Survey of India, Howrah and the Deputy 
Director, Arid Zone Circle, Botanical Survey 
of India, Jodhpur for encouragement. 

A. N. SINGH 



30. NOTE ON THE OCCURRENCE OF AGROSTIS NERVOSA NEES 
EX TRIN. IN WESTERN HIMALAYA 



During a collection tour of Rudranath bug- 
yal (an alpine-medow) of District Chamoli 
(North Garhwal) U.P. an interesting grass 
was obtained. It was identified as Agrostis 
nervosa Nees ex Trin. syn. A. Clarkii Hook. f. 

Hook, f.; in Fl. Br. Ind. 7: 257 (1896) 
mentioned the occurrence of this grass from 
North Western Himalaya without precise loca- 
lity. 

Bor, N. L. in Kew Bull. (1954) 459-60, 
states, "This grass is exceedingly common in 

360 



Sikkim but strangely enough the Type comes 
from Western Himalaya and is the only gather- 
ing from the areas". 

Bor (1960) in Grassess Burma, Ceylon, 
India and Pakistan: 388 does not indicate its 
occurrence in Western Himalaya. 

This note now presents the precise locality 
of this grass in Western Himalaya, i.e. Rudra- 
nath bugyal, alt. 4000 m. District Chamoli 
(North Garhwal), U.P., where it is gregarious 
in open grassy hill slopes of alpine pastures. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



This grass is relished by sheep and goats. (30-8-1976) Rudranath, 4000 m., District 
Specimen examined: Joshi, D. N., 87 Chamoli (North Garhwal), U.P. 

Department of Botany, B. C. L. SAH 

Govt. (Post Graduate) College, D. N. JOSHP 

Gopeshwar, Chamoli 246 401, 
June 4, 1979.. 

1 Present Address: Forest Research Institute & 
Colleges, P.O. New Forest, Dehra Dun-248 006. 
(U.P.). 



31. ON THE OCCURRENCE OF CLEOME FELINA L. f. 
(CLEOMACEAE) IN MAHARASHTRA 

(With six text-figures) 



Hooker f. & Thoms. (1872) and Gamble 
(1916) have recorded the occurrence of 
Cleome felina L. f. from Deccan and 
Carnatic areas in South India. This species 
has not been recorded earlier by Cooke (1901- 
08) or Haines (1916) from areas that fall 
under Maharashtra State. A critical study of 
this species collected from Chandrapur district 
reveals that Cleome felina L. f. is often con- 
fused with Cleome chelidonii L. f. especially 
in the vegetative condition, though both are 
easily distinguishable in flowering or fruiting 
stage. The former is characterised by slender 
woody root system, densely clothed with bri- 
stly hairs all over, small pink flowers and short 
compressed striate capsules while the latter 
has got robust fleshy root system, is less hairy, 
has comparatively large rosy flowers and long 
slender terete, often constricted, capsules. 

The earlier collections (R. K. Bhide s.n., 
Rolla S. Rao 85280; K. V. Billore 116179) 
housed in the herbarium of Western Circle 



(BSI) identified as Cleome felina L. f. are in 
vegetative condition and on scrutiny they are 
referable to Cleome chelidonii L. f. only. The 
plant collected from Manikgarh hills, Lakkad- 
kote area, Chandrapur district (Malhotra 
140127) is Cleome felina L. f. and is a new 
record for Maharashtra State extending its dis- 
tribution further north. 

In view of its rarity and absence of any 
known published illustrations for the plant, a 
line drawing is provided along with a brief 
description. 

Cleome felina L. f. Suppl. 300. 1781; Hk. 
f. & Thoms. in Fl. Brit. India 1: 170. 1872; 
Gamble Fl. Pres. Madras 1 : 41 (29) : 1915. 

An appressedly hairy herb. Leaves usually 
trifoliate, obovate. Flowers small 0.5 cm, co- 
rolla pink, bristly, hairy on the back. Stamens 
usually 50. Capsules 2-3 cm equal or slightly 
longer than the pedicel, compressed striate. 
Seeds reniform, yellowish brown, spiny tuber- 
cled. 



361 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 




Figs. 1-6. Cleome felina LLnn. f. 1. A twig; 2. Sepal (ventral view); 3. Petal (ventral 
view); 4. Stamen; 5. Gynoecium; 6. Seed. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



Acknowledgement 

We are thankful to the Director, Botanical facilities. 
Survey of India, Calcutta for providing the 

Botanical Survey of India, S. K. MALHOTRA 

Pune 411001, SIRASALA MOORTHY 

September 29, 1979. 

32. ARTHRAXON MEEBOLD1I STAPF — A GRASS NEW TO 
KASHMIR 

(With a text -figure) 



Arthraxon Beauv. (Poaceae) is a genus of 
20 species (Airy Shaw 1966) native to old 
world tropics. Some species are introduced or 
adventive in the temperate regions of the 
world. From the Kashmir Himalayas several 
species of Arthraxon Beauv. have been report- 
ed (Bor 1960, Stewart 1972). During studies 
on the alpine fodder grasses of Kashmir we 
collected several specimens of Arthraxon 
Beauv. which on critical scrutiny turned out 
to be Arthraxon meeboldii Stapf. The litera- 
ture revealed that this taxon has not been re- 
ported so far from this area. 

The present paper records for the first time 
the occurrence of this grass from the Kashmir 
valley. The note is supplemented by short des- 
cription and illustration. The voucher speci- 
mens have been deposited in the Herbarium, 
Kashmir University. 

Department of Botany, 
University of Kashmir, 
Srinagar-190 006, 
Kashmir (India), 
November 22, 1979. 



Arthraxon meeboldii Stapf in Kew Bull. 
449 (1908) 

Annual. Culms ascending to prostrate; leaf 
margins ciliated with penicillate bulbous base 
hairs; Racemes 2-3 paniculate, densely pube- 
scent with silky silvery hairs; spikelets binate; 
lower glume of sessile spikelet with a double 
row of muricate teeth; upper glume setosely 
acuminate, keeled upwards, complicate; lemma 
with a dorsal basal awn; palea small; anthers 
3; styles 2, free; Lower glume of pedicelled 
spikelet rigidly keeled. 

Flowering and Fruiting: August to Novem- 
ber. 

Specimens collected: Dachigam; in the 
shade of forest trees, HT: 902: Phalgam; 
moist places; HT: 746: Harwan; on the bund 
of water reservoir; HT: 840; Telbal; on the 
bank of Telbal nallah; HT: 650. 

H. THAKUR 
G. N. JAVEID 



References 

Bor, N .L. (1960): The Grasses of Burma, Cey- Flowering Plants and Ferns. Cambridge. 
Ion, India and Pakistan. Pergamon Press, Oxford. Stewart. R .R. (1972): Cat. Vas. PI. of West 
Airy Shaw, H. K. (1966) : A Dictionary of the Pakistan and Kashmir. Karachi. 



363 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 




MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



33. NOTES ON VACCINIUM LESCHENA ULTH — COMPLEX 
(VACCINIACEAE) IN SOUTH INDIA 

{With two text-figures) 



Wight (1848) described V actinium lesche- 
naultii based on his collections from the Nil- 
giris. He remarked, "...leaves shortly petiol- 
ed, ovate-elliptic, serrated, acute..." Further, 
Wight (1850) described another species viz. 
V. rotundijolium from (Kelso cottage) Ceylon, 
mainly based on the shape of the leaf, "... 
leaves orbicular, coriaceous, entire or slightly 

crenulato-serrate " Later C. B. Clarke 

(1882) treated this taxon as a variety of V. 
leschenaultii . Subsequently, Gamble (1921) 
reported this variety from the Nilgiris in his 
Fl. Pres. Madras. The figure given by Wight 
(HI. t. 139. 1850) shows only orbicular leaves 
all over the branch. While undertaking critical 
studies on the specimens of Vaccirdum lesche- 
naultii Wight represented at Madras Herbar- 
ium, we came across some interesting speci- 
mens [M. A. Lawson s.n. (Acc. No. 29181); 
Vajravelu 34923, 43511; Subbarao 40440, 
41527] bearing both orbicular and ovate-elli- 
ptic leaves on the same branch. Hence we 
doubt whether this variety rotundijolia can be 
kept as a distinct taxon. 

It is also observed that some of the speci- 
mens {Collector? 13450) collected from Nete- 
rikal, Tirunelveli Dt. show persistent, leafy 
bracts as compared to other specimens of V. 
leschenaultii Wight. C. B. Clarke (1882) des- 
cribed var. zeylanica based on the presence of 
persistent, leafy bracts and he recorded this 
variety only from Ceylon. Hence the present 
report of its occurrence in Tirunelveli Dt. is 
of phytogeographical interest and forms a new 
distributional record for India. We keep this 
variety as distinct at present, as such a type 
of persistent, leafy bracts are not at all seen 
in any of the specimens of V. leschenaultii 
Wight collected from all other areas in South 
India. However, more field studies coupled with 
suitable evidences from experimental taxono- 




Fig. 1-2. Vaccinium leschenaultii Wight var. zey- 
lanica C. B. Clarke: 1. Infructescence showing per- 
sistent bracts; 2. Bract. 

365 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



my can only fix the exact status of this taxon. 

key to the varieties OF V actinium leschenaultil 

Wight occurring in south india 
Bracts up to 1.5 mm broad, lanceolate, not leafy, 

deciduous var. leschenaultil 

Bracts up to 8 mm broad, ovate-elliptic, leafy, per- 
sistent var. zeylanica 

V. leschenaultii Wight var. leschenaultil 

Wight Ic.'4(l): 5, t. 1188, 1848; Bedd. Fl. 

Sylv. 3: t. 227. 1872; C. B. Clarke in Hook. 

f. Fl. Brit. India 3: 455. 1882; Gamble, Fl. 

Pres. Madras 742. 1921 & 2 : 582. 1957 

(rep. ed.). V. leschenaultii Wight var. rotun- 

dijolia sensu Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 742. 

1921 & 2: 522. 1957 (rep. ed.). 

Distribution: india. tamil nadu: Anamal- 

lais, Palnis, Nilgiris, kerala: Idukki Dt. 
V. leschenaultii Wight var. zeylanica C. B. 

Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. India 3: 455. 

1882; Trimen in Handb. Fl. Ceylon 3; 61. 

Southern Circle, 
Botanical Survey of India, 

CoiMBATORE-641 002, 

February 14, 1979. 



1895. 

Shrubs or small trees, glabrous excepting 
the tender branches. Leaves 1.5-5.0x0.7-2.4 
cm, ovate-elliptic, acute or acuminate, serrate, 
coriaceous, glabrous, shortly petiolate. Bracts 
0.7-2.2x0.3-0.8 cm, leafy, ovate-elliptic, acute, 
persistent. Berries ± 8 mm across, globose, 
glabrous. (Figs. 1 & 2). 

Specimen examined: india: tamil nadu: 
Tirunelveli Dt.: Neterikal, 22 September 1916, 
Collector? 13450. 

Ack NOWLEDGE m e n ts 

We are grateful to Dr. N. C. Nair, Deputy 
Director, Southern Circle, Coimbatore for faci- 
lities and encouragement. Our thanks are due 
to Dr. A. N. Henry, Systematic Botanist and 
Sri M. Chandrabose, Botanist for helpful sug- 
gestions. 

V. CHITHRA 
R. RAJAN 



34. CRYPTOLEPIS GRANDIFLORA WIGHT— A NEW RECORD 
FOR ANDAMANS 



Cryptolepis grandiflora Wight, a specimen 
collected from South Andaman by S. Kurz; 
was identified up to the genus. During reorga- 
nisation work we noticed the interesting speci- 
men and after critical examination identified it 
as Crytolepis grandiflora Wight; A review of 
literature and herbarium specimens available 
shows that the species is reported from Tamil- 
nadu, Kerala and Karnatak. It is now reported 
from Andamans. 

A short descriptive note is given below: — 

Cryptolepis grandiflora Wight; Wight Ic, t. 
831; F.B.I. 4: 5, 1883. 

Twining glabrous shrubs, flowers in very lax 



slender, few flower axillary or terminal pedun- 
cle, calyx with 5 scales within, corolla lobes 
overlapping, filaments free, anthers acuminate, 
leaves obovate oblong, obtuse or mucronate 
at apex, glaucous beneath, 6-8 pairs of nerves 
arched near the margin. 

Specimen examined: Mornur, South India, 
2100 ft, 29-10-1906; C.E.C. Fischer 517 
(CAL); Papanasam to Mundandurai, Kerala, 
18th Feb. 1913, D. Hooper and M. S. Rama- 
swami 39291 (CAL); Karnatak, G. Thomson 
s.n. (CAL); South Andaman; S. Kurz s.n. 
(CAL.). 



366 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



ACK N OWLEDGE M EN TS 

We wish to thank the Deputy Director, Cen- 
tral National Herbarium for all facilities and 

Botanical Survey of India, 
Howrah, W. Bengal, 
September 21, 1978. 



Dr. 

for 



K. Thothathri and Dr. 
valuable advice. 



N. C. Majumdar 



AM IT SINHA 
GIRD A SANKAR GIRI 



35. OCCURRENCE OF P1THOPHORA KEWENSIS WITTROCK 
IN BANGLADESH 

{With a text- figure) 



The interesting genus Pithophora has so far 
not been recorded from any part of Bangla- 
desh and is reported here for the first time 
with the specis Pithophora kewensis Wittrock. 
It is generally found to grow in freshwater 
habitat both in Tropical and Sub-tropical re- 
gions. Some authors namely Hoek (1959) con- 
sider P. kewensis Wittrock as a synonym of 
the American species P. oedogonia Wittrock. 

The algae was was collected by us from 
the Karnafuli River, Chittagong (Bangladesh), 
on 12th September, 1975 attached to a log by 
means of its branched unicellular rhizoids. The 
plants are about 4 cm tall and the filaments 
are freely branched. The branches may be 
solitary, alternate or on one side and some- 
times opposite in the case of lowest branches. 



Branches originate from a short distance be- 
low the top of the cells. These morphological 
characters agree well with that of the descrip- 
tions given by Patel (1971). The diameter of 
the main filaments varies from 55-75/x which 
agrees with the measurements given by Wit- 
trock (1877). The length of the vegetative 
cells are much variable and in general, they 
are 8-15 times the diameter. The branches of 
the first degree are of approximately the same 
diameter as the main filament. 

Thick walled, terminal and intercalary aki- 
netes are found in the materials. They are 
fewer in number. Intercalary akinetes are 70- 
80 \i. in diameter and 110-224 p, in length which 
agrees well with the dimensions given by earlier 




Fig. 1. 



Pithophora kewensis Wittrock, portions of the filament with terminal and 
intercalary akinetes. 



367 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 

workers (Wittrock 1877, Heering 1921, Patel (1877) where they were rather greater. 

1971). Terminal akinetes vary from 55-84 /x in Thanks are due to Prof. Dr. A. K. M. Nurul 

diameter and 140-259 /x in length and agree Islam for his valuable comments on the iden- 

with Patel (1971) but differ from Wittrock tification of the species. 

Department of Marine Biology, A. M. ABDUS SALAM 

University of Chittagong, YUSUF SHARIF A. KHAN 
Chittagong, Bangladesh, 
April 4, 1979. 

References 

*Heering, W. (1921): Die Susswasser Flora, 7, 18-23. 

Chlorophyceae. 4: 3-61. Wittrock, B. (1877): On the development and 

Hoek, C. V. (1959): Caribbean Fresh and Brae- systematic arrangement of the Pithophoraceae. Nova 

kish water Chlorophyta. Blumea. 9(2) : 590-625. Acta Regiae Soc. Sci., Upsal. 3, series I. Volumen 

Patel, R. J. (1971): Cytotaxonomical studies on extra: 1-80. 

Pithophora kewensis Wittrock. Phykos. 70(1 & 2): * Not seen in original. 



36. DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES ON CERTAIN RECENTLY 
DESCRIBED TAXA 



Borreria eradii Ravi, Heliotropium kera- 
lense Sivarajan & Manilal, and Phyllanthus 
kozhikodianus Sivarajan & Manilal, are but a 
few of the taxa discovered and described re- 
cently from S. India. A perusal of the mate- 
rial of the concerned genera at the Central 
National Herbarium, Howrah, and those at 
the herbarium of Botanical Survey of India, 
Shillong, revealed interesting information re- 
garding their extended distribution in India 
and the data are presented here. 

Borreria eradii Ravi (J. Bombay nat. Hist. 
Soc. 66: 539-541. 1970) has been invariably 
(except in the case of a single sheet, Viveka- 
nandan 46570, in CAL) identified as Borre- 
ria articular is (Spermacoce hispid a). Though 
closely resembling, these two species can well 
be distinguished by the prominently winged 
stems, conspicuously veined leaves, short cam- 
panulate flowers and the glandular papillae on 
the calyx in the former. 



This particular species is a common weed 
in the sandy loam or laterite soils, mostly on 
the hill slopes in Kerala, and can at once be 
recognised by its yellowish green colour. Inte- 
restingly enough, this species is represented in 
these herbaria from various eastern States, like 
Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and W. Bengal 
and even from the neighbouring countries like 
Bhutan and Nepal. On Gauhati-Shillong road- 
side, it is a quite common weed. 
Specimens examined : 

Assam: Panigrahi 1878, 18722 & 9246. Siva- 
rajan 28637. 

Meghalaya: Patnaik 10963 (Khasi & laintia 
Hills). 

Mizoram: Dutta 34103. W . Bengal: Thotha- 
thri 9436 (Kalimpong), Mukherjee 6211 'Suk- 
na'). Sikkim: Majumdar 169 (Gangtok) Sen- 
gupta 296 (Rungpo). Kerala: Vivekanandan 
46570, Sivarajan 464. Bhutan: Thothathri 
10323, Subba Rao 136, Coll: 353, Sengupta 



368 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



863, Mukherjee 6181. Nepal: Hara et al. 
1298. 

Heliotropium keraiense Sivarajan & Manilal 
Heliotropium indicum as recognised in the 
past, has been a complex with at least two 
different taxa, more or less similar in vegeta- 
tive condition. The one having pink flowers 
with the corolla tube much longer than the 
calyx and covered with short pubescent hairs 
on the outside is H. indicum. Sivarajan and 
Manilal (Jour. Indian Bot. Soc. 51: 348-350. 
1972) separated the white flowered taxon with 
corolla tube almost as long as the calyx and 
covered with long villous hairs into a new 
species namely //. keraiense. However, there 
seems to be no good character to distinguish 
these species in their vegetative phase. 

This species is originally described from 
Kerala, where it is a very common weed in 
the wet lowlands, often growing in association 
with H. indicum Linn. But it is now found to 
have a much wider distribution. 
Specimens examined : 

Assam: A. S. Rao 39038 (Kamrup), Verma 
46257 (Lakhimpur), Nath 13433 (Tangla), 
R. S. Rao 9827 (Kaziranga), Panigrahi 9336 
(Gauhati). 

Andamans: Thothathri 9189. Karnataka: Bar- 
ber 6807. 

Kerala: Calder 1573, Sivarajan 191 (type), 
997. 

Tamil Nadu: Wight 2065, Subramaniam 8139, 
3459 (Madurai), Sebastine 801 (Coimbatore). 
Orissa: G. V. Subba Rao 30198. 

Phyllanthus kozhikodianus Sivarajan & 
Manilal, (J. Indian bot. Soc. 56: 165-168. 
1977), is however, the most confused of these. 

Dept. of Botany, 
University of Calicut, 
Calicut, Kerala. 



This species, originally reported from Kerala, 
is closely related to P. rheedii Wt., from which 
it can be distinguished by its rather unbranch- 
ed habit, different disc glands and sepals; and 
to P. rotundijolius Klein., from which it could 
be made out by its leaves, pedicelled male 
flowers, staminal filaments which are free 
above, and larger capsules. The identity of 
the specimens of this species at 'CAL' is con- 
fused with other species and kept accordingly. 
Puri 4306, from Maharashtra, is labelled as 
P. niruri Linn., but can be distinguished by its 
equilateral leafbases and the presence of six 
sepals which are 1 -veined, in both male and 
female flowers. Wadhwa 5462, identified to be 
P. fraternus Webster, has two different taxa 
mixed up, of which one is definitely P. kozhi- 
kodianus, since this possesses spreading, deep- 
ly bifid styles unlike P. fraternus. Interestingly 
enough, one of us (V.V.S.) could collect it 
from the grassy slopes alongside Gauhati- 
Shillong Road. 
Specimens examined : 

Andhra Pradesh: Subramanian 6950 (Chit- 
toor), Balakrishan 10804 (Visakhapatanam), 
Assam: Sivarajan 28701 (Gauhati). Kerala: 
Sivarajan 1762 (type). 

Maharashtra: Puri 4306 (Khandesh), Patas- 
kar 101445. 

Rajasthan: Wadhwa 5469 (Jhalawar), Wadh- 
wa 5462, in part. 

Tamil Nadu: Sebastin 12616 (Madurai). 

ACK NOWLEDGEM E NTS 

Thanks are due to the authorities of Bota- 
nical Survey of India, Howrah, for the facili- 
ties. 

V. V. SIVARAJAN 



Botanical Survey of India, J. JOSEPH 

Shillong, 

February 14, 1979. 

369 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



37. POWDERY MILDEW OF WALKING FERN (CAMPTOSORUS 
RHIZOPHYLLUS)—A NEW RECORD 



Walking ferns are very common in water- 
fall areas and moist shady areas of Seetham- 
madhara area of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pra- 
desh. Powdery mildew fungal occurrence on 
Filicineae is very rare. During our periodic 
surveys of powdery mildews on flora of Visa- 
khapatnam, we encountered in December 1973 
some walking fern plants infected by a 
powdery mildew. A brief description of the 
pathogen and the symptoms it causes on the 
susceptible host fern are described below. 

In the early stages of infection, small circular 
white powdery spots of the fungus appeared 
on the upper surface of the leaves. With ad- 
vancement of age, the mildew turned dusty 
grey. New plants bred from the leaf-tips of 
walking fern were also infected. The infected 
leaves turned yellow due to the fungal infec- 
tion. 

Department of Environmental Sciences, 
Andhra University, Waltair, A. P. 



Morphology of the fungus: Mycelium super- 
ficial, hyaline, septate, 3.0-4.5 jam wide, at- 
tached to the leaves by means of appressoria. 
Sometimes bulbous haustoria were produced 
into the host's epidermal cells. Conidiophores 
were erect, simple, septate, measuring 58- 
102 x 10-18 /xm and arising vertically and bears 
chains of conidia. Conidia mature epigenously 
and are elliptical to cylindrical, 25-36x 10-15 
iim in size. No cleistothecial formation was 
observed. 

According to Yarwood's key (1973) based 
on conidial characters, the powdery mildew was 
identified as Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. 
There was no previous record of powdery mil- 
dew infection on walking ferns and this is a 
new record for India, and Camptosorus rhizo- 
phyllus is an addition to the host range of 
E. cichoracearum DC. 

J. RAGHAVA REDDY 



Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, A. PURNACHANDRA REDDI 

Andhra University, Waltair, A.P., 
April 11, 1979. 

Reference 

Yarwood, C. E. (1973): Pyrenomycetes : Erysi- 
phales in The Fungi- An Advanced Treatise vol. 
IV A (Edited by Ainsworth, G. C, Sparrow, F. K. 
and Sussman, A. S.). Academic press; New York, 
pp. 71-86. 



370 



Glii 
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CONTENTS 

Conservation future of the Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus Schneider) 

in India. By H. R. Bustard and B. C. Choudhury 201 

Freshwater Snails of Gw'alior (M.P.). By H. C. Goel and C. P. Srivastava .. 215 

A contribution of the vegetation of Chaibasa (South), Sinchbhum Dist. (Souih 

Bihar). By D. K. Biswas and J. K. Maheswari 223 

Breeding Habits and Associated Phenomena in some Indian Bats. Part VI — 

Scotophilns hcalhi (Horsfield) — Vespektilionidae. By A. Madhavan . . 22 7 

Studies on the intraspecific variations in Trithemls fcstha (Ram bur) (Odonata: 

Libfllulidae). By Mahabir Prasad and Arun Kumar - .. 238 

Physical characterisation of the song of the Koel Eudynatnis scolopacea. 

By M. V. V. Subrahmanyam and R. V. Krishnamoorthy . . 247 

OBSERVATIONS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR OF THE TlGER, Panthcro ligris ligris 

Linn, in captivity. By Adhir Kumar Das . . 253 

Preliminary observations on the status of silver carp in relation to catla in 
the culture fishery of KuLGARin Reservoir. By S. J. Karamchandani and 
D. N. Mishra .. 261 

Notes on the Ferns and Fern-Allies in the Botany of Orissa. By N. C. Nair 

and R. K. Ghosh 271 

Distribution records of Culicine Mosquitoes of Bastar District. Madhyv 

Pradesh, India. By Zakir Husain Husainy . . 277 

Notes on the breeding and hunting behaviour of 1. ion-tailed Macaques (Macaca 

silenus) in captivity. By Y. Artaud . . 285 

New Descriptions . . 290 

Obituary .. 309 

Reviews 310 

Miscellaneous Nous 313 



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VOLUME 77 (3) : DECEMBER 1980 
Date of Publication : 27-4-1981 



CONTENTS 



The Sparrow-Hawks (Accipiter) of the Andaman Islands. By G. F. Mees. 

(With a plate & three text-figures) 371 

Studies on the characteristics of hair in some Indian Bats: (Mammalia: 

Chiroptera). By J. H. Sabnis. (With nineteen text-figures) . . 413 

Sedges of Punjab — Ecology, Distribution and Enumeration. By M. Sharma . . 424 

A POPULATION STUDY OF TWO SPECIES OF NON-HUMAN PRIMATES: Macaca mulatto 

AND Macaca radiata. By Raghubir Singh Pirta, P. Prakash & Mewa Singh. 

(With two text-figures) . . 429 

THE RELATIVE CONDITION FACTOR AND LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP OF A FRESHWATER 

Carp, Labeo gonius (Ham.) (Cyprinidae, Teleostei). By Anil Chatterji. (With 

five text-figures) . . 435 

Some aspects of the life history of Blackbuck in Nepal. By John F. Lehnikuhl 444 

Materials for the Flora of Mahabaleshwar. By P. V. Bole and M. R. Almeida 450 

Further observations on the field ecology of Rajasthan Bats. By Y. P. Sinha 465 

Floral Biology of Mimusops clengi Linn. By C. Subba Reddi and A. Janaki Bai. 

(With three text-figures) . . 471 

Some observations on tiger behaviour in the contexi of baiting. By Charles 

McDougal. (With a text-figure) . . 476 

New Descriptions: 

Description of a new species Drosophila gangotrii (Diptera : Drosophilidae) from 

South India. By N. Muniyappa and G. Sreerama Reddy. (With seven text- 
figures) . . 486 

A new species of high altitude spider of the Genus Erigone Audouin (Family: 

Erigonidae) from India. By B. K. Tikader. (With six text-figures) . . 490 

A new Mcmecylon L. (Melastomataceae) from Tamil Nadu, India. By A. N. Henry. 

(With eight text- figures) . . 492 

Op.ituary : 

Charles McCann (1899-1980). (With a plate) 494 
Miscellaneous Notes: 

Mammals: 1. Observations on a remarkable association between Rhesus Monkey (Macaca 
mulatta villosa) and the Himalayan Langur (Presbytis entellus schistaceus) in the Kumaun 
Himalayas, India. By S. M. Das and B. D. Sharma (p. 496); 2. Observations on birth of 
a Musk Deer fawn. By M. S. Jain (p. 497); 3. Occurrence of the Large Brown Flying 
Squirrel and Mouse Deer near Udaipur, Rajasthan. By Raza H. Tehsin (p. 498); 4. Obser- 
vations on the Epidemiology of Hairy-Footed Gerbil, Cerbillus gleadowi Murray in the 



Indian desert. By Charan Singh and Rajinder Singh (p. 498); 5. Occurrence of Bandicota 
bengalensis and Vandeleuria oleracea in Western Rajasthan. By B. D. Rana (p. 501); 
6. Impact of cyclone on the rodent population in Andhra Pradesh. By A. M. K. Mohana 
Rao (p. 502); 7. Some notes on age of sexual maturity of seven species of Indian Wild 
Mammals in captivity. By L. N. Acharjyo and Ch. H. Mishra (p. 504). 

Birds: 8. Twelve years old Common Teal (Anas crecca). By V. C. Ambedkar (p. 507); 
9. The Crab Plover (Dromas ardeola) in Kerala. By K. K. Neelakantan, K. V. Sreenivasan 
and V. K. Sureshkumar (p. 508); 10. Nocturnal activity of the Turnstone (Arenaria inter- 
pres) on South Sentinel (Andaman Islands). By R. Altevogt and T. A. Davis (p. 508); 
11. Occurrence of the Blackwinged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus) in Kerala. By K. K. 
Neelakantan and V. K. Sureshkumar (p. 510); 12. Occurrence of the Woodcock (Scolopax 
rusticola) at low altitudes. By Peter Davidar (p. 511); 13. Occurrence of Dicrurus para- 
diseus lophorhinus (Vieillot) in Goa (India). By Bhabesh Chandra Saha and Ajit Kumar 
Mukherjee (p. 511); 14. Sparrow 'Helping' nesting bulbuls. By Humayun Abdulali 
(p. 513). 

Reptiles: 15. Defence of the nest against man by the Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus 
porosus Schneider). By H. R. Bustard and S. K. Kar (p. 514); 16. Some observations on 
the growth of captive crocodiles. (With five text-figures). By V. S. Krishnamurthi and 
R. Bhaskaran (p. 516); 17. A new turtle for Nepal. By Philip M. Hall (p. 521). 

Fishes: 18. First record of the milk fish, Chanos chanos (Forskal, 1775) from Iran and 
the Persian Gulf. By Brian W. Coad (p. 522); 19. Occurrence of Zebrias keralensis Joglekar 
(Pisces: Soleidae) off Visakhapatnam, with a note on its taxonomy. By K. Srinivasa Rao and 
M. Rama Murty (p. 524); 20. On the record of the Black Ruby Barb, Puntius nigrofas- 
ciatus (Gunther) (Pisces: Cyprinidae) from India. (With a text-figure) . By B. F. Chhapgar 
and S. R. Sane (p. 526); 21. Local names of Pomfrets from the Indian coasts. By S. Pati 
(p. 527). 

Insects: 22. Sexual dimorphism in Lohita grandis Gray (Heteroptera-Pyrrhocoreidae). 
By S. C. Dhiman and V. C. Chatterjee (p. 529); 23. Occurrence of Epilachna ocellata 
Redt. on Bitter Gourd, Memordica charanlia L. with a note on its damage and biology. 
By V. K. Koshta and S. V. Dhamdhere (p. 529); 24. Dragonflies feeding on houseflies. 
By Brij Kishore Tyagi (p. 531); 25. More butterflies from Bombay. By Salman Abdulali 
(p. 531); 26. Strange practice of a Caterpillar. By D. G. Scvastopulo (p. 532). 

Botany: 27. Vicia monantha Retz. and Sporobolus airoides (Torr.) Torr. — New to Indian 
flora. By G. P. Roy and V. Singh (p. 532); 28. Crotalaria laburnifolia L— A little known 
species from Maharashtra State. (With six text-figures). By S. K. Malhotra and Sirasala 
Moorthy (p. 534); 29. Pennisetum pedicellatum Trin. — A new fodder grass addition. 
(With a text-figure). By H. Thakur and G. N. Javeid (p. 536); 30. Davallia fejeeusis 
Hook. — A new additional naturalized element to the Indian flora. By ^ v T»ir and 
P. Bhargavan (p. 538); 31. Phlebodium aureum (Linn.) J. Sm. (Polypodiaceae) — A ew 
record for India. (With a plate). By P. Bhargavan and N. C. Nair (p. 539); 32. Nomen- 
clatural notes in the Family Lycopodiaceae P. Beauv. ex Mirb. By R. D. Dixit 
(p. 540). 

Annual Report of the Bombay Natural History Society tor the Year 1978-79 542 
Statement of Accounts of the Bombay Natural History Society . 550 

Minutes of the Annual General Meeting . . 562 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY 
SOCIETY 



1980 DECEMBER Vol. 77 No. 3 



THE SPARROW-HAWKS {ACCI PITER) OF THE 
ANDAMAN ISLANDS 1 

G. F. Mees 2 
{With a plate & three text-figures) 

The identification of sparrow-hawks (Accipiier) collected in the Andaman Islands 
has caused problems. A study of all the specimens known from these islands revealed 
that they belong to three species: resident A. virgatus, represented by an endemic 
subspecies here described, and the winter visitors A. nisus and A. gularis. A fourth 
species, A. soloensis, has erroneously been recorded but actually is likely to occur 
as a winter visitor, being already known from the Nicobars. These species and A. 
badius (not known from the Andamans but widely distributed in south-east Asia) 
have often been confused. In this paper the characters by which they may be dis- 
tinguished, their distribution, geographical variation and migrations are discussed. 



Contents 



Introduction 372 

Identification , . . . . . . . 373 

median xipe .. the throat . . 373 

bands on the tail 374 

under wing pattern 375 

colours of unfeathered parts . . 375 

wing shape 376 

foot structure 379 

sexual difference in size . . 380 

Identification key 380 



1 Accepted luly 1979. 

2 Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden. 



ACCIPITER NISUS NISOSIMILIS . . . . 380 

ACCIPITER VIRGATUS 381 

A. v. affinis 384 

A. v. besra . . • • 385 

A. v. abdulalii . . . . • ■ 387 

ACCIPITER GULARIS 388 

A. g. gularis . . . . ■ • 392 

A. g. iwasakii . . . . . . 394 

ACCIPITER BADIUS 397 

ACCIPITER SOLOENSIS 398 

thf. identity of Accipiter nisoides Blyth 400 

is Accipiter virgatus affinis migratory? . . 402 

Table of measurements . . 407 

Acknowledgements 409 

References 409 



371 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



Introduction 

The occurrence of sparrow-hawks in the 
Andaman Islands has been known for over a 
century or, to be exact, since 24 April 1873, 
when W. R.. Davison obtained an adult female 
(Hume 1874: 141). Two years later Hume 
(1876: 280) recorded three more specimens: 
a juvenile male and two juvenile females, 
which had been forwarded to him by Captain 
Wimberley. Breeding was established early in 
the present century by Osmaston (1906) and 
Wickham (1910). 

These older authors, using binary nomen- 
clature, identified their birds as Accipiter vir- 
gatus, although Hume, observing some diffe- 
rences between mainland specimens of A. vir- 
gatus and Andaman birds, wondered whether 
the name A. gularis might be applicable to 
the latter. With the introduction of ternary 
nomenclature, the names A. gularis nisoides 
(cf. Baker 1928: 164), A. virgatus nisoides 
(cf. Peters 1931: 223), A. virgatus gularis 
(cf. Ali & Ripley 1968: 250) and A. virgatus 
besra (cf. Brown & Amadon 1968: 469) came 
into use for the Andaman resident birds. 

As far as I know, the four specimens re- 
corded by Hume and a single specimen of a 
different species, the winter visitor A. nisus 
nisosimilis (cf. Hume 1876: 280), remained 
the only sparrow-hawks ever obtained in the 
Andamans until Abdulali (1965: 507) re- 
corded three more, collected by him person- 
ally in 1964, under the name A. virgatus 
gularis. 

Incidental to a study of resident A. virgatus 
from Formosa (Taiwan), I examined the adult 
Andaman female previously recorded by 
Hume (BM no. 85.8.19.690) which I found 
to be close to A. v. afjinis from continental 



Asia, but smaller. This led me to observe: 
"This bird probably represents an undescrib- 
ed subspecies, characterized by small size. The 
breeding records quoted by Abdulali (1965: 
507) would refer to this form and certainly 
not to A. v. gularis, under which name he lists 
them" (Mees 1970: 291). 

From the preceding notes it will be clear 
that the identity of the sparrow-hawks inha- 
biting the Andaman Islands was not yet de- 
finitely settled. Therefore I gladly accepted an 
offer by Mr Abdulali to forward for my exa- 
mination the sparrow-hawks collected by him 
in the Andamans, together with some speci- 
mens from peninsular India and one from 
Camorta Island, Nicobars, for comparative 
purposes. In addition to the specimens col- 
lected in 1964, this material included a bird 
obtained during a more recent visit to the 
Andamans, making four altogether from that 
locality. 

The results of this study can be summariz- 
ed as follows: three species of Accipiter are 
known from the Andamans, of which one 
(A. virgatus) is a resident belonging to an 
endemic subspecies here described, and two 
(A. nisus and A. gularis) are winter visitors. 
In literature one finds a fourth species listed 
from the Andamans: according to a number 
of recent authors, A. soloensis would occur as 
a winter visitor. As will be explained in the dis- 
cussion of A. soloensis, the record is errone- 
ous although actually the species may be ex- 
pected for it is an apparently regular visitor 
to the Nicobars. 

An unexpected additional result is the iden- 
tification of two specimens of A. gularis from 
Point Calimere, southern India. These are 
apparently the first records from continental 
India and their location makes it likely that in 



372 



SPARROW HAWKS OF THE ANDAMAN ISLANDS 



fact this migrant is more widely distributed 
but has not been recognized. Confirmation of 
this has already been obtained to a certain 
extent. 

It proved impossible to discuss the Anda- 
man sparrow-hawks properly without paying 
attention to related species and subspecies 
from the mainland of south-east Asia and for 
that reason this paper has expanded beyond 
the limits, if not the scope, originally envisag- 
ed. The need for this came as a surprise, for 
the recent works of Brown & Amadon (1968) 
and Wattel (1973) had given me the impres- 
sion that little museum work remained to be 
done on the genus Accipiter. Actually, and in 
spite of the fine work done by the authors 
just mentioned, a lot of traditional miscon- 
ception remains to be cleared up. In this paper 
a modest beginning will be made. 

Apart from the specimens individually re- 
corded, I have measured as a basis for com- 
parison ten adult males and ten adult females 
each of A. v. virgatus, A. g. gularis and A. 
soloensis from Java, all from the collection 
of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie 
(RMNH). Additional material recorded in 
the text and in the tables is from the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History (AMNH), 
Bombay Natural History Society ( BNHS ) , 
British Museum (Natural History) (BM), 
Merseyside County Museum (MCM), Natur- 
historisches Museum Wien (MV), and United 
States National Museum (USNM). 

Identification 

Several species of sparrow-hawks resemble 
each other closely, especially in the immature 
plumages, and this has led to frequent mis- 
identifications. It is therefore necessary to dis- 
cuss the characters by which the following 



species can be differentiated: A. soloensis, A. 
bculius, A. virgatus and A. gularis. A. trivir- 
gatus must also be mentioned in this conne- 
xion as in plumage it shows some resemblance 
to A. virgatus, but skins can always be distin- 
guished by their heavy feet; for additional 
characters, see Mayr (1949). 

In this section I shall discuss the various 
characters that in literature have been used for 
identification, and have this followed by a key. 
Many of the descriptions found in literature 
are quite satisfactory for the identification of 
adult birds, but break down when birds in 
immature plumage are studied. Indeed, it is 
my opinion that plumage characters are of 
little use in the identification of immature 
birds, an opinion supported by the many mis- 
identified specimens one finds in collections. 
Therefore I have in the key almost ignored 
plumage characters, but have worked with 
measurements and proportions. My ambition 
has been to enable anybody to identify speci- 
mens by taking a few simple measurements, 
and without any comparative material. There- 
fore characters that can only be evaluated by 
comparison have also been avoided. I believe 
that correctly sexed material can always be 
identified with the key. As regards wrongly 
sexed specimens (of which unfortunately large 
numbers clutter collections) I am not so sure. 

Median stripe down the throat. This cha- 
racter has been used extensively to distinguish 
between A. virgatus (stripe broad) and A. 
gularis (stripe narrow). Whereas in A. vir- 
gatus this is indeed a reliable character in- 
asmuch as this species shows in all plumages 
a comparatively broad stripe, it is not so 
satisfactory in A. gularis, being variable to the 
extent that in some specimens it is practically 
absent, in others so broad as to equal or al- 



373 



JOURNAL. BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



most to equal certain individuals of A. vir- 
gatus. Only when direct comparisons are made 
will it be seen that the former has the stripe 
darker and more sharply defined. If a bird 
has a broad and somewhat fluffy looking 
median stripe, it is definitely not A. gularis. 
Adult specimens of A. soloensis rarely show 
a median stripe and if it is present, it is grey 
rather than blackish, but birds in immature 
plumage have it invariably, blackish and fairly 
broad, usually supported by a few smaller 
and narrower lateral stripes. In both adults 
and immatures of A. badius the median stripe 
is frequently present, moderately developed, 
but other individuals only show a few incons- 
picuous non-median longitudinal striae on the 
throat. 

Bands on the tail. In two species, A. 
badius and A. soloensis, the adult birds have 
or may have the middle pair of rectrices, which 
in the closed tail covers the others, without 
distinct cross-bars. In A. soloensis these fea- 
thers are dark grey, gradually changing to 
blackish towards the tips. In A. badius, which 
is lighter grey above, there is a distinctive 
subterminal black band followed by a narrow 
white margin; sometimes there is also a sug- 
gestion of one or two dark cross-bars, but 
these are never fully developed. When study- 
ing material of these two species, one should 
be aware of the possibility that the central 
rectrices are missing: the other rectrices have 
cross-bars, not very pronounced in A. soloen- 
sis, very distinct in A. badius. 

I do not understand the remark made by 
Brown & Amadon (1968: 514) under the 
heading Field Characters of A. soloensis: 
"Could be confused with the Shikra (A. 
badius poliopsis), which occurs in part of the 
range, but should be distinguishable by (1) 



upper side much clearer blue grey than the 
Shikra...". In my material the difference is 
just the other way round: the upper parts of 
adult A. badius poliopsis are light blue-grey, 
whereas A. soloensis is dark grey above. 

In general terms the bands can be described 
as follows: 

A. virgatus: 4 broad dark bands, about as 
wide as the pale bands separating them; in 
some individuals all four bands are visible, 
in others the proximal one is concealed under 
the upper tail coverts. 

A. gularis: 4, sometimes 5 bands, usually 
narrower than the pale bands separating 
them; usually four bands are exposed. 

A. badius: central feathers in adults with 
only the terminal band well-developed, the 
others weakly indicated or entirely absent; 
lateral rectrices of adults and juvenile tails 
with 4-6 bands. 

A. soloensis: central rectrices of adult males 
usually without bands, of adult females some- 
times without bands; lateral rectrices of adults 
and juvenile tails with 4-6 bands. 

One of the problems is to decide exactly 
how many bands there are. Whereas in the 
distal part of the tail this is no problem, in 
the proximal part there is often some darken- 
ing near the base of the feathers which could 
or could not be counted as a band. One might 
try to escape from this problem by counting 
only the exposed bands, visible without look- 
ing below the upper tail-coverts, but that does 
not help much as usually one band is about 
half covered by the coverts, and moreover 
especially the larger of these coverts are fre- 
quently missing in skins, so that whether or 
not one counts a band comes to depend on 
how many coverts the specimen has lost in 
the process of preparation. In addition there 



374 



SPARROW HAWKS OF THE ANDAMAN ISLANDS 



is a relatively large variation in the number 
of bands, even within one species (as listed 
above). Evidently the bands of the tail are of 
very limited use in identification; all I would 
dare to say is that A. virgatus can usually be 
recognized by having the bands broad and 
well-defined. 

Under wing pattern. Adult individuals of 
A. soloensis differ from all other species in 
having the underwing not barred; the outer 
primaries are blackish below, the remainder 
of the underwing is white or pale huffish. Un- 
fortunately, in immature birds the outer pri- 
maries are more or less barred underneath and 
such birds also have the underwing coverts 
with some dark spotting. Previous authors 
(e.g. Brown & Amadon 1968: 515) have used 
this character but without mentioning its re- 
striction where immature birds are concerned. 
A. virgatus and A. gularis always have a 
strongly barred underwing pattern, but A. 
badius is variable: some specimens are as 
lightly barred as immature A. soloensis, others 
are almost as heavily barred as A. virgatus 
and A. soloensis. In other words, only adult 
A. soloensis can be readily distinguished by 
this character. The illustrations in King & 
Dickinson (1975: pi. 6) show the differences 
between adult birds of A. badius, A. virgatus 
and A. soloensis very well as far as colour 
pattern is concerned, but the artist has cor i- 
pletely missed the structural differences m 
wing shape; surely A. soloensis has pointed 
wings and not the extremely blunt ones indi- 
cated, and the same can be said in a lesser 
degree of A. badius. The figures given by 
Grossman & Hamlet (1965: 247) are much 
better. 

Colours of unfeathered parts. As is usual 
in collections, only a minority of specimens 
has the colours of the unfeathered parts in- 



dicated on the labels. 

A. soloensis: iris of d ad. dark brown or 
dark red, of 9 ad. and immature birds of both 
sexes yellow or orange-yellow, bill slate to 
black, cere orange-yellow to orange, feet 
orange-yellow to orange. The sexual difference 
in iris colour must have been noted by many 
collectors, and was recorded by La Touche 
(1932: 188-190), Kolthoff (1932: 138-139), 
Stresemann (1941: 85), etc. It is confirmed by 
material examined by me, collected by Bar- 
tels, Coomans de Ruiter, Jacobson & van 
Heurn, and Kooiman. 

A. g. gularis: iris of <S ad. red-brown, of 
2 ad. and immature birds of both sexes yel- 
low, bright yellow or dark yellow, bill dark 
grey with a black tip, cere greenish, feet light 
greenish to bright yellow, nails black. Sexual 
dimorphism in colour of the iris was already 
recorded by Swinhoe in Gurney (1863), fol- 
lowed by La Touche (1932: 193-194) and 
Shaw (1938: 153) and is confirmed by such 
specimens in our collection as have the colours 
of the unfeathered parts recorded on their 
labels. 

A. g. iwasakii: iris in adults of both sexes 
yellow (based on only one specimen of each 
sex). 

A. v. virgatus: iris cf ad. dark cadmium 
yellow, 9 ad. yellow, in immature birds grey- 
ish yellow or greenish yellow, in a nestling 
(?) greenish grey, bill dark grey to blackish, 
cere greenish, feet light greenish to bright 
yellow, nails black. As far as can be ascertain- 
ed from the material at hand, there is little 
sexual dimorphism in iris colour, but from this 
species the data sheets of the Battels collec- 
tion are missing, and the assumption that the 
adult male has a yellow iris is based on two 
specimens only. 

A. v. affinis: iris d" ad. orange (BM no. 



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JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



1937.1.17.85), 9 ad. bright yellow (BM no. 
1949 Whl. 1-161). See also Deignan (1945: 
67). 

A. v. besra: iris <S ad. orange-yellow (BM 
no. 1959. 19.1), orange-red (BM no. 1956.44. 
8) or bright orange-red (BM no. 1956.44.7). 

A. badius: iris <$ ad. light orange, ? ad. 
yellow, $ im. greenish yellow, bill black, near 
gape greyish or bluish, cere green to greenish 
yellow, feet yellow, nails black. 

Note that the adults of A. soloensis and 
A. g. gularis have a pronounced sexual dimor- 
phism in iris colour, that is absent in A. vir- 
gatus and A. badius, where adult males have 
the iris merely deeper in colour, orange rather 
than yellow. 

It is not surprising that the sexual dimor- 
phism in iris colour, combined with the gene- 
rally poor labelling of specimens, has been 
too much for ornithological illustrators. Thus, 
Brown & Amadon (1968) show the adult 
male of A. gularis with a yellow iris (pi. 62 
fig. 1), the adult female of A. soloensis with 
a dark brown iris (pi. 77 fig. 2). The adult 
male A. gularis figured in Etchecopar & Hue 
(1978: pi. 4 fig. 3) also shows a yellow iris. 
The bird so beautifully illustrated in Kuroda 
(1936: pi. XXIV fig. 2) under the name A. v. 
virgatus o* ad. shows hardly a trace of a 
median stripe down the throat, neither has it 
the dark streaks on the upper breast which 
are characteristic of that species. The measure- 
ments of this specimen, provided by Kuroda 
(1. c: 513): wing 166, tail 118.5 mm, prove 
its identity as A. gularis. Therefore the yellow 
iris pictured is definitely wrong. 

A. soloensis differs from all others by the 
brighter more orange colours of cere and feet 
and the difference remains visible in skins, 
inasmuch as all specimens of A. soloensis 
examined by me, be they adults or immatures, 



can be recognized by the pale yellowish cere, 
which contrasts conspicuously with the dark 
bill and the dark feathers of the forehead. 
For identification this is, however, of limited 
value: birds with a dark or blackish cere 
(in skins) are not A. soloensis, but it does 
not always work the other way round as in 
all three other species occasional skins are 
found in which the cere (sometimes also the 
bill) is pale. 

Wing shape. A difference in shape of the 
wing tip between A. virgatus and A. gularis 
was noted as long ago as 1862 by Schlegel 
(1862: 32-33), the former having the: "Qua- 
trieme remige depassant a peine la cinqui- 
eme", the latter having: "la quatrieme remige 
depassant notablement la cinquieme". This 
character was accepted as an excellent and 
highly reliable one by Ogilvie-Grant (1896: 
105), but rejected by Hartert (1910: 211): "I 
find, however, that this character varies con- 
siderably and is therefore not reliable". Sub- 
sequent authors have again paid attention to 
the wing-formula, the proportional lengths of 
the primaries. Apart from the existence of 
variation as already noted by Hartert, char- 
acters that have to be described in terms of 
"a little larger" against "notably larger" have 
an element of inexactness and subjectivity that 
makes them difficult to use. A far more useful 
character was introduced by Voous (1950), 
probably inspired by Mayr (1949). Voous 
measured the wing tip, being the difference 
in length between the longest (be it the third, 
fourth of fifth) primary and the tenth (in- 
nermost) primary; this measure he also ex- 
pressed as a percentage of the whole length 
of the folded wing. Watte! (1973) followed 
suit and provided a whole series of very use- 
ful measurements. I find the length of the 
wing tip the easiest and most reliable character 



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JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 




SPARROW HAWKS OF THE ANDAMAN ISLANDS 

68-75 




Fig. 3. Wing tip of 

there is. By simply measuring the length of 
the wing tip, a complete separation between 
A. virgatus and the other three species can be 
made. In the available material a complete 
separation between A. soloensis on the one 
hand against A. g. gularis and A. badius on 
the other hand is also possible, but the ex- 
treme measurements are so close that in very 
large series the possibility of some overlapping 
must be envisaged. Finally, A. badius and A. 
g. gularis cannot be separated by wing tip 
length and wing tip index, these being very 
similar in both. In their case, wing length and 
tail length have to be used. 

It is necessary to mention that, within the 
confines of India, there is one other small 
sparrow-hawk with a very blunt wing: A. but- 
leri, in which according to Wattel (1973: 33) 
the wing tip index is 22.3%. This species, being 
endemic to the Nicobars where A. virgatus 
does not occur, cannot be confused with it. 
The blunt wing will, however, serve to dis- 
tinguish A. butleri from the migrant species 



A. soloensis 2 

A. gularis and A. soloensis which visit the 
Nicobars in the northern winter. 

Foot-structure. Traditionally much atten- 
tion has been paid to the structure of the foot 
in the classification of /lcn'p//e/--species; for- 
merly the distinction between the genera Astur 
and Accipiter was largely based on it, species 
ascribed to the first genus having generally 
heavier feet with shorter toes. Of the species 
here discussed, A. soloensis and A. badius used 
to be placed in Astur, whereas A. virgatus 
and A. gularis (as well as A. nisus) were 
regarded as "typical" of Accipiter, having 
long and slender toes. Ali & Ripley (1968: 
232-233) still use this old distinction in their 
key, where they separate A. virgatus (includ- 
ing A. gularis, regarded as a subspecies by 
these authors) from A. badius by the former 
having: "Middle toe without claw consider- 
ably longer than outer toe with claw", and 
the later: "Middle toe without claw about 
as long as outer toe with claw". Actually, the 
difference is slight and in both species as well 



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JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 77 



as in A. gularis the outer toe with claw is 
about equal in length to the middle toe with- 
out claw. It is true that A. badius has gene- 
rally somewhat shorter toes than A. virgatus, 
but the relative proportions of the toes do not 
differ and therefore cannot be used for their 
separation. Whereas A. soloensis has, com- 
pared with A. virgatus, conspicuously short 
toes (see table), the same cannot be said of 
A. badius, which has the toes only a little 
shorter and less slender than A. virgatus. 

Sexual difference in size. In the absence 
of weights, which would give a much better 
picture of the acutal differences between the 
sexes, I have been forced to use wing length 
as a measure of size differences between the 
sexes. It will be clear that, being one-dimen- 
sional, these do not do justice to the great 
differences in bulk they express so inade- 
quately. 

It is a pity that of several forms the num- 
bers of specimens are insufficient to work out 
satisfactory averages, but even so it is evident 
that the sexual difference in size is a reliable 
specific character: within each species, even 
when that is divided into several well-diffe- 
rentiated subspecies, it is almost constant, but 
there are significant differences between the 
species. Summarizing from the table, it will 
be seen that the greatest sexual difference is 
found in A. virgatus (wing length of males 
80-84% of that of the females), less so but 
still considerable in A. gularis (87-88%), and 
in A. badius (88.7-92.6%), and very little in 
A. soloensis (97.3%). It is tempting to spe- 
culate about possible explanations for these 
interspecific differences, but that is outside 
the scope of this purely descriptive contribu- 
tion. Therefore I refer to the interesting dis- 
cussions given by Brown & Amadon (1968: 
26-28), and Amaden (1975), and only note 
that the two species with the greatest sexual 



dimorphism in size are bird-hunters, whereas 
the intermediate A. badius has a mixed diet 
and the species with the least dimorphism, A. 
soloensis, appears to feed mainly on insects, 
amphibians and reptiles (cf. Wattel 1973: 32). 

Identification Key 

la. In adult plumage, under surface of folded 
wings not barred; outer primaries black or 
blackish, remainder white or pale buffish; in 
the immature plumage, the outer primaries can 
be barred below; third primary usually longer 
than